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iiletrium  ot  Jnter-Commuttuation 


When  found,  make  a  note  of." — Captain  Cuttle. 


July — December,  1856. 


BELL   &  DALDY,   186.   FLEET   STREET. 


-d  S.  N"  27.,  July  5.  '56.] 




Although  altogether  unwilling  to  occupy  with  the 
expression  of  our  own  feelings  the  space  which  we  would 
nore  gladly  see  filled  by  the  communications  of  our 
Friends,  we  cannot  resist  availing  ourselves  of  the  op- 
Dortunity  afforded  us  by  the  commencement  of  a  Volume 
;o  express  our  gratification  at  the  approval  which  has  at- 
tended the  step  of  beginning  A  New  Series,  and  the  no 
ess  general  satisfaction  with  which  the  Index  to  the 
First  Series  has  been  received.  We  are  glad,  too,  of 
;he  opportunity  which  it  presents  to  us  of  thanking  the 
lumerous  Friends  and  Contributors  to  "  Notes  and 
[Jueiues,"  for  their  continued  and  valuable  assistance. 



At.  the  present  time,  when  suffragan  bishops 
are  so  urgently  required  to  assist  the  overtasked 
bishops  of  England,  the  following  list,  taken  from 
my  complete,  but  unpublished  "  Book  of  the 
British  Hierarchy,"  may  prove  interesting.  Well 
would  it  be  if  bishops  in  bad  health,  or  incapable 
of  efficiently  administering  their  dioceses  from 
their  magnitude,  were  supplied  with  coadjutors. 
Churches  eminently  adapted  for  being  episcopal 
sees  are  in  every  diocese  :  Westminster  for  Lon* 
don,  Southwell  for  Lincoln,  St.  Germains  for 
Cornwall,  Bath  for  Bath  and  Wells,  Bristol  for 
Gloucester  and  Bristol,  St.  Alban's  for  Rochester, 
Beverley  for  York,  Middleham  for  Ripon,  Co- 
ventry for  Lichfield,  Bury  for  Norwich,  St. 
Neot's  for  Ely  ;  while  it  woidd  be  easy  to  suggest 
Romsey,  Dorchester,  Wrexham,  Shoreham,  Bre- 
con, Slirewsbury,  &c.,  for  the  remaining  sees. 

By  28  Henry  VIIL  c.  14.  the  following  suffra- 
gan sees  were  proposed  to  be  erected  ;■  Cambridge, 
Hull,  Berwick,  St.  Germains,  Thetford,  Ipswich, 
Grantham,  Huntingdon,  Southampton,  Guildford, 
Leicester,  Nottingham,  Shrewsbury,  Penrith,  Mol- 
ton,  Bridgwater,  Isle  of  Wight,  Colchester,  Lei- 
cester. The  following  five  were  suffragan  sees 
for  a  time  :  Taunton,  Shaftesbury,  Marlborough, 
Dover,  and  Bedford.  Gloucester,  Bristol,  Ox- 
ford, Peterborough,  and  Chester,  were  perma- 
nently erected.  Westminster  was  a  bishopric, 

In  the  xxxvth  Canon  of  1603,  suffragans  are 
named  as  ministering  Holy  Orders.  And  in  King 
Charles  ll.'s  Declaration  from  Breda,  he  stated 
his  intention  to  found  suffragans  in  every  diocese. 

Formerly  suffrngans  were  consecrated  to  serve 
in  the  absence  of  the  diocesans  on  embassies,  at 
court,  or  attendance  on  civil  affairs.  Sometimes 
they  had  no  titles :  they  consecrated  and  recon- 

ciled churches,  administered  orders  and  confirma- 
tion. It  appears  from  Strype,  that  in  the  Primate's 
Hall,  they  occupied  an  inferior  place  at  table. 
An  Act  of  Parliament  was  passed  for  consecrating 
coadjutors  in  Ireland,  1812,  52  Geo.  III.  c.  62. 

Gamaliel,  Bishop  of  Sodor  and  Man,  1160.     (Lin- 
1043.  Siward,  Archbishop  of  Upsula.     (Canterbury.) 
1074.  Ralph,  consecrated  to  Orkney  by  the  Archbishop 
and  Bishops  of  Worcester  and  Lichfield.   (York.) 
1138.  Ralph  Howell,  Bishop  of  Orkney.    (York.) 
1191.  John,  Bishop  of  Whitherne.     (York.) 

Robert  Gobson.     (York.) 
1213.  Henrv  of  London,  Archbishop  of  Dublin.    (Lich- 
1213.  Thomas,  Bishop  of  Down,  1213—1237.     (EIv.) 
1237.  Walter  de  Blakeley,  Bishop  of  Ossory,  1282—1244. 
William  Egmund,  an  Augustinian ;  Bishop  of  Pis- 
sinensis.     (Lincoln.) 
1240.  John.     (Canterbury.) 

1253.  Brendan,  Bishop  of  Ardferfc,  1237—1242.    (Lich- 
1259.  John  de  Cheanjj  Bishop  of  Glasgow.    (Bath  and 

1273.  Reginald,   Bishop  of  Cloyne,   1265—1274.     (Lin- 
1292.  Peter,  Archbishop  of  Lyons.     (Lincoln.) 
1306.  Gilbert,  Bishop  of  Aghadoe.     (Worcester.) 
1312.  John,  Bishop  of  Connor.     (Canterbury.) 

1323.  Roland,  Bishop  of  Angers.     (Canterbury.) 

1324.  Stephen  Segrave,  Archbishop  of  Armagh.    (Lich- 


1325.  Robert  le  Petit,  Chancellor  of  Exeter.  (Exeter.) 
1331.  Peter,  Bishop  of  Corbona,  Hungary:  died  Jan.  19, 

1332 ;  buried  in  the  Franciscan  Priory,  London. 
Benedict,  Augustine  of  Norwich,  Archbishop  of 

Smyrna.     (Norwich.) 
Robert,  Bishop  of  Lamburgh.     (Bangor.) 
1348.  Hugh,  Archbishop  of  (Damestensis).     (York.) 
1340.  Thomas  de  Brackenbur}',  a  Franciscan,  Bishop  of 
Leighlin,  1349—1303.     (Ely.) 
John  Pascal,  Carmelite  of  Ipswich  ;  Bishop  of  Scu- 
tari; translated  to  LlandaflT.     (Norwich.) 
Robert    Hyntlesliam,   Bishop    of   (Sanascopolis). 
1353.  William,  Bishop  of  Tusculum.     (Bath  and  Wells.) 
1355.  Thomas    Bedingfield,    Archbishop    of    Nazareth. 

1382.  William  Bottlesham,  Bishop  of  Bethlehem ;  titular 
of  Raab,  in  Hungary ;  translated  to  Rochester. 
1387.  Simon,  Bishop  of  Achonry.    (Ely,  Winton.) 
1397.  Richard  Fitzralph,  Archbishop  of  Armagh.    (Lich- 
1400.  Robert  Calder,  Bishop  of  Dunkeld.     (Winton.) 
1408.  Richard  Messing,  Bishop  of  Dromore,  1408-10 ;  a 
Carthusian.     (York.) 
John,   Bishop  of  Dromore,   1410—19:  died  1420. 

John,   Rector  of  Threxton,   1400;   Chancellor  of 
Norwich,  1399 ;  Archbishop  of  Smyrna.    (Nor- 
1411.  John  Francis,  Archbishop  of  Bourdeanx.  (Lincoln.) 
1416.  Oswald,  Bishop  of  Whitiierne.     (Durham.) 
14-22.  Joiin,    Bishop    of    Narenta    in    Dalmatia.     [Ste- 

phanensis.]     (Ely.) 
14?2.  John  Camere,  Bishop  of  Aghadoe.    (Worcester.) 
1424,  April  1.  Robert,  Bishop  of  Emly.    (Norwich.) 


[2"^  S.  N"  27.,  July  5.  '56. 









Dec.  22.  Kobert,  Bishop  of  Aghadoe  [Gladensis]. 

Nicholas  Wartre,  a  Franciscan,  Bishop  of  Dromore, 
1419—1427.     (York.) 
.  Sept.  10.  Thomas  RadclyfFe,  Bishop  of  Dromore, 
1440—1489.     (Durham.) 

David  Chirbury,  a  Carthusian,  Bishop  of  Dromore, 
1427—1434.    (St.  David's.) 

Thomas  Barret,  Bishop  of  Aghadoe.    (Lincoln.) 

John,  Bishop  of  Philippi.     (Durham.) 

Thomas  Scrope  Bolton,  Bishop  of  Down  or  Dro- 
more.    (Norwich.) 

John  Clederowe,  translated  to  Bangor,  1425.  (Can- 

Edmund  Conisburgh,  Archbishop  of  Armagh,  1477, 
which  he  resigned  1480.     (Ely.) 

William  Egremont,  Bishop  of  Dromore,  1500 — 
1504.     (York.) 

Thomas  Vivian,  Prior  of  Bodmin,  Bishop  of  Me- 
gara ;  buried  at  Bodmin.  Arms,  Or,  between  3 
leopards'  faces,  gules ;  on  a  chevron,  az.  3  annu- 
lets, or :  on  a  chief  of  the  2nd,  3  martlets  of  the 
3rd.     (Exeter.) 

Thomas  Cornish,  Provost  of  Oriel  College,  Oxford, 
1493  ;  Rector  of  St.  Cuthbert's,  Wells ;  Axbridge, 
April  3,  1489;  Wokey;,Chew,  Oct.  8,  1505; 
Banwell ;  Clevesham,  March  15,  1502,  Master  of 
St.  John's  Hospital ;  Canon,  Oct.  8,  1494,  Chan- 
cellor, April  21, 1499,  Precentor,  Sept.  4,  1502,  of 
Wells;  he  died  July  3,  1513;  buried  at  Wells. 
He  was  Bishop  of  Tinia  in  Dalmatia.  Arms, 
Sable,  between  3  roses  gu.  a  chervon  arg.  (Bath 
and  Wells.) 

James  Blakedon,  Bishop  of  Achonrj',  1452 ;  trans- 
lated to  Bangor.    (Bath  and  Wells.) 

John  Bell,  Bishop  of  Mayo  [Merionensis].  (Can- 

Richard,  educated  at  Oxford;  Dominican  of  War- 
wick ;  died  1502 ;  buried  in  Blackfriars,  Wor- 
cester; Bishop  of  (Olevensis)  in  Mauritania. 

Philip  Pvnson,  a  Grey  Friar ;  educated  at  Oxford ; 
Archbishop  of  Tuam,  Dec.  1503—1506.  (Here- 

Richard  Martin,  Warden  of  Grey  Friars ;  Rector  of 
Lydde ;  and  Ickham.     (Canterbury.) 

Francis,  Archbishop  of  Constantinople.  (Bath  and 

John  Young,  D.D.,  consecrated  July  3,  in  St.  Tho- 
mas D'acre  Hospital,  London,  by  the  Bishop  of 
London ;  born  at  Newton  Longueville ;  educated 
at  Winchester ;  Fellow,  1482;  Warden,  April  13, 
1521,  of  New  College,  Oxford ;  Rector  of  Carfax ; 
St.  Christopher  Stock,  Jan.  22,  1513,  St.  Magnus, 
London  Bridge,  March  30,  1514;  Master  of  St. 
Thomas'  Hospital,  Aug.  12,  1510;  Archdeacon 
of  London,  March  18,  1514;  Dean  of  Chichester ; 
Judge  of  the  Prerogative  Court,  1517  ;  Master  of 
the  Rolls;  he  died  March  28,  1526,  and  was 
buried  in  New  College  Chapel.  He  was  Bishop 
of  Calliopolis  in  Thrace.     (London.) 

Thomas  Woolf,  consecrated  Sept.  13,  to  Lacedae- 
mon ;  Vicar  of  East  Ham,  May  2,  1514.  (Lon- 

John  Hatton,  of  York ;  educated  at  Oxford ;  Canon 
of  York,  Oct.  24,  1504;  Southwell,  Feb.  15, 1506  ; 
Archdeacon  of  Nottingham,  Sept.  1506;  Bishop 
of  Negropont;  died  April  25,  1516;  buried  at 
York.     (York.) 

Richard  Wylson,  Prior  of  Drax ;  Bishop  of  Meath, 
1523—30 ;  buried  at  Bingley,  York.     (York.) 

John  Tynmouth,  D.D.,  a  Minorite  of  Lynn ;  edu- 

cated at  Oxford ;  Rector  of  Ludgershall ;  Bishop 
of  Argos:  died  1524;  buried  at  Boston,  of  which 
he  was  vicar.  (Lincoln.) 
John  Underwood,  son  of  William,  a  goldsmith,  and 
Alice,  of  St.  Andrew's,  Norwich ;  Rector  of  North 
Creeke,  1505,  and  Eccles;  he  degraded  John 
Bilney :  bishop  of  Chalcedon.  (Norwich.) 
William  Gilberd,  Abbat  of  Bruton  ;  Bishop  of  Me- 

gara.     (Bath  and  Wells.) 
Thomas  Chard,  a  Benedictine;  Vicar  of  Welling- 
ton, June,  1512 ;  Synterhull,  Aug.  1521 ;  Abbat 
of    Montacute,    1515—32;    Bishop   of  (Solubri- 
ensis);  died  Nov.  1541.     (Exeter.) 
John  Draper,  Prior  of  Christchurch,  Hants;  Bishop 

of  Naples.     (Winton.) 
Thomas  Swillington,  Bishop  of  Philadelphia.   (Can- 
Thomas  Hallam,  Bishop  of  Philadelphia.    (Canter- 

1519.  Thomas,  Bishop  of  (Pannadensis)  in  the  archdiocese 
of  Mayence.     (Lichfield.) 

1536.  Thomas  Mannyng,  consecrated  March  19,  at  Lam- 
beth by  the  Primate  and  Bishops  of  Salisbury 
and  Rochester  to  Ipswich ;  Prior  of  Butleigh ; 
Rector  of  Heigham,  Somerset,  Oct.  2,  1499 ; 
Master  of  Metingham  College,  Nov.  12,  1539. 

1536.  John  Salisburj',  consecrated  March  19,  at  Lambeth, 
by  the  Primate  and  Bishop  of  Salisbury  and 
Rochester  to  Thetford ;  translated  to  Sodor,  April 
7,  1570.     (Norwich.) 

1536.  William  More,  B.C.L.,  consecrated  Oct.  20,  by  the 
Primate  and  Bishops  of  St.  Asaph  and  Sidon,  in 
the  Dominican  Church,  to  Colchester.  He  was  a 
Master  in  Chancery ;  Abbat  of  Walden ;  Rector 
of  Bradwell,  April  20  ;  West  Tilbury,  Oct.  5, 1534 ; 
Prebendary  of  Lincoln ;  York,  March  11,  1538 ; 
Archdeacon  of  Leicester.     (Ely.) 

1536.  Thomas  Sparke,  consecrated  to  Berwick;  he  was 

B.D.  of  Durham  College,  Oxford ;  Canon  of  Dur- 
ham, May  12,  1521;  Master  of  Holy  Island; 
Warden  of  Gretham  Hospital.  He  died  1572,  and 
was  buried  at  Gretham.     (Durham.) 

1537.  Lewis  Thomas,  consecrated  June  24,  at  Lambeth, 

by  the  Primate  and  Bishops  of  Rochester  and  St. 
Asaph  to  Shrewsbury.  He  was  Rector  of  Llan- 
turse,  and  abbat  of  Keymes.  (St.  Asaph.) 
1537.  John  Hodgskin,  consecrated  Dec.  9,  in  St.  Paul's, 
to  Bedford;  he  was  a  Dominican,  1531;  Rector 
of  Lyndon,  July  23,  1544 ;  Vicar  of  Walden  ;  St. 
Peter's  Cornhill,  April  2, 1555 ;  Prebendary  of  St. 
Paul's,  Nov.  26, 1548  ;  he  died  July,  1560.  (Lin- 
1639.  John  Bradley,  Abbat  of  Milton  ;  consecrated  March 
23,  by  the  Bishops  of  Hippo,  Marlborough,  and 
Bangor,  to  Shaftesbury,  in  St.  John's  Church, 
Southampton.     (Salisbury.) 

Andrew  Whitmay,  of  Gloucester ;  educated  at  Ox- 
ford ;  Bishop  of  (Chrysopolis) ;  died  1546.  (St. 
Asaph  and  Worcester.) 

John  Stonywell,  D.D.,  born  at  Longdon ;  a  Bene- 
dictine ;  Prior  of  Gloucester  Hall,  Oxford ;  Ab- 
bat of  Pershore,  Oct.  16,  1527;  Bishop  of  Pulati; 
he  died  1552,  and  was  buried  at  Longdon.  (Wor- 

Robert  Sylvester,  Prebendary  of  York,  May  2, 
1541 ;  Archdeacon  of  Nottingham,  Jan.  31, 1549 ; 
Bishop  of  Hull ;  he  died  1552.     (York.) 

Thomas  Wellys,  Prior  of  St.  Gregory's ;  Chaplain 
to  Archbishop  Warham ;  Bishop  of  Sidon.   (Can- 
1558.  March  2.  Thomas  Chetham,   Rector  of  Bishops- 

2°^  S.  No  27.,  JOLY  5.  '56,] 


bourne,  March  21 ;  Canon  of  St.  Paul's,  Oct.  10, 
1553;  Wrotham,  March  22,  1558;  Bishop  of 
Sidon;  died  at  Greenwich,  1558.  (Canterbury.) 
1558.  March  8.  Licensed  to  officiate ;  Christopher,  Bishop 
of  Sidon.     (Canterbury.) 

John,  Bishop  of  Hippo.    (Canterbury.) 

William  Favell,  of  CoUumpton ;  Prior  of  St.  Nicho- 
las, Exeter;  Archdeacon  of  Totness,  Aug.  10, 
1549;  Bishop  of  Hippo;  died  July  24,  1537. 
'  (Exeter.) 

Matthew  Makerel,  Abbat  of  Burlings;  Bishop  of 
Chalcedon.     (Canterbury.) 

Thomas  Bele,  an  Austin  Canon ;  Vicar  of  Wi- 
tliam,  Jan.  28,  1528 ;  Prebendary  of  St.  Paul's, 
Nov.  11,  1521 ;  Prior  of  St.  Mary  Spital,  London ; 
Ranton  ;  Abbat  of  Dorchester ;  Bishop  of  Lydda ; 
died  Aug.  12,  1540,  and  was  buried  at  Bury  St. 
Edmunds.  (London.) 
1587.  John  Byrd,  consecrated  June  24,  to  Penrith,  by  the 
Primate  and  Bishops  of  Rochester  and  St.  Asaph  ; 
translated  to  Bangor,  1539 ;  and  Chester,  Aug.  5, 
1541.  (LlandafF.) 
1537.  Thomas  Morley,  Abbat  of  Stanley;  consecrated 
Nov.  4,  by  the  Primate  and  Bishops  of  Lincoln 
and  Rochester  to  Marlborough.     (Salisbury.) 

1537.  Richard  Yngworth,  consecrated  Dec.   9,    by  the 

Primate  and  Bishops  of  Rochester  and  St.  Asaph 
to  Dover ;  Rector  of  Chidingstone,  May  10, 1539 ; 
Chart,  May  28,  1541 ;  Wrotham,  April  3,  1546 ; 
Prior  of  Langley  Regis.  (Canterbury.) 
1638.  Henry  Holbeche,  consecrated  March  24,  by  the 
Bishops  of  London,  Worcester,  and  St.  Asaph, 
in  Rochester  Place,  at  Lambeth,  to  Bristol; 
translated  to  Lincoln,     (Worcester.) 

1538.  William  Finch,  consecrated  April  7,  in  the  Do- 

minican Church,  London,  by  the  Bishops  of  Ro- 
chester, St.  Asaph,  and  Colchester,  to  Taunton ; 
he  was  Prior  of  Braemar ;  Rector  of  West  Carn- 
mell,  Mav  8,  1554 ;  Prebendary  of  Wells,  Jan.  6, 
1557.     (Bath  and  Wells.) 

1539.  Robert  King,  consecrated  to  Roan,  near  Athens, 

translated  to  Osney  and  Oxford.     (Lincoln.) 

1539.  John  Tiiornden,  D.D.,  Master  of  Canterbury  Hall, 
Oxford;  Commissary  of  Oxford,  1506 — 1514; 
Prior  of  Dover,  1508 ;  Rector  of  High  Hardys, 
Dec.  23,  1505 ;  Newington,  Aug.  6,  1506 ;  Har- 
bledown,  Aug.  30,  1507 ;  Aldington,  June  21, 
1512;  lilogh  Monachorum,  Nov.  2,  1514;  con- 
secrated to  Sirmium  (Szerem)  in  Hungary. 
Richard  Thornden  le  Stede,  Monk  of  Canterbury ; 
Rector  of  Chidingstone,  May  10,  1539 ;  Chart, 
May  28,  1541 ;  Wrotham,  April  3 ;  Tentwarden, 
April  19,  1546;  Adisham,  1554;  Bishopsbourne, 
June  14,  1554;  Lydde;  Proctor  in  Convocation, 
1541 ;  Prebendary  of  Canterbury,  April  18, 
1542 ;  Vice-dean,  May  17,  1556.  Consecrated  to 
(Syrinensis)  and  Dover :  he  proved  false  to  his 
patron  Cranmer,  and  was  a  great  persecutor :  he 
died  1558,  and  was  buried  at  Bishopsbourne. 

1553,  Robert  Pursglove,  born  at  Tideswell ;  educated  at 
St.  Paul's  School,  and  Corpus  Chrisli  College, 
Oxford ;  Prior  of  Gisborne ;  Provost  of  Rother- 

ham;   Archdeacon   of  Nottingham,  1553, ; 

founder  of  Gisborne  School ;  Bishop  of  Hull :  he 
died  May  2,  1579,  and  was  buried  at  Tideswell. 

1667.  Richard  Barnes,  consecrated  April  5,  at  York,  to 
Nottingham;  translated  to  Carlisle,  July  23, 
1570 ;  and  to  Durham,  May  9,  1575.     (Lincoln.) 

1669,  Richard  Rogers,  S.T.B.,  consecrated  May  15,  at 

Lambeth,  by  the  Primate  and  Bishops  t£  London 
and  Rochester  to  Dover :  he  was  born  at  Sutton 
Valence;  educated  at  Christ's  College,  Cam- 
bridge; Rector  of  Llanarmon ;  Dudley,  1549; 
Dunmow,  Feb.  11, 1560 ;  Canfield ;  Chart,  Jan.  19, 
1567 ;  Prebendary  of  St.  Paul's,  Oct.  25,  1566 ; 

Archdeacon  of  St.  Asaph, 1559 ;  Master  of 

Eastbridge  Hospital,  1594 ;  Dean  of  Canterbury', 
Sept.  16,  1584 :  he  died  May  19,  1597,  and  was 
buried  in  Canterbury  Cathedral.     (Canterbury.) 

1592.  John  Sterne,  consecrated  Nov.  12,  at  Fulham,  by 
the  Primate  and  Bishops  of  London,  Bristol,  and 
Rochester,  to  Colchester ;  lie  was  Vicar  of  Rick- 
mansworth,  1584 ;  VVitham,  March  7,  1587 :  he 
died  Feb.  — ,  1607.     (London.) 

1848.  G.  T.  Spencer,  Bishop  of  Madras  (Commissary). 
(Bath  and  Wells.) 

1856,  Reginald  Courtne)',  Bishop  of  Kingston ;  Arch- 
deacon of  Jamaica.     (Jamaica.} 

What  has  become  of  Dr.  Walker's  noble  pro- 
posal to  endow  a  See  of  Cornwall,  acknowledged 
in  Parliament  and  by  both  Houses  of  Convo- 
cation ?  M.A.CKENZIE  ^VALCOTT,  M.A, 


"  Merry  England."  —  This  expression,  I  appre- 
hend, conveys  an  erroneous  idea  to  the  minds  of 
persons  .in  general.  It  is  usually  supposed  to 
refer  to  the  gay,  joyous  character  of  the  English 
people  of  the  olden  time  ;  whereas,  as  I  hope  I 
shall  be  able  to  show,  it  is  like  "  La  Belle  France," 
and  such  terms  indicative  of  the  nature  and  ap- 
pearance of  the  country,  not  of  the  character  of 
the  people. 

The  origin  of  our  word  merry  is  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  mipis,  a  word  seemingly  peculiar  to  that 
language,  for  I  have  not  met  any  term  resembling 
it  in  any  of  the  cognate  dialects.  Its  proper 
meaning  seems  to  be  pleasant,  cheerful,  agreeable. 
Thus  in  the  Canterbury  Tales,  the  Person  e  says : 
"  I  wol  yow  telle  a  mery  tale  in  prose ; " 

and  this  tale  is  a  grave  "  Treatise  on  Penitence," 
to  which  merry,  in  its  present  acceptation,  could 
never  be  applied.  In  like  manner  it  is  said  of 
Chaunticlere  the  cock  : 

"  His  vols  was  merier  than  the  mevT/  orgon," 

which  is  not  merry  in  our  sense  of  the  word.    But 
merry  is  also  used  of  places  : 
"  Of  erbe  yve  that  groweth  in  our  yerd  that  mery  is." 

"  That  made  hem  in  a  cite  for  to  tarie, 
That  stood  full  mery  upon  a  haven  sj'de." 

Lincoln  is  termed  merry  in  the  ballad  of  "  Hugh 
of  Lincoln;"  we  also  meet  with  Merry  Carlisle 
and  MerrylaxiA  Town,  in  which  the  reference  is 
plainly  to  the  site,  &c.,  of  the  place,  rather  than  to 
the  character  of  the  inhabitants.  Merry  England 
is  then,  we  may  say,  England  that  abounds  in 
comforts,  and  is  pleasant  to  live  in, 

1  cannot  help  thinking  that  merry  in  its  original 


[2«'ds.  N0  27.,  JnLY5,'56. 

sense  ^iieuld,  in  some  cases,  pretty  accurately  ex- 
press the  peculiar  Portuguese  term  saudoso.  The 
Lusitanian  lexicographers  define  the  substantive 
saudade,  "  grief  arising  from  the  absence  of  the 
beloved  object,  accompanied  by  the  desire  of  see- 
ing it  again  ;  "  which  is  something  like  desiderium. 
But  we  find  saudoso  in  connections  where  this  is 
not  the  exact  sense.  Thus  we  meet  with  olhos 
saiidosos,  "  mery  eyen,"  and  Camoens  says : 

"  Nos  saiidosos  campos  do  Mondego," 
in  both  of  which  places  it  is  the  pleasure  of  pre- 
sence, rather  than  the  {)ain  of  absence,  that  is  in- 
dicated. As  I  am  on  the  subject  of  etymology  I 
will  give  the  origin  of  saiidade,  saudoso,  of  which 
I  have  seen  no  derivation.  As  then  an  older 
form  is  so'idade,  so'idoso,  1  would  say,  having  in 
view  the  syncopating  character  of  the  Portuguese 
language,  that  the  root  of  them,  as  of  the  French 
souci,  is  sol'icitus.  I  may  add  that  souci  and 
saiidade  are  names  of  the  same  flower. 

"  Good  Cheer."  —  I  have  given  cheerful  as  a 
sense  of  merry,  jjnd  it  is  curious  to  mark  the  pro- 
gress of  the  word  cheer.  There  can,  I  think,  be 
hardly  a  doubt  that  the  origin  is  Kc'pa,  "  head  ;  " 
retained  by  the  Spaniards  in  cara,  and  changed  by 
the  Italians  to  cera,  ciera,  and  by  the  French  to 
chere,  all  signifying  "  face."  Hence  o\jr  cheer 
usually  denotes  aspect,  countenance ;  then  it  was 
applied  to  the  mind,  as  in  "  Be  of  good  cheer  ; " 
and  finally,  indicative,  some  might  say,  of  the 
English  character,  good  cheer  came  to  signify  good 
eating  and  drinking!  There  were  also  the  verbs 
to  cheer  and  to  cheer  up,  the  last  contracted  to 
chirp,  as  in  — 

"  He  takes  his  chirping  pint  and  cracks  his  jokes." 

"  Lechery."  —  This  word  is  usually  derived  from 

the  French  lecher,  to  lick  ;  but  this  is  evidently 

incorrect,  for  both  it  and  licorous  must  come  from 

luxuria,  which  is  exactly  the  same  with  it  in  sense. 



It  may  perhaps  be  doubted  whether  Richakl 
Duke  deserved  the  honour  of  being  immortalised 
by  the  pen  of  our  great  moralist ;  but,  since  the 
thing  has  been  done,  it  seems  only  a  proper  mark 
of  respect  to  Johnson  to  make  a  note  of  anything 
that  may  assist  in  filling  up  his  sketches,  and 
carrying  out  his  purpose.  Tliis  is  especially  the 
case  when  the  biographer  was  at  a  loss  for  mate- 
rials ;  and  I  believe  that  of  all  the  Lives  of  the 
Poets  that  of  Duke  is  the  shortest  and  most 
superficial.  In  my  copy  it  does  not  occupy  so 
much  as  one  full  page ;  and  what  little  there  is 
quite  accords  with  the  opening  words  —  "  Of  Mr. 
Kichard  Duke  I  can  find  few  memorials."  More 
of  his  circumstances  and  personal  history  may,  I 

think,  be  learned  from  a  document  which  I  lately 
found,  while  searching  for  something  else,  among 
some  family  deeds  and  papers  in  my  possession. 
How  it,  and  several  other  documents  to  which 
Duke  was  a  party,  came  to  be  where  they  are,  I 
cannot  tell;  but  I  think  that  (if  room  can  be  made 
for  it)  this  one  is  worth  printing  as  it  stands;  for 
it  seems  as  if  it  could  not  be  materially  abridged 
without  losing  some  part  of  the  character  or  in- 
formation. It  is  written  on  parchment,  and  en- 
dorsed "A  Cop[)ie  of  Mr.  Richard  Duke  his 
Discharge  to  his  iFathers  Executors,  1679 :" 

"Know  all  men  by  these  presents  that  I,  Richard 
Duke,  Batchelor  of  Art,  eldest  sonne  and  heire  of 
Richard  Duke,  late  Citizen  and  Scrivener  of  Lon- 
don, deceased,  anil  now  of  the  full  age  of  one  and 
twenty  yeares,  doe  hereby  acknowledge,  and  de- 
clare, that  I  have  received  and  had,  at  and  before 
thenseuleing  and  delivery  hereof,  of  and  from 
Robert  Cliilcott,  Citizen  and  Merchantaylor  of 
London,  George  Dashwood  of  London,  esquire, 
and  Thomas  Goodwin,  Citizen  and  Scrivener  of 
London,  executors  of  the  last  will  and  testament 
of  the  said  Richard  Duke  my  said  late  father,  de- 
ceased, my  share,  and  the  better  share  to  my 
owne  content,  of  all  my  said  fathers  printed 
books,  which  he,  in  and  by  the  said  will,  did  will 
and  appoynt  should  be  devided  betweene  his  two 
sonnes  (namely),  mee  the  said  Richard  Duke,  and 
my  brother  Robert  Duke;  and  that  I  should  have 
the  better  share.  And  that  I  have  also  received 
and  had,  of  and  from  them  the  said  executors,  in 
severall  boxes  and  otherwise,  all  the  deeds,  evi- 
dences, and  writeings,  which  upon,  or  after,  the  de- 
cease of  my  said  late  father  came  to,  and  have 
remayned  in  the  hands,  or  custody,  of  them  the 
said  executors,  or  some  or  one  of  them,  which  do 
concern  or  relate  unto  the  messuage,  tenement,  or  ' 
inne,  commonly  called,  or  known,  by  the  name,  or 
signe,  of  the  White  Beare,  scituate  and  being  in 
West  Smithfeild,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Sepulchre's 
without  Newgate,  London.  And  also  all  those 
which  doe  concerne,  or  relate,  unto  a  messuage 
or  tenement  scituate  and  being  in  Charterhouse 
Lane,  on  the  west  side  of  the  said  lane,  in  the 
county  of  Middlesex,  and  in  the  parish  of  St. 
Sepulchre's  without  Newgate,  London,  aforesaid 
(and  commonly  called,  and  knowne,  by  the  name, 
or  signe,  of  the  WoU  Sack  or  Wooll  Pack),  the 
which  said  inne,  and  tenement,  my  said  late  father, 
by  his  said  last  will  and  testament,  did  give,  de- 
vise, and  bequeath,  unto  his  said  executors,  and 
to  the  survivors,  and  survivor,  of  them,  and  the 
executors,  and  administrators,  of  the  survivors  of 
them,  dureing,  and  untill,  Ithe  said  Richard  Duke 
should  have  attayned  unto  my  full  age  of  one  and 
twenty  yeares,  upon  the  trust  and  to  the  intents 
and  purposes  in  the  same  his  last  will  and  testa- 
ment expressed,  declared,  and  conteyned.    And 

2nd  s.  No  27.,  July  5.  '56.] 


from,  and  after,  I  the  said  Richard  Duke  sliould 
have  fully  attained  that  my  said  full  age  of  one 
and  twenty  yeares  (if  I  should  so  long  live)  then 
he  gave,  deviseii,  and  bequeathed  the  said  mes- 
suages or  tenements  unto  me  the  said  Richard 
Duke,  my  heires  and  assigns  for  ever:  subject, 
nevertheless,  to  the  provisoes  and  conditions  con- 
teyned,  and  appearing,  in  the  said  will  and  testa- 
ment of  my  said  late  father.  As  for  touching  and 
concerning  which  my  said  share  of  bookes,  and 
the  deeds,  evidences,  and  writeings  aforesaid,  and 
all  trust,  clayme,  and  pretence,  whatsoever  con- 
cerning them,  or  any  of  them,  I  the  said  Richard 
Duke  doe  hereby,  for  me,  my  heires,  executors, 
administrators,  and  assigns,  fully,  cleerly,  and  ab- 
solutely remisi^,  release,  and  for  ever  discharge, 
them  the  said  Robert  Chilcott,  George  Dashwooii, 
and  Thomas  Goodwin,  their  heires,  executors,  and 
administrators,  and  every  of  them.  And  know 
ye  farther  that  I  the  said  Richard  Duke,  in  con- 
formity and  obedience  to  the  expresse  will,  order, 
and  appointment  of  my  said  late  father,  declared 
in  and  by  his  said  last  will  and  testament,  have 
reraised,  released,  and  for  ever  quitt  claymed, 
and  by  these  presents  doe  remise,  release,  and  for 
ever  quitt  claym,  unto  the  said  Robert  Chilcott, 
George  Dashwood,  and  Thomas  Goodwin,  and 
every  of  them,  their,  and  every  of  their  heires, 
executors,  and  administrators,  all  or  any  cliilds 
part,  or  customary  part  or  share,  which  I  the  said 
Richard  Duke  can  or  may  clayme,  or  demande, 
out  of  any  part  or  share  of  the  estate  whatsoever 
of  my  said  late  father,  by  force  or  virtue  of  the 
custom  of  the  city  of  London,  or  otherwise  how- 
soever (except  only  such  perticular  legacyes  as 
should  be,  and  are,  given  or  shall  fall  to  mee,  by 
and  according  to  the  true  intent,  and  meaneing,  of 
the  same  last  will  and  testament  of  my  said  late 

"  In  Witnes  whereof  I  the  said  Richard  Duke 
have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  seale.  Dated  the 
sixth  day  of  September,  Anno  Dni  1679,  and  in 
the  one  and  thirtieth  yeare  of  the  reigne  of  our 
sovereigne  Lord  Charles  the  Second,  by  the  grace 
of  God  of  England,  Scotland,  ],i)  ranee,  and  Ire- 
land, King,  Defender  of  the  Faith,  &c. 

"  Richard  Duke. 

"  Sealed  and  delivered  in  the  presence  of  John 
Sherley,  Wm.  Antrobus,  Sen,  and  Sam.  Bradley." 

The  truth  of  the  copy  is  attested  by  Wm.  An- 
trobus and  John  Dann. 

I  should  like  to  add  one  or  two  remarks,  as  well 
as  some  further  particulars,  which  may  be  gleaned 
from  some  of  the  other  documents  ;  but  this  one 
will  occupy  so  much  space  that  it  would  be  un- 
reasonable to  ask  for  more  at  present.  Allow 
me,  however,  to  add  a  Query.  Johnson  states 
that  the  poet  is  said  to  have  been  tutor  to  the 
Duke  of  Richmond ;  and  this  seems  not  impro- 

bable. The  duke  must  have  been  about  seven 
years  old  when  the  poet  came  of  age  and  gave 
this  discharge.  I  shall  be  much  obliged  to  any 
one  who  will  tell  me,  either  through  "N.  &  Q." 
or  directly,  where  I  mny  find  the  particulars  of 
the  young  Duke  of  Richmond's  conversion  to  ' 
Popery,  and  re-conversion  to  Protestantism. 

S.  R.  Maitland. 


In  the  Dictionary  of  Greeh.  and  Roman  Antiqui- 
ties, edited  by  William  Smith,  LL.D.  second  edit., 
1848,  I  may  be  permitted  to  notice  an  error 
which  ought  not  to  exist  in  a  work  of  any  au- 
thority. Under  the  head  of  "  Tabula?,"  the  writer 
of  that  article  has  referred  to  certain  "  ancient 
waxen  tablets,"  said  "to  have  been  discovered  in 
one  of  the  gold  mines  near  the  village  of  Abrud- 
bianya,  in  Hungary,  and  which  were  described  by 
M.  Massmann  of  Munich  in  his  Libellus  Aurarius, 
sive  TabulcB  ceratce,  et  AntiquissiihoB  et  unicce  Ro- 
mance, Leipsic,  1840,  4to.  The  date  assigned  to 
these  tablets  is  A.  d.  167,  and,  supposing  them  to  be 
genuine,  they  would  afford  us  the  earliest  existing 
specimens  of  cursive  minuscule  Roman  writing  ; 
but  the  fact  is,  that  they  have  been  long  proved 
to  be  fictitious  by  the  continental  scholars  and 
palaeographers ;  and  a  statement  to  that  effect  was 
published  by  Silvestre  in  the  Paleographie  Uni' 
verselle,  published  in  1839-1841,  and,  more  re- 
cently, repeated  in  the  English  translation  of  that 
work,  1850,  vol.  i.  p.  255.  I  may  add,  from  ray 
own  testimony,  that  these  very  tablets,  or  similar 
ones,  were  offered  to  me  for  purchase  several 
years  ago,  but  were  rejected  at  once  as  palpable 
forgeries.  F.  Madden. 

British  Museum. 


[The  general  satisfaction  with  which  this  series  of 
Papers  has  been  received,  has  determined  us  to  con- 
tinue it  in  the  present  volume:  and  We  shall  be  greatly 
obliged  by  the  communication  of  Inedited  Letters, 
Ballads,  or  other  Documents,  which  may  serve  to 
throw  light  upon  the  eventful  period  treated  of  by  Mr. 

Jack  Ketch  (2"''  S.  i.  72.)  — 

"  The  Apologie  of  John  Ketch,  Esq.,  the  Executioner  of 

London,  in  vindication  of  himself  as  to  the  Execution  of 

tJie  late  Lord  Russel,  on  July  21,  1683. 

"It  is  an  old  saying  and  a  true  one,  that  one  story's 

good  till  another's  heard,  but  it  is  one  of  the  most  difficult 

things  imaginable  to  dispossess  the  world  of  any  censure 

or  prejudice,  that  is  once  fixt  or  hath  taken  root  in  the 

harts  of  the  People.     However,  since  it  is  not  fit  that  so 

publick  a  Person  as  the  Executioner  of  Justice  and  the 

Law's  Sentence  upon  Criminals  and  Malefactors    should 

lye  under  the  scandal  of  untrue  Reports,  and  be  unjustly 


[2nd  S.  No  27.,  July  5.  '5G. 

expos'd  to  popular  Clamour,  I  thought  it  a  matter  of 
highest  importance  to  me  to  clear  and  vindicate  myself  as 
tothe  manner  of  my  Lord  Russel's  Execution,  and  the 
hard  usage  he  is  said  to  have  had  in  the  Severing  of  his 
Head  from  his  Bodj'. 

"  As  to  the  several  reports  that  have  been  rais'd,  as  it 
hath  been  always  a  common  Custom  in  the  World,  not 
only  to  magnifie  and  misrepresent  the  truth,  but  to  forgo 
things  that  never  were,  the  falsity  of  them  will  appear  to 
judicious  Persons  as  well  by  the  improbability  of  them 
as  by  testimony  of  those  that  know  the  Contrary ;  As 
namely  that  I  had  been  drinking  all  the  foregoing  Night 
and  was  in  Drink  when  I  came  upon  the  Scaffold,  when 
as  all  my  Neighbours  can  testifie  that  I  went  orderlie  to 
Bed  that  Night  and  wholly  undisguis'd  in  Drink.  That 
I  had  20,Guinnies  the  Night  before.  That  after  the  First 
blow  my  Lord  should  say.  You  Dog  did  I  give  you  10 
Guinnies  to  use  me  so  inhumanl}-?  'Tis  true  I  receav'd 
10  Guenies  but  not  till  after  having  dispos'd  of  his  Coat, 
Hat,  and  Periwig;  I  took  the  boldness  to  give  him  a 
small  remembrance  of  the  Civilities  customary  on  the  like 
occasion,  as  to  the  report  of  my  striking  my  Lord  into  the 
Shoulder,  how  false  it  is  I  appeaj  to  those  that  were  the 
nearest  Spectatours  of  the  Execution ;  and  for  my  being 
committed  Prisoner  to  Newgate,  it  is  so  Easie  a  matter 
to  disprove  the  truth  thereof,  that  I  need  not  trouble  my- 
self anj'  farther  about  it. 

"But  my  grand  business  is  to  acquit  myself  and  come 
off  as  fairly  as  I  can,  as  to  those  grievous  Obloquies  and 
Invectives  that  have  been  thrown  upon  me  for  not  Sever- 
ing my  Lords  Head  from  his  Body  at  one  blow,  and  in- 
deed had  I  given  my  Lord  more  Blows  then  one  out  of 
design  to  put  him  to  more  then  ordinary  Pain,  as  I  have 
been  Taxt,  I  might  justlj'  be  exclaim'd  on  as  Guilty  of 
grater  Inhumanity  then  can  be  imputed  even  to  one  of 
my  Profession,  or  had  it  been  occasioned  by  a  Bungling 
and  Supine  Negligence,  1  had  been  much  to  blame.  But 
there  are  circumstances  enow  to  clear  me  in  this  par- 
ticular, and  to  make  it  plainly  appear  that  my  Lord  him- 
self was  the  real  obstruct  that  he  had  not  a  quicker  dis- 
patch out  of  this  World ;  since  if  I  may  speak  it  of  a 
Person  of  his  Quality?  He  died  with  more  Galantry 
then  Discresion,  and  did  not  dispose  him  for  receiving  of 
the  fatal  Stroke  in  such  a  posture  as  was  most  suitable, 
for  whereas  he  should  have  put  his  hands  before  his 
Breast,  or  else  behind  him,  he  spread  them  out  before 
him,  nor  would  he  be  persuaded  to  give  any  Signal  or 
pull  his  Cap  over  his  eyes,  which  might  possibly  be  the 
Occasion  that  discovering  the  Blow,  he  somewhat  heav'd 
his  Body.  Moreover  after  having  receiv'd  the  Guinnies, 
and  according  to  my  dut}'  ask't  his  Lordships  Pardon,  I 
receav'd  some  Interruption  iust  as  I  was  taking  Aim,  and 
going  to  give  the  Blow.  Thus  have  I  truely  and  faith- 
fully expos'd  to  the  Publick  all  that  can  be  said  in  this 
matter,  and  hope,  whatever  prejudice  the  undiscerning 
Multitude  may  retain,  to  have  given  sufficient  satisfaction 
to  all  rational  judicious  Persons." 

No.  2627.  of  the  Collection  of  Proclamations, 
Sfc,  presented  to  the  Chetham  Library,  Man- 
chester, by  James  O.  HalHwell,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 


Prince  of  Orange  (2°"^  S.  i.  370.)  — 

"  Even  that  court  seems  to  have  had  some  sense  of 
shame ;  for  the  sentence  of  confiscation  and  banishment 
against  the  Ruart  did  not  state  the  crime  for  which  it 
•was  passed." 

The  sentence  is  fully  set  out  in  a  pamphlet  en- 
titled : 

"  Sententia  van  den  generalen  hove  van  Nederlnnd 
tegens  Mr.  C.  de  Wit  en  Mr.  Jan  de  Witt,  's  Gravenhaag^ 

which  is  in  the  British  Museum,  VViV  I*  ex- 
plicitly states  that  the  Ruart  suborned  Tichelaer 
to  assassinate  the  Prince  of  Orange.  P.  H. 


In  that  amusing  and  really  instructive  work, 
John  Duntons  Life  and  Errors,  may  be  found  the 
following  paragraph  : 

"  The  air  of  New  England  was  sharper  than  at  London, 
which,  with  the  temptation  of  fresh  provisions,  made  me 
eat  like  a  second  Mariot  of  Gray's  Inn." 

Upon  which  Dunton's  editor,  Mr.  J.  B.  NichoL^, 
has  this  note ; 

"  Of  this  celebrated  eater  no  other  record,  it  is  probable, 
now  remains." 

Not  so.  In  Smith's  Obituary,  edited  for  the 
Camden  Society  by  Sir  Henry  Ellis,  I  find  the 
following  entry : 

"25  Nov.  1653,  Old  Marriot  of  Gray's  Inn  (y*  great 
eater)  buried." 

Sir  Henry  Ellis  is  silent  about  this  Gray's  Inn 

Not  so  Charles  Cotton,  Walton's  associate  in 
The  Complete  Angler,  who,  in  his  Poems  on  Seve- 
ral Occasions,  1689,  has  two  copies  of  verses  on 
the  Gray's  Inn  cormorant ;  one  (p.  349.)  called 
"  On  the  Great  Eater  of  Gray's  Inn,"  the  other 
(p.  417.)  "On  Marriot."  From  the  former  we 
learn  that  he  was  spare  and  thin : 

"  Approaching  famine  in  thy  physnomy." 
The  other  has  this  line  : 

"  Mariot  the  eater  of  Gray's  Inn  is  dead." 

The  readers  of  John  Dunton  and  Charles  Cotton 
will  probably  make  a  note  of  this  communication. 
Peter  Cunningham. 


In  the  Memoirs  of  Mrs.  Fitzherbert,  by  the 
Hon.  Charles  Langdale,  lately  published,  there  is 
the  following  quotation  from  the  above  song  : 

"  I'd  crowns  resign 
To  call  thee  mine, 
Sweet  lass  of  Richmond  Hill !  " 

And  it  is  stated,  upon  the  authority  of  the  late 
Lord  Stoiirton,  that  the  song*was  written  to  cele- 
brate the  charms  of  the  above  lady.  With  all  due 
deference  to  his  lordship's  opinion,  I  consider  this 
to  be  a  mistake,  and  I  beg  to  enumerate  two  or 
three  other  individual  ladies,  for  whom  it  has  been 
asserted  it  was  compiled.  A  Miss  Smith,  who 
resided  on  the  Hill  near  the  Terrace,  at  the  period 

2nd  s.  No  27.,  July  5.  »56.] 


wben  the  song  first  appeared,  had  the  general  re- 
putation of  being  the  person  for  whom  it  was  de- 
signed. The  Rev.  Thomas  Maurice  published 
Richmond  Hill,  a  poem,  in  which,  under  the  name 
of  Mira,  he  introduces  a  Miss  Cropp  as  the  Lass 
of  Richmond  Hill,  who  committed  suicide  for  her 
lover  on  the  22nd  April,  1782 ;  but  this  has  been 
regarded  merely  as  poetic  fiction  with  regard  to 
the  song.  Another  account  we  have,  in  Personal 
Sketches  of  his  own  Times,  by  Sir  Jonah  Barring- 
ton,  vol.  ii.  pp.  47 — 52. ;  in  this  it  is  stated  Mr. 
Leonard  MacNally  wrote  the  song  on  a  Miss 
Janson,  daughter  of  Mr.  Janson,  a  rich  attorney 
of  Bedford  Row,  Bloomsbury,  who  had  a  country- 
house  on  Richmond  Hill.  There  were  great  ob- 
stacles to  his  marrying  her,  but  perhaps  from 
making  the  lady  the  theme  of  his  poetry,  and 
being  also  the  author  of  Robin  Hood,  a  comic 
opera  of  great  merit,  he  ultimately  obtained  her 
hand.  But  notwithstanding  all  these  authorities, 
I  am  inclined  to  think  the  song  was  not  intended 
for  any  particular  person,  but  written  by  Mr. 
Wm.  Upton,  author  of  Poems  on  several  Oc- 
casions, 8vo.,  1788,  and  A  Collection  of  Songs 
sung  at  Vauxhall,  and  who  was  the  poet  of  Vaux- 
hall  Gardens  1788—1789.  I  believe  it  first  ap- 
peared in  the  Public  Advertiser  oi'M.onAiiy,  Aug.  3, 
1789,  where  it  is  stated  to  be  a  favourite  song 
sung  by  Mr.  Incledon  at  Vauxhall,  and  composed 
by  Mr.  Jas.  Hook  (the  father  of  Theodore).  It  is 
said  Incledon  sang  the  song  in  such  a  fascinating 
manner,  that  it  led  to  a  superior  and  permanent 
engagement  at  Covent  Garden  Theatre,  as,  after 
the  season  of  1789,  he  never  again  appeared  at 
Vauxhall.  *. 


"grenvillb  papers:"  george  iii.'s  letter  to 

LORD    temple,    correction    OF. 

In  the  Grenville  Memoirs  of  the  Cabinets  of 
George  III.  is  a  remarkable  letter  from  the  king 
to  Lord  Temple,  written  on  the  occasion  of  his 
"surrender"  to  the  coalition  ministry  of  Epx  and 
Lord  North ;  which,  like  everything  else  of  his 
private  correspondence  published,  is  highly  cha- 
racteristic of  the  firm  unaffected  character  of  the 
man,  and  of  that  remarkable  power  of  letter- 
writing  in  a  pure  English  unpretending  style, 
which  completely  refutes  the  aspersions  thrown  by 
adverse  or  disappointed  politicians  upon  his  un- 
derstanding and  education. 

In  this  letter  there  is,  however,  one  trace  of 
that  haste  in  writing,  which  the  king  notoriously 
had  in  speaking,  and  which  sometimes  made  it 
difficult  for  those  he  addressed  to  follow  or  under- 
stand him.  The  editor  of  the  Grenville  Papers 
undertakes  to  correct  the  obscurity,  but  has  done 
so,  as  I  think,  clumsily,  and  without  effect. 

The  sentence,  as  printed  verbatim  from  the 
original,  is  this  : 

"  The  seven  cabinet  councillors  named  by  the  Coalition 
shall  kiss  hands  tomorrow ;  and  then  form  their  arrange  • 
ments ;  as  the  former  negociation  theij  did  not  condescend  to 
open  to  many  of  their  intentions." 

The  obscurity  is  in  the  clause  printed  in  Italics, 
and  the  editor,  in  a  foot-note,  corrects  it  thus : 

"  As  (in)  the  former  negociation  they  did  not  conde- 
scend to  open  to(o)  many  of  their  intentions." 

It  appears  to  me  that  this  emendation  is  partly 
incorrect ;   I  would  re-write  the  sentence  thus  : 

"  As  (m)  the  former  negociation,  they  did  not  conde- 
scend to  open  to  m(e)  any  of  their  intentions." 

This  would  reduce  the  king's  mistake  to  the 
omission  of  an  in,  and  the  running  of  me,  any, 
into  many ;  while  it  is  at  once  more  intelligible, 
and  more  expressive  of  that  sense  of  offended 
dignity  at  the  treatment  he  experienced  at  the 
hands  of  the  Coalition,  which  pervades  every  line 
of  the  letter. 

This  indignation  has,  as  seems  to  me,  in  another 
sentence  led  the  king  into  a  form  of  expression 
which  rather  oversteps  the  bounds  of  correctness ; 
he  calls  his  "  besiegers  "  — 

"  The  most  unprincipled  coalition  the  annals  of  this  or 
any  other  nation  can  equal." 

I  may  be  wrong  in  my  criticism,  and  should  bow 
to  correction,  but  this  sentence  seems  somewhat 
to  conform  (as  I  humbly  submit.)  to  that  mode  of 
expressing  intensity,  in  which  Sir  Boyle  Roche,  in 
the  Irish  parliament  on  some  occasion  of  national 
calamity,  affirmed  that,  — 

"  Singh  misfortunes  never  come  alone,  and  the  greatest 
of  all  possible  misfortunes  is  generally  followed  by  a  much 

A.  B.  R. 


Alitor  fiatti. 
Papering  Rooms.  —  Herman  Schinkel,  M.A., 
citizen  and  printer  of  Delft,  belonging  to  the 
Reformed  Religion,  was  apprehended,  a.d.  1568, 
on  a  charge  of  printing  and  publishing  books  ini- 
mical to  the  Catholic  faith  ;  for  which  he  was 
sentenced  to  death,  and  suffered  in  July  following. 
In  his  examination  (as  detailed  by  him  in  his  last 
and  farewell  letter  to  his  wife),  being  interrogated 
as  to  certain  ballads  alleged  by  his  accusers  to 
have  been  printed  at  his  press,  he  said  they  were 
printed  by  his  servant  in  his  absence.     And  — 

"  Want  ick  quam  t'huys,  eer  dat  sy  gelevert  waren,  ende 
doe  en  woude  ick  niet  gedoogen,  dat  mense  leveren  sonde, 
maarick  schichtese  in  een  Noeck,  om  roosen  en  stricken 
op  d'andere  zijde  te  drucken,  daer  men  Solders  mede 
bekleet,"  &c. 

"  When  he  came  home,  and  found  they  were  not  de- 
livered, he  refused  to  deliver  them,  and  threw  them  into 


[2nd  s.  No  27.,  July  5. 

a  corner,  intending  to  print  roses  and  stripes  on  the  other 
Bide,  to  paper  attics  with,"  &c. 

Is  there  any  earlier  mention  of  papering  rooms 
than  this  ?  James  Knowlbs. 

Cock-fighting,  its  Origin.  — 

"  Themistocles,  marching  against  the  Persians,  beheld 
two  of  these  determined  warriors  in  the  heat  of  battle, 
and  thereupon  pointed  out  to  his  Athenian  soldiery  their 
indomitable  courage.  The  Athenians  were  victorious; 
and  Themistocles  gave  order  that  an  annual  cock-fight 
should  be  held  in  commemoration  of  the  encounter  they 
had  witnessed.  No  record,  however,  of  the  sport  occurs 
in  this  country  (England)  before  the  year  1121."  — Free- 
masons' Q.  31.,  July  1853, 

W.  W. 


Epitaph  on  a  Bell-ringer.  —  The  following 
epitaph,  from  the  churchyard  of  Leeds,  Kent,  is 
interesting,  as  recording,  probably,  the  only  in- 
stance of  the  complete  changes  on  eight  bells 
having  been  rung : 

"  In  memorv  of  James  Barham,  of  this  parish,  who 
departed  this  "life  Jan.  14,  1818,  aged  93  j^ears.  Who, 
from  the  year  1744  to  the  year  1804,  rung  in  Kent  and 
elsewhere,  112  peals;  not  less  than  6040  changes  in  each 
peal,  and  called  Bobs,  &c.,  for  most  of  the  peals.  And 
April  the  7th  and  8th,  1761,  assisted  in  ringing  40,320 
Bob  major  in  27  hours." 

C.  W.  M. 

The  New  Era :  a  Prophecy.  —  Adam  Czar- 
torvski,  once  the  minister  and  favourite  of  Alex- 
ander T.  of  Russia,  but  later  one  of  the  leaders  of 
the  Polish  Revolution  of  1831  (now  eighty  four 
years  of  ase!),  uttered  the  following  enigmatic 
•  words  at  the  last  meeting  of  the  Polish  Historical 
Society  of  Paris,  April,  1856  : 

"  It  seems  to  me,  at  times,  as  if  a  curtain  had  fallen  on 
that  concluded  scene  (  !),  of  which  we  were  witnesses  and 
partly  actors,  and  that  now  a  new  spectacle  (  Widowhko) 
Tsill  begin,  the  prologue  of  which  even,  has  not  yet  been 
plaved  off.  Thus,  resigned  but  active,  let  us  await  the 
rising  of  the  curtain." 

Strangelv,  the  same  fine  thought  was  uttered 
by  Walter  Scott  in  bis  concluding  remarks  on  the 
French  Revolution  {Life  of  Napoleon')  :  "But  the 
hand  of  fate  was  on  the  curtain,  about  to  bring 
the  scene  to  light."  J.  Lotsky,  Panslave. 

15.  Gower  Street,  London. 

Old  Notice  of  "  Seven  Dials,"  London.  — 

"  East  of  that  is  a  deal  of  pleasant  planting  (the  author 
is  deseribinsr  the  policies  of  Sir  John  Maxwell  of  Nether 
Pollock  in  Renfrewshire") ;  at  your  first  entering  there  is 
a  cross  avenue  ;  one  of  the  avenues  of  the  cross  leads  east 
to  another  cross,  from  whence  six  avenues  branches  off 
almost  like  the  Seven  Dial;?,  London,  where  seven  streets 
branches  off,  viz.  1.  Great  Earl,  2.  Little  Earl  Streets; 
3.  Great  St.  Andrew's,  4.  Little  St.  Andrew's  Streets; 
6.  Great  White  Lion,  6.  Little  White  Lion  Streets ;  7.  and 
last.  Queen  Street.  The  long  cross  stone  which  stood  in 
the  middle  centre  was  seven  (feet)  square  at  the  top,  and 
a  dial  on  each  square }  which  stone  I  saw  standing  in  the 

year  1770,  but  was  down  in  the  year  1777."  —  A  History 
of  the  Shire  of  Renfreiv,  part  ii.  p.  190.,  by  George  Craw- 
furd  and  William  Semple,  Paisle3\  1782. 

Flambeaux. — The  extinguishers  for  the  links 
carried  by  the  attendants  on  the  chairs  of  the 
wealthy  diners-out  still  remain  in  Grosvenor 
Square.  Probably  they  were  last  used  for  the 
Dowager-Marchioness  of  Salisbury,  who  was 
buried  at  Hatfield  in  1835.     She  — 

"  Always  went  to  court  in  a  sedan  chair,  and  at  night 
her  carriage  was  known  by  the  flambeaux  of  the  foot- 
men." —  Raikes's  Diary,  ii.  276. 

Mackenzie  Walcott,  M.A, 



Being  at  present  busily  engaged  in  the  prepa- 
ration and  printing  of  my  new  edition  of  Shak- 
speare's  Plays  and  Poems,  with  a  revisal  of  the 
text  and  notes  of  my  former  impression  of  1843 
and  1844,  I  am  very  desirous  of  obtaining  all  the 
information  I  can  procure  regarding  Richard 
Barnfield,  who  has  had  the  honour,  as  it  now  ap- 
pears, not  of  having  poems  by  him  imputed  to 
Shakspeare,  but  of  having  poems  by  Shakspeare 
imputed  to  him.  The  general  belief,  for  about 
the  last  century,  has  been,  that  certain  produc- 
tions in  verse,  really  by  Barnfield,  and  published 
by  him  in  1598,  had  been  falsely  attributed  to  our 
great  dramatist ;  but  not  long  since  I  wrote  a 
letter  to  The  Athenaum,  the  effect  of  which,  I 
apprehend,  would  be  to  deprive  Barnfield  of  the 
pieces  in  question  (inserted  in  The  Passionate 
Pilgrim,  1599),  and  to  restore  them  to  their 
actual  author,  Shakspeare. 

The  matter  now  seems  to  He  in  a  nutshell :  — 
They  were  printed  as  Barnfield's  in  1598  ;  they 
were  printed  as  Shakspeare's  in  1599  ;  and  when 
Barnfield  reprinted  his  productions  in  1605,  he 
excluded  those  which  had  been  printed  in  1599  as 
Shakspeare's.  The  inference  seems  to  me  in- 
evitaMe,  that  they  were  by  Shakspeare  and  not 
by  Barnfield.  I  formerly  thought  that  Barnfield 
had,  in  a  manner,  reclaimed  his  property  in  1605  ; 
but  the  very  reverse  is  the  fact :  and  those  poems 
in  The  Passionate  Pilgrim,  which  are  there  as- 
signed to  Shakspeare,  but  which  were  formerly 
supposed  to  be  Barnfield's,  may  now,  without 
much  hesitation,  be  taken  from  Barnfield  and 
given  to  Shakspeare.  Hence  we  may  perhaps 
conclude  that  W.  Jaggard,  the  publisher  of  The 
Passionate  Pugrim,  was  not  quite  as  much  of  a 
I  rogue  as  was  formerly  imagined. 

It  then  becomes  a  question  how  Shakspeare's 
poems,  in  The  Passionate  Pilgrim  of  1599,  came 
to  be  published  as  Barnfield's  in  1598.     Bara- 

2nd  S.  NO  27.,  July  5. '66.1 



field's  Encomion  of  Lady  Pecunia  was  "  printed 
by  G.  S.  foi'  John  Jaggard"  in  tliat  year.  Al- 
though a  thin  tract,  it  is  divided  into  four  parts, 
and  every  part  has  a  separate  title-page  and  im- 
print, but  the  first  only  bears  the  name  of  the 
author,  "Richard  Barnfeild,  graduate  in  Oxford:" 
neither  does  the  first  title-page  mention  any  of 
the  three  other  distinct  portions  of  the  volume. 
It  is  to  be  observed  also  (a  circumstance  that 
escaped  my  notice  when  I  wrote  to  The  AthencBum), 
that  after  "  The  Encomion  of  Lady  Pecunia," 
*  forming  the  first  portion  of  the  volume,  and  which 
alone  has  the  name  of  Barnfield  upon  the  title- 
page,  a  new  set  of  signatures  at  the  bottom  of  the 
page  begins.  "The  Encomion  of  Lady  Pecunia" 
begins  on  A  2  (A  1  having  formed  the  fly-leaf), 
and  ends  on  C  4.  Then  we  arrive  at  a  new  title- 
page,  "  The  Complaint  of  Poetrie,  for  the  Death 
of  Liberalitie,"  which  begins  on  sig.  A  1,  and  ends 
on  sig.  C  2.  The  title-page  of  the  third  division 
of  the  work,  "  The  Combat  betvveene  Conscience 
and  Covetousnesse  in  the  Minde  of  Man"  is  upon 
sig.  C  3,  and  it  goes  on  as  far  as  sig.  D  4.  The 
fourth  division  of  the  work,  "  Poems  in  Divers 
Humors,"  has  its  separate  title-page  on  sig.  E  1  ; 
and  on  sig.  E  4  the  whole  ends.  The  imprint 
upon  the  four  title-pages  is  precisely  in  the  same 
■vrords  and  figures,  viz.,  "  London,  printed  by  G. 
S.  for  lohn  laggard ;  and  are  to  be  solde  at  his 
shoppe  neere  Temple-barre,  at  the  Signe  of  the 
Hand  and  starre,  1598."  The  poems,  formerly 
in  dispute  between  Shakspeare  and  Barnfield,  are 
in  the  fourth  division  of  the  volume,  "  Poems  in 
divers  humors." 

My  mistaken  notion,  twelve  years  ago,  was,  that 
Barnfield,  in  1605,  had  republished  the  whole  of 
what  had  first  appeared  in  1598.  This  is  not  so. 
In  1605  he  prefixed  a  general  title-page,  men- 
tioning only  three  of  the  four  divisions  of  his 
original  work,  viz.  —  1.  "Lady  Pecunia,  or  The 
Praise  of  Money."  2.  "  A  Combat  betwixt  Con- 
science and  Covetousnesse;"  and  3.  "  The  Com- 
plaint of  Poetry,  or  the  Death  of  Liberality."  He 
says  not  one  word  about  what  had  been  his  fourth 
division  in  1508,  "Poems  in  divers  humors;"  but 
still,  on  the  very  last  leaf  of  the  impression  of 
1605,  Barnfield  places  "A  Rernembrance  of  some 
English  Poets,"  which  had  appeared  as  one  of  the 
"  Poems  in  divers  humors,"  in  1598.  All  the  rest 
he  seems  purposely  to  have  excluded,  as  if  they 
were  not  his. 

As  I  have  the  necessary  books  upon  my  table, 
I  will  subjoin  an  enumeration  of  the  contents  of 
"  Poems  in  divers  humors,"  including,  of  course, 
those  which  I  now  suppose  Shakspeare  to  have 
written,  and  which  are  mixed  *up  with  other 
pieces,  some  of  them  of  a  personal  nature. 

1.  Six  lines,  at  the  back  of  the  title,  "To  the 
learned  and  accomplisht  Gentleman,  Maister  Ni- 

cholas Blackleech  of  Grayes  Inne,"  without  any 

2.  "  Sonnet  to  his  friend  Maister  R.  L.  in 
praise  of  Musique  and  Poetrie  :'  this  is  No.  "VIII. 
in  The  Passionate  Pilgrim  (see  my  edit.,  vol.  viii. 
p.  566.). 

3.  "  Sonnet  against  the  Dispraysers  of  Poetrie :" 
it  mentions  Chaucer,  Gower,  Lord  Surrey,  Sir  P. 
Sidney,  Gascoigne,  and  the  King  of  Scots. 

4.  "  A  Remembrance  of  some  English  Poets," 
in  eighteen  lines :  it  speaks  of  Spenser,  Daniel, 
Drayton,  and  Shakspeare. 

5.  "  An  Ode,"  beginning  "  An  it  fell  upon  a 
day:"  it  is  inserted  in  27te  Passionate  Pilgrim, 
No.  XXL  (see  my  edit.,  vol.  viii.  p.  577.).  The 
poem  beginning  "  Whilst  as  fickle  fortune  smilde," 
which  I  treated  as  a  separate  production,  is  here 
united  with  that  which  precedes  it. 

6.  Some  lines  thus  headed  "  Written  at  the 
request  of  a  Gentleman  under  a  Gentlewoman's 
Picture  :"  it  consists  of  six  fourteen-syllable  lines. 

7.  "  An  Epitaph  upon  the  Death  of  Sir  Philip 
Sidney,  Knight,  Lord-governour  of  Vlissing  :"  it 
is  in  ten  long  lines  in  couplets. 

8.  "  An  Epitaph  upon  the  Death  of  his  Aunt, 
Mistresse  Elizabeth  Skrymsher  :"  it  is  in  twenty- 
four  long  lines,  in  couplets. 

"A  Comparison  of  the  Life  of  Man  :"  it  is  a 
seven-line  stanza,  followed  by  the  word  "  Finis." 
This,  as  well  as  "  A  Remembrance  of  some  En- 
glish Poets,"  is  reprinted  in  Barnfield's  edition  of 

The  two  impressions  of  "  Lady  Pecunia,"  in 
1598  and  in  1605,  I  have  before  me.  I  have  also 
copies  of  Barnfield's  Affectionate  Shepheard,  1594 
(Ritson,  by  mistake,  dates  it  15t6);  and  of  his 
Cynthia,  with  certaine  Sonnets,  1595.  In  the  ad- 
dress "  to  the  courteous  gentleman  Readers,"  be- 
fore the  last,  Barnfield  repudiates  "  two  books," 
which  had  been  untruly  imputed  to  him  :  he  pro- 
bably means  Greene's  Funerals,  1594,  and  Or- 
pheus his  Journey  to  Hell,  1595,  both  of  which 
were  put  forth  with  his  initials.  Therefore,  in 
1598,  it  would  have  been  no  novelty  to  him  to 
have  other  men's  productions  printed  as  his,  since 
the  practice  had  begun  in  1594,  and  he  had  com- 
plained of  it  in  1595. 

In  reference  to  "  As  it  fell  upon  a  day,"  it  may 
be  noticed,  that  thcmgh  published  as  Barnfield's 
in  1598,  and  as  Shakspeare's  in  1599,  the  real 
authorship  of  it  was  so  little  ascertained  in  1600, 
that  it  was  printed  in  that  year  in  England's 
Helicon,  under  the  signature  of  Ignoto.  If  any  of 
your  readers  can  throw  light  upon  this  subject, 
or  add  to  the  list  of  Barnfield's  performances, 
whether  in  print  or  in  manuscript,  they  will  con- 
fer a  favour  upon  J.  Patne  Cojulieb. 




r2ndS.  N'ST^JuLS-S. '56. 

Monson  Township  in  Massachusetts.  —  Among 
the  intelligent  contributors  on  the  other  side  of 
the  Atlanuc  to  "N.  &  Q,"  some  one  may  be  able 
to  explain  whence  originated  the  name  of  Monson 
Township  in  Massachusetts.  Some  members  of 
a  younger  (Catholic)  branch  of  the  Monson  family 
are  believed  to  have  emigrated  to  the  United 
States  about  160  years  ago,  and  the  name  is  said 
to  be  not  uncommon  there.  Are  any  particulars 
known  of  their  early  colonial  lineage,  or  could 
they  be  obtained  from  provincial  histories  or  any 
documents  like  parochial  registers  ?  Monson. 

Gatton  Park. 

Germination  of  Seeds  long  buried.  —  It  has  been 
stated  that  botanists  have  discovered  new  varieties, 
and  even  new  plants,  in  railway  cuttings,  from 
seeds  which  had  long  been  buried  having  ger- 
minated on  exposure  to  the  air  and  light.  Where 
can  an  account  of  such  plants  be  seen  ?  And 
what  plants  have  been  noticed  ?  E.  M. 


Allow.  — What  is  the  meaning  of  this  word  in 
the  Baptismal  Service  —  "  and  nothing  doubting 
but  that  He  favourably  alloweth  this  charitable 
work  of  ours,"  &c. 

The  Church  does  not  teach  that  infant  baptism 
is  merely  a  thing  allowed  or  permitted,  but  that 
it  is  commanded.  In  Romans  vii.  15.  ov  yivdxTKu 
is  rendered  by  the  authorized  version,  "I  allow 
not,"  and  by  Moses  Stuart,  "  I  disapprove."  Again 
in  Luke  xi.  48.,  avuivSdKeirs  is  rendered,  "ye  allow." 
Many  instances  might  be  brought  to  show  that 
allow  formerly  had  the  meaning  approve,  or  ap- 
plaud. Two  occur  closely  together  in  Latimer's 
Sermons  (ed.  Parker  Society),  p.  176. :  "  Ezekias 
did  not  follow  the  steps  of  his  father  Ahaz,  and 
was  well  allowed  in  it."  And  again,  p.  177. 
"  Much  less  we  Englishmen,  if  there  be  any  such 
in  England,  may  be  ashamed.  I  wonder  with 
what  conscience  folk  can  hear  such  things  and 
allow  it."  Of  course  in  this  sense  the  word  is  de- 
rived from  ad,  and  laudare.  E.  G.  R. 

Butler  Posse.ssions  in  Wiltshire,  Bedfordshire, 
and  Essex.  —  In  13  Hen.  IV.  Sir  William  Butler, 
on  his  son's  marriage  with  his  wife  Isabella, 
settled  a  moiety  of  East  and  West  Grafton  and 
Woolton,  in  Wiltshire ;  a  moiety  of  the  manor  of 
Stoppesley  (near  Luton),  called  Halynges,  in 
Bedfordshire ;  a  moiety  of  the  manor  of  Chalk- 
well  in  Essex  ;  and  a  messuage  called  Houghton's, 
and  one  hundred  acres  of  land,  and  twenty  acres 
of  pasture,  with  the  appurtenances,  in  Berdfield 
in  the  same  county.  These  possessions  occur  in 
family  deeds  of  the  Butlers  in  9th,  19th,  and  31st 
Hen.  VI.,  20  Rdw.  IV.,  and  14  Hen.  VIL  All  of 
them,  except  perhaps  Stoppesley,  appear  to  have 

been  originally  a  portion  of  the  possessions  of  the 
great  family  of  Clare  ;  and  the  IButlers,  who  held 
them  as  mesne  lords,  probably  acquired  them  by 
the  marriage  of  some  co-heiress.  Any  of  your 
readers  acquainted  with  county  history  will  confer 
a  favour  by  stating  how  and  when  the  Butlers 
acquired  the  above  properties.  B. 

Cor.sican  Brothers  :  Nicholas  and  Andrew  Tre- 
maine.  —  In  the  Church  of  Lamerton,  near  Tavi- 
stock, are  the  effigies  of  Nicholas  and  Andrew 
Tremaine,  twin  brothers,  born  in  that  parish,  of 
whom  it  is  related  that  not  only  were  they  so 
alike  in  person  that  their  familiar  acquaintances 
could  not  always  distinguish  them  apart,  but  that 
an  extraordinary  sympathy  existed  between  them, 
for  even  when  at  a  distance  from  each  other  they 
performed  the  same  functions,  had  the  same  appe- 
tites and  desires,  and  suffered  the  same  pains  and 
anxieties  at  the  same  time.  They  were  killed  to- 
gether at  Newhaven  in  1663.* 

Can  any  of  your  correspondents  authenticate 
these,  or  furnish  any  further  particulars  relating 
to  these  individuals  ?  Under  what  circumstances 
did  they  die  ?  R.  W.  Hackwood. 

Reginald  Bligh,  of  Queen's  College,  Cambridge 
(B.A.  1779),  was  an  unsuccessful  candidate  fi»  a 
Fellowship  in  that  College,  and  published  a 
pamphlet  on  the  subject.  Information  is  re- 
quested as  to  his  subsequent  career. 

C.  H.  &  Thompson  Cooper. 


Rev.  Charles  Hotham,  originally  of  Christ's 
College,  Cambridge,  and  afterwards  Fellow  of 
Peterhouse,  published  various  works  between 
1648  and  1655.  We  shall  be  glad  of  further  par- 
ticulars respecting  him,  especially  the  date  of  his 
death,  and  the  place  of  his  sepulture. 

C.  H.  &  Thompson  Cooper. 


Thomas  Hood,  M.D.,  sometime  Fellow  of  Tri- 
nity College  in  Cambridge,  and  afterwards  teacher 
of  the  mathematics  in  London,  published  various 
works  in  and  previously  to  1598.  Is  the  date  of 
his  death  known  ?  C.  H.  &  Thompson  Cooper. 

Lawn  Billiards. — In  my  young  days,  when  this 
game  was  introduced,  it  was  called  Troco.  To 
what  country  does  this  name  belong  ?  Not  to 
Morocco,  where  the  game  is  played,  with  some 
deviation  in  the  form  of  the  stick  or  cue. 

F.  C.  B. 
. ,« 

[*  These  twins  are  noticed  in  our  1''  S.  xi.  84.,  but  the 
date  of  their  deaths  is  there  given  as  in  15G2.  To  avoid 
recapitulations,  we  would  recommend  our  correspondents 
to  consult  the  General  Index  to  our  First  Series  previously 
to  forwarding  their  communications.] 

2«<>  S.  N"  27.,  July  5.  '56.] 



Quotation.  —  Where  are  the  following  lines  to 
be  found  ? 

"  Sleep,  thou  hast  oft  been  called  the  friend  of  woe, 
But  'tis  the  happy  who  have  called  thee  so." 

The  Gipsies. — Can  you,  or  any  of  your  readers, 
furnish  me  with  any  authorities  on  gipsy  manners 
and  customs  besides  Grellman,  throuj^h  Raper's 
translation,  Marsden  (for  the  language),  and 
Iloyland  ?  I  am  pretty  well  off  for  historical 
accounts  of  these  people,  but  what  I  desire  is  in- 
formation concerning  their  rites  and  ceremonies. 

Wm.  a.  Burkett. 

Tale  wanted.  —  Can  any  of  your  correspondents 
tell  me  in  what  tale  a  character  is  introduced  who 
had  been  branded  for  some  crime  ?  He  moves  in 
respectable  society,  and  is  noted  only  for  a  like- 
ness to  the  criminal.  When  suspicions  are  at 
length  aroused,  he  affects  to  consider  it  beneath 
him  to  do  anything  to  remove  them.  The  scene 
is,  I  think,  laid  in  Germany.  a.  /3. 

Lord  Charles  Paulett.  —  Sir  John  Huband, 
Bart.,  of  Ipsley,  married  Jane,  dau.  of  Lord 
Charles  Paulett,  of  Dowlas,  Hants,  and  died  in 
IZIO.  Can  you  tell  me,  1.  Who  was  the  father 
of  this  Lord  Charles  Paulett  ?  2.  ^Vho  was  the 
wife  by  whom  he  had  this  daughter  Jane  ? 

Sir  John  Huband  was  the  first  baronet  of  that 

family,  and  the   record   of  his  marriage  may  be 

found  in  Burke's  Landed  Gentry,  under  the  head 

of  "  Huband  of  Ipsley."  G.  W. 

New  York. 

Edinburgh  Plays.  —  Is  anything  known  re- 
garding the  authors  of  the  following  plays,  per- 
formed at  Edinburgh  ?  1.  Lawyers  and  their 
Clients,  or  Love's  Suitors,  a  comic  sketch  in  three 
acts.  This  comedy  (which  was  said  to  be  the  first 
dramatic  attempt  of  a  gentleman  of  Edinburgh) 
was  performed  several  times  in  the  early  part  of 
1815.  2.  The  Stepmother,  or  Frate?-nal  Love,  a 
new  tragedy,  written  by  a  gentleman  of  Edin- 
burgh ;  acted  at  Edinburgh  in  January,  1815. 
S.  The  Wild  Lndian  Girl,  a  comedy,  acted  at 
Edinburgh,  1815.  The  part  of  Zelie  In  this  co- 
medy   was    performed     by    Mrs.    H.    Siddons. 

4.  Scotch  Marriage  Laws,  or  the  Deacon  and  Her 
Deputy,  a  new  farce,  for  the  benefit  of  Mr.  Jones, 
announced  for  performance  on  April  26,  1823: 
said  to  be  written  by  an  inhabitant  of  Edinburgh. 

5.  Love's  Machinations,  a  new  melodrama,  by  a 
gentleman  of  Edinburgh,  acted  at  the  Caledonian 
Theatre,  Feb.  14,  1825.  6.  The  Phrenologist,  a 
comic  drama,  written  by  a  literary  character  of 
Edinburgh,  acted  in  1825.  7.  The  Mason's 
Daughter,  a  masonic  interlude,  by  a  Brother  of  fhe 
Craft,  announced  for  performance  at  the  Cale- 
donian Theatre,  May,  1825,     8.  The  Recluse,  or 

Elshie  of  the  Moor,  a  melodrama  in  two  acts,  by 
a  gentleman  of  Edinburgh,  to  be  performed  for 
the  benefit  of  Mr.  Denham,  1825.  9.  The  Or- 
phan Boy,  or  the  Bridge  of  the  Alps,  announced 
for  performance  in  December,  1825  :  said  to  be 
written  by  a  gentleman  of  Edinburgh.  R.  J. 

"  Present  for  an  Apprentice.'^  —  Is  there  any 
evidence  as  to  the  author  of  A  Present  for  an 
Apprentice,  or  a  sure  Guide  to  gain  both  Esteem 
and  an  Estate,  by  a  late  Lord  Mayor  of  London. 

The  copy  before  me  is  called  the  Second  Edi- 
tion, with  a  great  variety  of  improvements.  Taken 
from  a  "  correct  copy  found  among  the  author's 
papers  since  the  publication  of  the  first."  London, 
1740,  8vo.  J.  M.  (2.) 

"  The  Peers,  a  Satire."  —  I  have  a  poem  of  no 
great  value  entitled  The  Peers,  a  Satire,  by  Hum- 
phrey Hedghog,  Junior,  London,  no  date,  but  I 
think  from  the  matter  about  1816.  The  names 
are  never  fully  printed,  and  the  notes  are  rather 
copious  than  explanatory.  Perhaps  some  of  your 
readers  may  assist  me  to  the  meaning  of  the  blanks 
in  the  following  passage,  and  say  whence  is  taken 
the  strange  Latin  of  which  it  is  an  imitation  : 

"  Elate  to  soar  above  a  silent  vote 
Upsprings  the  D — e  to  speak  what  H —  wrote, 
But  horrors  unexpected  check  his  speed. 
He  fumbles  at  his  hat,  but  cannot  read. 
On  E — 's  brows  hang  violence  and  fear. 
In  G — y's  cold  ej-e  he  reads  a  polished  sneer; 
His  garden  nymphs  in  silence  mourn  his  state. 
And  caperous  [sic]  L —  dares  not  strive  with  fate. 
A  panic  terror  o'er  his  senses  comes. 
Loosens  his  knees  and  sets  his  twitching  thumbs, 
He  sinks  into  his  place,  then  quits  the  peers, 
And  swells  the  gutter  with  spontaneous  tears." 

A  note  refers  to  the  following  quotation,  but 
does  not  say  whence  It  is  taken  : 

"  Non  Boream  immemorem  reliquit  Nymphse, 
Sed  ipsi  nullus  auxiliatus  est.    Amor  autem  non 

coercuit.  fata. 
Undique  autem  adcumulati  male  obvio  fluctus  im- 

Impulsus  ferebatur,  pedum  autem  ei  defecit  vigor, 
Et  vis  fuit  immobilis  inquietarum  manuum,       . 
Multa   autem  spontanea    effusio    aquas    fluebat    in 


I  shall  be  obliged  by  reference  to  the  original 
of  this  strange  Latin,  which  cannot  be  verse, 
though  printed  like  it.  R.  H.  Seed. 

Lrish  Church,  anno  1695. — A  gentleman  high 
in  office  in  Ireland,  writing  from  Dublin  in  April 
of  the  above  year,  to  Burnet,  Bishop  of  Salisbury, 
makes  use  of  the  following  language,  which  the 
context  no  way  throws  light  on : 

"  Since  of  mj'  knowlege  a  resident  clergy  is  not  to  be 
brought  about  in  this  place,  for  y"  next  3  yeares  to  com", 
I  thought  I  might  according  to  y"  custom  of  y«  country 
take  (but  w*  y'^  leave)  a  temporary  curatt  for  my  one 
Son,  till  yee  had  persuaded  those  for  y''  many  Sons,  to 



[2nd  S.  No  27.,  July  5.  '66. 

become  perpetual),  y/'^^  I  feare  is  not  to  be  hoped  for  in  y^ 
days  nor  mine ;  yet  since  }•"■  Lpps.  are  so  afraid  of  an  ill 
precedent,  I  would  there  were  more  of  y''  mind,  for  tho' 
I  might  not  as  now  find  my  Convenience  in  such  severity, 
yet  my  safety  I  should  bothe  in  Church  and  State." 

Can  any  reader  of  "  N.  &  Q."  say  whether  at 
the  time  in  question  there  was  any  restriction  on 
incumbents  in  Ireland  employing  tempora7-y  cu- 
rates ?  One  would  think  from  the  foregoing,  that 
all  curates  engaged  were  to  be  retained  for  a 
term,  or  for  the  duration  of  the  incumbency. 

Where  can  a  list  of  Irish  incumbents,  anno  1695, 
be  seen  ?  If  this  should  meet  the  eye  of  Mb. 
D'Alton,  he  no  doubt  could  and  would  assist  me. 

L.  M. 

P.S. — I  should  also  be  glad  to  be  informed 
where  I  could  meet  with  the  best  account  of  the 
career  of  the  Lords  Justices  of  Ireland  1693  to 
1695  ? 

English  Translation  of  Aristotle^ s  "  Organon." — 
Will  some  of  your  correspondents  refer  me  to  a 
good  English  translation  of  the  prior  posterior 
Analytics  of  the  Stagirite  ?  The  more  speedy  the 
reply,  the  more  welcome. 

C.  Mansfield  Ingleby. 

Releat.  —  What  is  the  derivation  of  this  word, 
which  I  heard  at  Walton-on-the-Naze  used  thus  : 
"  When  you  come  to  the  three  releats"  &c.,  a 
spot  where  three  roads  meet  ?  F.  C.  B. 

Temple  the  Regicide.  —  By  the  act  of  the  Com- 
mons of  England  for  the  trying  and  judging  of 
Charles  Stuart,  King  of  England,  as  set  out  in 
the  State  Trials,  I  find,  named  amongst  the  com- 
missioners, three  of  the  name  of  Temple,  viz.  Sir 
Peter  Temple,  Knight  Baronet,  James  Temple 
and  Peter  Temple,  Esquires.  Sir  Peter  Temple 
was  no  doubt  the  second  baronet  of  that  name, 
the  eldest  son  of  Sir  Thomas  Temple,  created  in 
1611,  the  progenitor  of  the  Buckingham  family. 
Sir  Peter  seems  to  have  shrunk  from  sitting  under 
this  commission,  for  I  do  not  find  bis  name 
amongst  those  who  attended  at  the  various  meet- 
ings which  took  place  during  the  trial ;  but  the 
other  two,  James  and  Peter  Temple,  seem  to  have 
been  men  of  different  pith,  and  not  to  have  been 
ashamed  or  afraid  of  acting  under  a  commission 
which  declared  its  bold  purpose,  "  To  the  end  no 
chief  officer  or  magistrate  whatsoever  may  here- 
after presume  traiterously  or  maliciously  to 
imagine  or  contrive  the  enslaving  or  destroying  of 
the  English  Nation,  and  to  expect  impunity  for  so 
doing ;  "  for  I  find  their  two  names  recorded  at 
nearly  every  meeting  of  the  commissioners,  and 
also  signed  to  the  death  warrant.  Can  I  be  in- 
formed through  your  columns  of  what  branch  of 
the  Temple  family  these  bold  patriots  were  ? 
Were  they  related  to  Sir  Peter  the  timid,  and 
bow  ?    Wh^t  became  of  them  at  the  Restoration  ? 

and  whether  any  of  their  descendants  can  still  be 
traced?  and  where  I  should  be  likely  to  obtain 
information  ?  Sir  Thomas,  the  first  baronet,  is 
said  to  have  had  thirteen  children,  but  he  would 
scarcely  have  two  sons  named  Peter  ? 

R.  G.  Temple. 
The  Lache,  Chester. 

Monti's  '■'■Death  of  Basseville."  —  In  Forsyth's 
Remarks  on  Antiquities,  Ai'ts,  and  Letters,  during 
an  Excursion  in  Italy,  it  is  said,  with  relation  to 
Vincenzo  Monti,  author  of  several  tragedies,  that 
"  his  Death  of  Basseville  made  him  a  public  man." 
Can  you  afford  any  information  respecting  the 
subject  of  the  latter  work,  or  otherwise  illustra- 
tive of  the  passage  quoted  from  Forsyth.       T.  H. 

[Hugo  Basseville,  the  hero  of  Monti's  most  celebrated 
performance,  was  born  at  Abbeville  about  1755.  In  com- 
pliance with  the  paternal  wish  he  entered  on  the  study 
of  theology,  but  from  the  natural  bent  of  his  own  mind 
devoted  himself  to  literary  pursuits,  and  repaired  to 
Paris  in  quest  of  fame  and  fortune.  Visiting  Berlin  he 
became  acquainted  with  the  elder  Mirabeau,  which  gave 
rise  to  an  intimate  friendship  with  that  celebrated  indi- 
vidual. From  Berlin  he  proceeded  to  Holland,  where  he 
wrote  several  works,  tainted  with  that  impious  licence 
of  profane  wit  exercised  by  Voltaire  with  such  a  deso- 
lating and  filial  effect.  At  the  commencement  of  the 
Revokition  Basseville  adhered  with  commendable  fidelity 
to  the  ro3'al  cause,  and  conducted  a  daily  journal,  the 
Mercure  National,  which  had  for  its  motto,  "  II  faut  un 
Eoi  aux  Fran9ais."  At  this  time  none  of  his  friends  sus- 
pected any  inclination  in  him  towards  that  excess  of 
democratic  fanaticism  to  which,  whether  impelled  by 
poverty,  or  by  a  guilty  ambition,  he  presently  abandoned 
himself.  In  1792  he  was  nominated  Secretary  of  Lega- 
tion at  the  Court  of  Naples.  In  the  following  year  a  few 
of  his  countrj'men,  more  reckless  than  himself,  were  too 
successful  in  urging  him  to  the  rash  experiment  of  which 
his  life  was  the  forfeit.  This  event  occurred  on  Jan.  14, 
1793,  when  it  appears  that,  with  a  view  of  obtaining  a 
demonstration  of  the  public  feeling,  Basseville  appeared 
in  the  streets  of  Rome  wearing  the  badge  of  revolutionary 
principles,  the  tricolored  cockade.  This  dangerous  step 
excited  the  populace  to  a  pitch  of  phrenzy,  and  the  envoy 
was  stabbed  in  the  stomach  by  a  person  of  the  lowest 
class.  How  bitterly  he  repented  his  folly  may  be  inferred 
from  the  words  that  escaped  his  lips  almost  with  his 
latest  breath,  "Je  meurs  la  victime  d'un  fou."  The 
poem,  The  Death  of  Basseville,  is  the  production  of  Monti 
on  which  his  fame  chiefly  rests  in  his  own  country,  where 
it  is  familiarly  styled  the  Bassevilliad,  and  often  cited  as 
the  masterpiece  of  the  author,  and  of  later  Italian  poetry. 
The  poem  had  an  astonishing  success ;  eighteen  editions 
of  it  appeared  in  the  course  of  six  months.  Ajx  English 
translation  was  published  anonymously  in  1845,  but  at- 
tributed to  Adam  Lodge,  Esq.,  M.A.,  which  contains  a 
biographical  sketch  of  Hugo  Basseville,  and  some  charac- 
teristic notices  of  the  poetical  genius  of  Monti.] 

Palavacini.  —  There  are  some  well-known  lines 
about  Baron  Palavacini,  but  they  have  escaped 
my  memory,  and  as  I  do  not  know  where  to  find 
them,  I  shall  feel  obliged  if  any  of  your  readers 

2nd  s.  N"  27.,  July  6.  '56.1 



will  tell  me  in  what  book  I  can  see  a  copy  of 

I  shall  be  glad  also  of  any  particulars  about 
Baron  Palavacini  and  his  descendants.  .No  me- 
morial of  them  remains  at  Babraham,  near  Cam- 
bridge, where  he  once  lived,  nor  is  there  any 
monument  to  the  family  in  the  church. 

Henry  Kensington. 

[Sir  Horatio  Palavacini,  a  Genoese,  was  one  of  the  col- 
lectors of  the  Pope's  dues  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Mary, 
which,  having  sacrilegiously  pocketed  in  the  time  of  Queen 
Elizabeth,  enabled  him  to  purchase  two  estates,  one  at 
IJabrahani  (formerly  spelt  Baberham),  and  the  other  at 
Shelford,  which  came  to  his  two  sons,  who  were  knighted 
by  Islizabeth  and  James  I.  (Morant's  Essex,  i.  8.  26.) 
Sir  Horatio  was  naturalised  by  patent  in  1586,  and  is 
mentioned  in  the  tirst  edition  of  Walpole's  Anecdotes  of 
Painting,  vol.  i.  p.  IGO.,  as  an  "arras-painter;"  in  the 
second  edition  of  tiiat  work  is  the  following  epitaph, 
quoted  from  a  MS.  of  Sir  John  Crew  of  Utliington : 

"  Here  lies  Horatio  Palavazene, 

Who  robb'd  the  Pope  to  lend  the  Queene. 

He  was  a  thief.     A  thief !     Thou  lyest ; 

For  wide?  he  robb'd  but  Antichrist. 

Him  Death  wyth  besorae  swept  from  Babram, 

Into  the  bosom  of  oulde  Abraham. 

But  then  came  Hercules  with  his  elub. 

And  struck  him  down  to  Beelzebub." 
Sir  Horatio  died  July  G,  IGOO,  and  on  July  7,  1601,  his 
widow  married  Sir  Oliver  Cromwell,  the  Protector's  uncle. 
(See  Noble's  3femoirs  of  the  Cromwells,  vol.  ii.  p.  178.,  and 
Burke's  Landed  Gentry,  art.  Cromwell.)  Palavacini  was 
one  of  the  commanders  against  the  Spanish  Armada  in 
1588,  and  his  portrait  is  preserved  amongst  those  heroes 
in  the  borders  of  the  tapestry  in  the  House  of  Lords,  en- 
graved by  Pine.  He  was  also  employed  by  Queen  Eliza- 
beth in  his  negotiations  with  the  German  princes.  Consult 
Jyvsons's  Cambridgeshire,  vol.  ii.  p.  82.,  and  Gough's  Cam- 
den, yo\.  ii.  p.  139.] 

"  Tantnm  Ergo."  —  During  the  present  month 
(June,  1856)  at  a  dedication  of  a  Roman  Catholic 
chapel  in  Rathmines,  near  Dublin,  the  following 
psalms  were  chaunted  by  the  choir  ;  "  Miserere  " ' 
(51st,  56th,  or  57th),  "Fundamentaejus  "  (87th), 
"  Levavi  oculos  "  (120th),  "Lsetatus  sum" 
(122nd),  and  "  Tantum  ergo."  Is  "  Tantum  ergo," 
a  psalm,  and  if  not,  where  shall  I  find  these  words 
in  the  Latin  version  of  the  sacred  Scriptures  ? 

EiN  Fbagek. 

[We  take  this  to  be  the  hymn  sung  at  the  celebration 
of  the  Sacrament : 

"  Tantum  ergo  Sacramentum 
Veneremur  cernui,"  &c. 
See  The  Ordinary  of  the  Holy  Mass.'} 

Harp  in  the  Arms  of  Ireland  (2"^  S.  i.  480.)  — 
Will  your  correspondent  say  where  the  observa- 
tions of  the  Rev.  Richard  Butler  of  Trim  are  to 
be  found  ?  (See  Ansiver  to  this  Query ^  P'  S.  xii. 
29.)  G. 

[The  Kev.  R.  Butler's  observations  will  be  found  in  the 
Numismatic  Journal,  vol.  ii.  p.  70.  See  also  Dr.  Aquilla 
Smith's  paper,  "  On  the  Irish  Coins  of  Edward  the 
Fourth,"  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy, 
Yol.  xix„  Dublin,  1843.]  . 


(2"*  S.  i.  468.) 

The  salmon  holding  a  gold  ring  in  its  mouth, 
which  forms  a  conspicuous  figure  in  the  armorial 
bearings  of  the  Church  of  Glasgow,  is  a  comme- 
moration of  an  incident  related  in  Jocelin's  Life 
of  St.  Kentigern,  cap.  xxxvi.  p.  273.,  ap.  Vitas 
antiquas  SS.  Scoto-Britannice,  Lond.  1789,  pub- 
lished by  Pinkerton.  This  saint  is  commonly 
called  St.  Mungo. 

The  recovery  of  a  lost  ring,  or  other  small  ob- 
ject, in  this  manner  is  attested  by  many  ancient, 
and  even  modern  storie# —  by  history,  by  legends, 
by  observation,  and  perhaps  I  might  add  without 
any  irreverence,  by  the  account  of  the  miiacu- 
lously  found  tribute  money  recorded  by  St.  Mat- 
thew and  by  St.  Mark.  The  classical  reader  will 
at  once  remember  what  Herodotus  has  related  of 
the  ring  of  Polycrates.  The  ancient  Indian  drama 
of  Sacontala  has  a  similar  incident. 

In  the  Life  of  St.  Kenny,  Abbot  of  Aghaboe, 
who  lived  in  the  same  age  with  Sr.  Kentigern, 
there  is  a  similar  narrative.  St.  Kenny  is  related 
to  have  fettered  the  feet  of  one  of  his  disciples 
("  alligavit  pedes  ejus  compede  ne  vagus  esset,  et 
clavem  compedis  ejus,  S.  Cainnicus  projecit  in 
mare  "),  and  then  to  have  thrown  the  key  of  the 
fetter  into  the  sea,  between  Ireland  and  Britain. 
The  legend  then  proceeds  to  tell  how  the  disciple 
remained  thus  fettered  for  seven  years,  and  that 
then  St.  Kenny,  knowing  what  was  to  happen, 
ordered  him  to  depart  from  Wales,  and  to  return 
to  Ireland,  and  there  to  make  his  abode  in  what- 
ever place  he  should  find  the  key  of  his  fetter. 
He  accordingly  went  his  way,  and  having  arrived 
in  Leinster,  and  having  met  some  fishermen  on 
the  banks  of  the  LifFey,  he  obtained  from  them  a 
large  fish,  within  which  he  found  the  key  of  his 
fetter.  This  I  quote  from  the  privately  printed 
Vita  S.  Cainnici,  Dublin,  1851,  cap.  xv.  The 
editor  in  a  note  has  adduced  various  incidents  of 
the  same  kind  from  several  sources.  Among  them 
are  those  of  the  ring  of  Polycrates ;  the  miracle  of 
the  tribute  money ;  Sacontala's  ring  ;  the  legend 
of  St.  Kentigern  ;  the  legend  of  St.  Nennidh,  re- 
lated by  Animchadh,  one  of  the  biographers  of 
St. Bridget  (Colg.  Tricis,p.  559.)  ;  and  the  similar 
story  of  St.  Maughold,  Bishop  of  Man,  which  is 
told  by  Jocelin  in  the  Life  of  St.  Patrick,  cap. 
clii.  (Colg.  Tr.,  p.  98.)  But  perhaps  more  in- 
teresting are  the  facts  which  are  enumerated  from 
modern  history,  such  as  the  loss  and  recovery  of 
Sir  Francis  Anderson's  ring,  related  by  Brand  in 
his  History  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  a  valuable 
topographical  work,  which  the  editor  of  the  Life 
of  St.  Kenny  complains  that  he  could  not  find  in 
any  of  the  libraries  of  Dublin.    He  adds  severAl 



[2'"i  S.  Ko  27.,  JttLY  5.  ♦56. 

other  well-authenticated  recent  cases,  among  which 
is  one  of  a  small  pewter  flask,  which  had  been 
dropped  accidentally  overboard  on  the  south-west 
coast  of  Ireland,  and  having  been  subsequently 
recovered  in  the  stomach  of  a  fish,  was  displayed 
nt  a  meeting  of  the  Dublin  Natural  History  So- 
ciety, and  subsequently  presented  to  an  inspector 
of  fisheries  well  known  for  his  attention  to  ichthy- 
ological  studies.  I  should  give  the  entire  of  the 
annotation,  which  I  could  readily  augment  by 
some  more  recent  cases,  only  that  the  editor  has 
announced  his  intention  to  reprint  the  book  for 
publication  in  a  series  of  similar  hitherto  unpub- 
lished legends. 

Besides  this  Dublin  edition  of  the  Vita  S.  Cain- 
nici,  there  is  another,  but  also  privately  printed, 
the  cost  of  which  was  entirely  defrayed  by  the 
late  Marquis  of  Ormonr),  who  munificently  pre- 
sented the  copies  to  the  Kilkenny  Archaeological 
Society.  Artebus. 


The  fish  and  the  ring  in  these  arms  refer  to  an 
old  legend  in  connection  with  St.  Mungo,  or 
Kentigern,  the  founder  of  the  see.  A  Imly  lost 
her  ring  while  crossing  the  Clyde,  and  her  hus- 
band thinking  she  had  bestowed  it  upon  some 
favoured  lover,  became  very  jealous  and  angry. 
In  this  dilemma  she  sought  the  advice  of  St. 
Kentigern,  who,  after  fervent  devotions,  asked 
one  who  was  fishing  to  bring  him  the  first  fish 
he  caught ;  this  was  done,  and  in  the  mouth  of  the 
fish  was  found  the  lady's  lost  ring,  which  being 
restored  to  her  husband,  he  was  convinced  of  the 
injustice  of  his  suspicions.  This  device  appears 
on  the  seal  of  Bishop  Wishart,  of  Glasgow,  as 
early  as  the  reign  of  Edward  II. 

This  legend  of  the  fish  and  the  ring,  like  many 
others,  is  to  be  found  in  most  countries  :  it  is  re- 
lated in  the  pages  of  Herodotus  and  Pliny,  and 
occurs  in  the  Koran  ;  one  instance  of  it  is  re- 
corded at  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  and  another 
carved  on  a  monument  in  Stepney  Church. 
Moule's  beautiful  and  interesting  volume  on  the 
Heraldry  of  Fish  notices  the  subject  at  length. 

NoRRis  Deck. 


A  tradition  given  by  Archbishop  Spottiswoode 
professes  to  explain  the  fish  and  the  ring  in  these 
arms  : 

"  In  the  daj's  of  St.  Kentigern,  a  ladj'  having  lost  her 
wedding-ring,  it  stirred  up  her  husband's  jealousv,  to 
allay  which  she  applied  to  St.  Kentigern,  imploring  his 
help  for  the  safety  of  her  honour.  Not  long  after,  as  St. 
Kentigern  walked  by  the  river,  he  desired  a  person  that 
was  fishing  to  bring  him  the  first  fish  he  could  catch, 
which  was  accordingly  done,  and  from  its  mouth  was 
taken  tlie  lady's  ring,  which  he  immediately  sent  to  her 
to  remove  her  husband's  suspicion." 

In  confirmation  of  this  Bishop  Wishart's  official 
seal,  as  seen  from  the  chartulary  of  Glasgow,  in 
1279,  has  been  noticed.  One  compartment  showed 
the  bishop  seated,  while  before  him  knelt  a  person 
holding  a  fish  with  a  ring  in  its  mouth.  In  the 
middle  division  stood  the  king  with  a  drawn  sword 
in  his  right  hand,  and  on  his  left  the  queen 
crowned,  and  having  in  her  right  hand  a  ring.  The 
bishop  in  his  robes  knelt  praying,  in  the  lower 
compartment.  The  legend  circumscribed  was 
"  Rex  furit,  haec  plorat,  patet  aurum  dum  sacer 

If  the  Glaswegians  of  a  former  day  had  been 
fiXmous  for  their  imaginative  faculties,  the  follow- 
ing lines  by  Dr.  Main,  once  professor  of  the 
theory  and  practice  of  physic  in  our  Universitj', 
might  be  taken  as  expressive  of  the  thoughts 
which  led  them  to  fix  on  the  present  armorial 
bearings  : 

"  Salmo  maris,  terrieque  arbor,  avis  aeris,  urbi, 
Promittunt,  quicquid  trina  elementa  ferunt: 

Et  campana,  frequens  celebret  quod  numinis  aras  [ 
Urbs,  superesse  Polo  non  peritura  docet : 

Neve  qnis  dubitet  sociari  aeterna  caducis, 
Annulis  id  pignus  conjugiale  notat." 

"  As  s3'mboled  here,  the  sea,  the  earth,  the  air, 
Promise  unto  our  town  whate'er  thej'  bear. 
To  worship  at  the  shrine  the  bell  doth  call, 
Our  queenly  town,  thus  guarded  shall  ne'er  fall. 
Let  no  one  doubt  that  thus  are  linked  to  heaven 
The  things  of  earth  :  the  union  pledge  is  given." 

The  derivation  most  generally  accepted  of  the 
word  Glasgow  is  the  Gaelic  clais-ghu,  a  black  or 
dark  ravine  ;  this  name  being  given,  it  is  supposed, 
originally  to  a  glen,  on  a  little  stream  east  of  the 
cathedral,  in  which  St.  Mungo  set  up  his  abode. 
Another  etymology  is  Eaglais-dhu,  the  black 
church,  i.e.  church  of  Blackfriars;  while  Glas's 
dhii,  grey  and  black,  points  to  a  period  also  of 
monkish  rule.  Universitatis  alumnus. 


I  have  a  copper  coin  or  penny-token  with  these 
arms  on  one  side,  and  the  motto  "Let  Glasgow 
Flourish  "  around  it.  On  the  other  side  a  river- 
god,  with  "Clyde"  inscribed  on  his  urn,  from  which 
a  stream  issues,  and  "Nunquam  arescere  mdccxci" 
as  motto ;  but  the  remarkable  point  is  that  around 
the  edge,  instead  of  milling,  are  the  words  "Cam- 
bridge, Bedford,  and  Huntingdon  x.x.x." 

How  can  the  occurrence  of  these  words  on  a 
Glasgow  token  be  explained  ?  I  took  the  coin  as 
change  in  a  village  shop  in  Norfolk.  E.  G.  R. 


(2""  S.  i.  470.) 
I  have  long  intended  to  point  out  that  in  a  case 
of  distress  for  want  of  musical  type,  it  is  perfectly 

2nds,  N0  27.,  July5. '56.] 



possible  to  contrive  a  system  by  which  a  composi- 
tor who  is  used  to  mathematical  printing  may  set 
up  any  quantity  of  music  in  common  letter.  Has 
no  such  thing  ever  been  proposed  ?  At  the  end 
of  this  Note  will  be  found  an  opening  movement 
which  the  musician  will  easily  recognise,  taken 

from  the  first  book  of  arrangements  for  the  pij^no 
forte  that  came  to  hand. 

Let  the  notes  be  represented  by  their  letters,  as 
follows,  the  equivalent  notes  of  treble  and  bass 
beinjj  written  under  one  another  ; 

Treble  GABCDEFoABCDEFgabcdefpaicde/ 

Bass      GABCDEFoABODEFgabcde   {gabcdef. 

Here  G  in  the  treble  means  the  G  below  the 
lines,  the  lowest  note  of  the  violin  ;  equivalent  to 
g  in  the  buss,  the  highest  space  between  the  lines. 

Let  °  ' '' '",  written  below  the  note-letter,  indi- 
cate crotchet,  quaver,  semiquaver,  and  demi-semi- 
quaver  :  but  the  crotchet  sign,  when  standing 
alone,  may  be  omitted.  Thus,  Ao  or  A  is  a 
crotchet ;  A^  a  quaver,  A^^  a  semiquaver,  &c.  : 
Ao  /  //  is  a  note  as  long  as  a  crotchet,  quaver,  and 
semiquaver  put  together,  represented  in  common 
music  by  a  crotchet  followed  by  two  dots.  Let  a 
minim  be  denoted  by  two  letters  written  close  to- 
gether, a  semibreve  by  four.    Thus  GG  GG  would 


represent  two  minims  sounded  consecutively.  Also 
Goo  and  G — G  might  be  used  to  denote  a  minim, 
when  convenient. 

Let  a  rest  be  denoted  by  I,  or  i,  or  i,  as  con- 
venient, with  the  proper  mark  of  time  suffixed. 

Let  the  sharp,  flat,  and  natural  be  denoted  by 
X,  b,  and  n  prefixed  at  the  top :  thus,  ^C  is  C  sharp. 
The  double  sharp  may  be  denoted  by  xx,  &c. 

Let  slurred  notes  be  denoted  by  a  line  drawn 
over  them,  and  let  the  staccato  sign  be  a  dot  above 
or  below  the  letter. 

Let  a  pause  be  represented  by  a  circumflex  over 
the  note. 





^F     C 


D  F 


h,  T 


E^  „ 

/,/  ^111 


^,1  ^11  '''// 

ni)    ^D 


II       A    I   I 

C     F 


g;  I- 


G   C  B 

C,  „ 

^,,  B^^^  C              B  D  D^ 

^//  "'//  c'/ 

BB        B 



F   c 



G,,  GG 


g      , 


^   ^          /^^ 


_                —         -^ 

3  6b 

—  6„ 




G                             v»j^   v»^    vj^  vr^ 



a  I  I 

*a    a 


G,    ^111 

G,„  GG 

c  c  d 

^1  II 

II,  •!///  ^    T 

,1.  giu  E 


e                  do, 


4  "b 


E,  ^,  „, 

''A    A 
g,.  go, 


1  G„,  GG 

?ii  ^11  '^,1 





c                    go,   g,g, 

g,     1 




E  a 



O  C 






C  B 

,  a,  g. 

P,               E                 g, 
D,               C,    ^-   '■ii   G, 

*^,/  g//  F,/  g//  a„  b,,  1 

G  G 





G  Ao 

,                 A 


F,  E, 

■'F,,  G„    F„  G„  A„  B,,  1 





s.             p 









Co,*c,  d,         f, 


9i  a, 

g,  F,         E           go  , 



c  E 

g    1  c 



C  Fo 

,                      F 




E^  D^     i     C           Eo  , 



a  'e 


iE    c 


T      T        Sll    *f 

1/  li  G„  -F 

S//  ^„  h„ 

c        c    a 

C,  I'    A  *F 


F^  „  ,/,  I>„, 


,  G^,  A„   B„ 


D,  „  ,„  B„, 





Attaeca  Sub. 


^/  // 

1,  g,„  go  , 


c,  I,  'ff" 



C/  „ 

//  ^1,1 




A,     ^FF 

»/  c,, 

/„  "e, 

,  g.  g,  g,  g, 

Various  minor  matters  might  be  supplied  :  but 
this  is  enough  to  show  the  practicability  of  giving, 
in  ordinary  type,  a  representation  from  which  a 
translation  into  common  musical  notation  might 
easily  be  made.  Should  any  of  your  musical 
readers  find  any  passages  which  they  think  cannot 
be  printed  in  this  way,  I  shall  be  obliged  by  their 
transmitting  them  to  you  in  ordinary  style. 

For  vocal  music  in  parts  I  feel  pretty  sure  that 
this  notation  would  do  to  sing  from  :  a  hundred 
glees  might  be  sold  for  sixpence,  words  and  all,  if 
the  demand  were  suflScient.  A.  De  Morgan. 


(2"'>  S.  i.  470.) 

1 .  Gatta  Melata.  —  Le  grand  Diet.  Geo.  et  Crit. 
(pub.  a  la  Haye,  1736),  par  La  Martiniere,  speak- 
ing of  Narni  (which  lies  seven  French  leagues 
south-west  of  Spoleto  and  fifteen  north-east  of 
Rome),  says  : 

"  Narni  (petite  ville  d'ltalie  dans  la  teiTe  des  Sabins, 
Province  de  I'F^tat  EccMsiastiq'ue,  siir  la  Riviere  de  Nera) 
qui  resista  a  toute  la  puissance  d'Annibal,  dans  le  tems 
qu'il  ravageoit  I'ltalie." 



[2nd  s.  No  27.,  July  5.  '56. 

Further : 

"Narni  n'est  pas  f&onde  senlement  en  noblesse,  elle 
I'est  encore  en  savans,  et  en  grand  capitaines.  Sana  comp- 
ter I'Empereur  Nerva,  elle  a  eu  il  n'y-a  pas  longtems, 
h  fameiix  Gattamelnta,  G6n6rdl  des  Armees  des  Venitiens, 
qui  les  conduisit  avec  tant  de  sagesse,  de  hravoure,  et  de  bnn- 
heur,  qu'apres  avoir  remporte  une  infinite  de  victoires,  ces 
svperbfs  RepulAiquains  bit  firent  elever  une  statug  de  bronze 
dans  PadouS,  cette  ville  cilebre  qu'il  avoit  prise,  et  unie  au 
Domaine  de  la  Repidilique.  Galeoto,  Maxime  Arcaiio, 
Michel  Ange  Arroito,  et  une  infinite  d'autres,  qui  ont  ho- 
nor^ la  r^publique*  des  Lettres  dans  les  16^  et  17^  si&les 
€toient  de  Narni."  References  are  given  to  Labal,  Voy. 
d'ltalie,  torn.  vii.  p.  8G.,  and  Topngrap.  des  Saints,  p.  334. ; 
but  see  also  Zedler,  Univ.  Lex.,  Leipz.  1740. 

2.  Serraglia.  —  Albert!  says : 

"  S^rail,  palais  qii'habitent  les  Empereurs  des  Turcs,  et 
la  partie  du  Palais  du  Grand  Seigneur,  nomm^  le  Harem, 
ou  les  femmes  sont  renfermees.  II  se  dit  encore  de  toutes 
les  femmes  qui  sont  dans  le  s^rail,  et  de  leur  suite.  Sera- 
glio abusivement,  une  maison,  ou  quelqu'un  tient  des 
femmes  de  plaisir — une  basse  cour,  oil  Von  enferme  desbetes 
farouches."~The  Diz.  della  Ling.  Ital,  Bolog.  1824.  (IVth 

"  Serraglio,  diciamo  ancora  al  Luogo  murato,  dove  si 
tengono  serrata  le  fiere,  e  gli  animali  venuti  da'  paesi 
Stranl.     Lat.,  vivarium  ;  Gr.,  fworpo^eioi'." 

The  Italians  have  evidently  manufactured  the 
word  seraglio  from  the  Turk.  ^\j^,  sardy,  the 

primary  signification  of  which  Ts  a  house,  hotel; 
2,  a  palace.  The  Pers.  has  tlie  same  word  for  a 
palace  or  inn.     It  also  occurs  in  the  Turk,  and 

P&ra.,  ^ji— :  (oVj>  karwdn- sardy,  caravansary,  a 

place  appointed  for  receiving  and  loading  cara- 
vans ;  a  kind  of  inn,  where  the  caravans  rest  at 
night,  being  a  large  square  building,  with  a  spacious 
court  in  the  middle.  The  primitive  signification, 
therefore,  of  sardy  is  an  oriental  inn,  which  is 
made  up  of  four  square  walls,  round  which  are 
the  rooms  for  travellers,  the  centre  forming  a 
courtyard,  and  the  sky  the  roof.  Or  it  may  be 
thus  :  1.  a  square  building  for  travellers,  an  inn  ; 
2.  a  palace  built  in  such  a  form ;  3.  that  part  of  a 
palace  where  the  females  are  kept;  4.  a  house 
where  women  are  shut  up  ;  5.  a  building  where 
beasts  are  caged  like  women  in  a  seraglio.  But, 
query,  may  not  serraglia,  serraglio,  be  from  ser- 
rdre,  to  shut  up,  hide,  conceal,  from  Lat.  serare, 
to  lock,  shut. 

3.  St.  Richard.  —  Chalmers  (Biog.  Diet.,  Lond. 
1816)  mentions  a  Richard  (called  sometimes  Ar- 
machanus  and  Fitz-Ralph),  Archbishop  of  Ar- 
magh in  the  fourteenth  century,  whose  opinions 
so  displeased  the  friars  that  they  procured  him  to 
be  cited  before  Pope  Innocent  VI.  at  Avignon. 
The  age  was  not  prepared  to  listen  to  him,  and 
the  Pope  decided  in  favour  of  the  friars.  He 
died  at  Avignon,  not  without  suspicion  of  poison, 
1360.     See  also  Fox's  Book  of  Ma7'tyrs. 

6.  The  Hoe.  —  The  derivation  given   is   pro- 

bably correct.  The  word  is  also  found  spelt 
hogh.  Richardson  derives  it  from  Anglo-Saxon 
heah,  and  gives  the  following : 

"  That  well  can  witnesse  yet  vnto  this  day 
The  westerne  hoyh. 

Spenser,  F.  Queens,  b.  11.  c.  10. 

"  All  doubtful  to  which  party  the  victory  would  go, 
Upon  that  lofty  place  at  Plymouth  called  the  Hoe 
Those  mighty  wrestlers  met." 

Draj'ton,  Poly-Olbion,  5.  1. 

R.  S.  Charnock. 

St.  Richard  (2"^  S.  i.  470.)  — ■  Richard  (de 
Wyclie)  was  born  at  Droitwich,  in  Worcester- 
shire. Having  pursued  a  course  of  studies  at 
Oxford,  Paris,  and  Bologna,  and  so  perfected  him- 
self in  the  canon  law,  he  was  appointed  by  Ed- 
mund, Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  his  chancellor, 
and  was  also  appointed  Chancellor  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Oxford.  In  1245,  he  was  elected  (by  the 
chapter)  Bishop  of  Chichester,  in  opposition  to  an 
unfit  nominee  of  Henry  III.  And  Richard's 
election  was  confirmed,  as  it  had  been  promoted, 
by  Pope  Innocent.  The  Bishop  died  in  1253,  at 
Dover,  in  his  fifty-seventh  year,  and  was  after- 
wards canonised  by  Pope  Urban  IV.,  a.d.  1261. 
Mr.  Boask  may  find  a  brief  account  of  "  Bishop 
Richard "  in  Parker's  Calendar  of  the  Anglican 
Church,  in  Brady's  Clavis  Calendaria,  in  Cosin's 
Notes  on  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  or  in  Mant, 
Wheatly,  or  any  other  annotator  on  the  English 
Calendar,  under  the  third  of  April,  on  which  day 
he  died.  J.  Sansom. 

St.  Richard  was  Bishop  of  Chichester,  and  died 
at  Dover,  April  3,  1253,  on  which  day  he  is  still 
commemorated  in  the  English  Calendar.  He  vras 
appointed  bishop  in  opposition  to  the  nominee  of 
Henry  III.,  and  it  was  only  by  the  interference  of 
the  pope  that  he  was  allowed,  after  two  years'  de- 
privation, to  take  possession  of  his  see,  which  he 
presided  over  more  than  five  years,  dying  at  the 
age  of  fifty-seven.  His  emblems,  in  reference  to 
various  legends  connected  with  him,  too  long  for 
insertion  here,  are  a  plough  and  a  chalice. 

NoBRis  Duck. 


There  is  an  account  of  a  S.'Richardus,  rex  apud 
Anglo- Saxones  in  Britannia,  to  be  found  in  torn.  ii. 
Febr.  p.  69.  of  the  Acta  Sanctorum  of  BolLindus. 
I  should  think  that  he  is  most  probably  the  Saint 
Richard  mentioned  by  your  correspondent  Mb. 
BOASE.*  'AAwus. 


[*  For  notices  of  St.  Richard  of  the  West  Saxons,  see 
our  1»' S.  iv.  475. ;  v.  418.] 

2nd  s.  No  27.,  July  6.  '56.] 



(2"''  S.  i.  181.) 

In  a  former  number  I  was  able  to  furnish  some 
particulars  relative  to  this  gentleman.  I  now 
propose  to  make  an  addition  to  my  previous  com- 

The  late  John  Ring,  Escpi,  surgeon,  in  London, 
was  an  excellent  scliolar  and  an  enthusiastic  ad- 
mirer of  Virgil.  Dissatisfied  with  the  previous  trans- 
lations, he  published  in  2  vols.,  8vo.,  London,  1820, 
a  mosaic  edition,  partly  original  and  partly  altered 
from  the  text  of  Dryden  and  Pitt.  This  having 
fallen  into  Mr.  Clapperton's  hands,  was  anxiously 
perused  and  greatly  admired  by  him;  so  much  so, 
that  he  was  induced  to  write  to  Mr.  Ring.  This 
led  to  a  correspondence,  in  the  course  of  which 
numerous  faulty  lines  were  pointed  out  and 
amended  by  Clapperton.  Ring  felt  much  grati- 
fied by  the  praise  and  assistance  of  his  correspon- 
dent, and  learning  that  his  circumstances  were 
far  from  opulent,  intimated  a  wish  to  recompense 
him  ;  this  the  poet  would  not  listen  to,  but  agreed 
to  accept  a  pprtrait  of  his  new  friend,  which  was 
sent  without  delay,  in  a  handsome  frame,  and  was 
duly  received  by  Mr.  Clapperton,  who  placed  the 
honoured  portrait  in  the  most  conspicuous  place 
in  his  apartment. 

Mr.  Ring  died  in  Dec,  1821,  an  event  which 
retarded  the  projected  new  edition.  Clapperton 
nevertheless  went  on  with  his  translations  and 
emendations,  and  in  1835  published,  by  subscrip. 
tion,  the  jiEiieid,  in  two  small  volumes,  12mo. 
There  were  copies,  few  in  number,  on  large  paper: 
these  are  now  very  scarce.  The  Georgics  were 
not  included  in  this  edition,  Mr.  Clapperton  being 
of  opinion  that  they  required  very  little  emenda- 
tion, and  in  truth  caring  nothing  about  them. 

I  had  forgotten  the  greater  part  of  the  above 
legend,  when  my  memory  was  refreshed  by  seeing 
poor  Clapperton's  highly  prized  portrait  of  Ring 
amongst  various  paintings  exposed  for  sale  by 
Mr.  Nisbet,  in  his  far-famed  sale  rooms  in  Edin- 
burgh. For  "  Auld  lang  syne,"  and  out  of  re- 
spect to  the  memory  of  Ring  and  Clapperton,  both 
of  whom  were  most  excellent  and  worthy  persons, 
I  became,  for  a  small  consideration,  the  purchaser. 
The  painting  is  an  excellent  one,  and  I  have  no 
doubt  is  very  like  Mr.  Ring.  It  is  not  improbable 
that  some  person  •  connected  with  the  deceased 
gentleman  can  tell  me  who  the  painter  was,  or  put 
me  in  the  way  of  obtaining  that  knowledge. 

J.  M.  (2.) 


Photographic  Portraits.  —  The  Art  of  Photography  is 
at  length  taking  its  place  beside  that  of  engraving  in  the 
publication  of  Portraits.  We  have  several  specimens 
now  before  us.    Dr.  Diamond  has  been  induced  to  issue 

some  of  his  Portraits  of  the  Men  of  the  Time ;  and  we 
doubt  not  many  an  old  King's  College  man  will  be  glad 
to  have  the  opportunitj'  of  securing  the  admirable  like- 
ness which  Dr.  Diamond  has  produced  of  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Major,  the  learned  and  excellent  Master  of  King's  Col- 
lege School ;  while  the  many  friends  who  appreciate  the 
literary  acquirements  and  social  character  of  the  Author 
of  The  Handbook  of  London,  will  be  no  less  delighted 
with  the  genial  and  characteristic  likeness  of  Mr.  Peter 
Cunningham,  which  Dr.  Diamond  has  succeeded  in 
catching.  These  are  separate  publications.  But  Messrs. 
Maull  &  Polyblank  have  commenced  a  work  of  greater 
pretension.  It  is  entitled  Photographic  Portraits  of  Living 
Celebrities;  and  appears  monthly,  each  portrait  being 
accompanied  by  a  Biographical  Memoir.  The  First 
Number  contains  Professor  Owen,  and  a  more  charac- 
teristic portrait  of  the  "  Newton  of  Natural  History " 
cannot  well  be  imagined.  The  Second  Number  furnishes 
us  with  a  portrait  of  Mr.  Macaulay.  The  likeness  is 
satisfactory,  thoughtful,  and  characteristic.  As  a  por- 
trait of  the  great  historian  silent,  it  is  indeed  admirable  — 
but  is  deficient  in  that  animation  which,  when  talking, 
lights  up  the  whole  countenance  of  one  who  talks  so  well. 

Hardwich's  Photographic  Chemistry.  —  This  little  vo- 
lume, indispensable  to  every  photographer,  has  been 
thoroughly  revised,  and  now  appears  in  a  third  edition. 
Everything  has  been  omitted  froWI  it  which  does  not 
possess  practical  as  well  as  scientific  interest.  The 
chapters  on  Photographic  Printing  have  been  entirely  re- 
written, and  include  the  whole  of  the  author's  i:nportant 
investigations  on  this  subject.  Lastly,  Mr.  Hardwick 
has  endeavoured  as  far  as  possible  to  recommend  the  em- 
ployment of  chemical  agents  which  are  used  in  medicine, 
and  vended  by  all  druggists.  How  useful  this  may  prove 
can  only  be  judged  bj'  those  who  have  suffered  from 
practising  photography  in  remote  localities,  far  from  the 
reach  of  purely  photographic  chemicals. 

Vapliti  to  Mirxav  ^ntxlti. 

Bishop  Butts  (2"^  S.  i.  34.)  — I  observe  in  your 
number  for  Jan.  12,  an  answer  to  the  Query  of 
K.  H.  S.  respecting  Dr.  Butts.  This  bishop  was 
not  the  only  prelate  slandered  by  Cole.  Passing 
by  his  calumnies,  I  inform  K.  H.  S.  that  Bishop 
Butts  was  the  seventh  child  of  Rev.  W.  Butts, 
formerly  rector  of  Hartest,  Suffolk  :  that  he  was 
not  quite  destitute  of  merit,  as  Cole  asserts,  may 
be  inferred  from  his  brother  clergymen  having 
elected  him  as  their  Convocation  Proctor  in  1727, 
he  being  then  rector  of  Chedburgh  ;  he  was  also 
rector  of  Ickworth,  lecturer  of  St.  Max-y's,  Bury 
St.  Edmunds,  and  chaplain  to  George  II. ;  and 
successively  Dean  of  Norwich,  Bishop  of  Nor- 
wich, and  Bishop  of  Ely.  His  first  wife  was  not 
a  daughter  of  Dr.  Eyton,  but  of  Rev.  A.  Pycher, 
formerly  rector  of  Hawstead ;  and  he  died,  aged 
sixty-three ;  about  which  age  Cole  makes  him 
marry  a  second  wife,  which  he  certainly  did,  but 
at  a  much  earlier  age.  He  was  descended  of  an 
ancient  family,  inheriting  a  property  descending 
through  many  generations  from  before  the  time  of 
Edward  II.  to  James  II.,  situated  at  Shouldham 
Thorp,  Norfolk,   in  the  church  of  which  place 



L2»d  S.  No  27.,  July  5.  '56. 

are  many  monuments   of  the  family.     K.  H.  S. 
may  have  any  farther  particulars  from 

E.  D.  B. 
I  enclose  my  address. 

Henley-on-Thames  (2"'i  S.  i.454.)  —J.  S.  Burn 
has  given  so  short  a  list  of  books  which  he  has  at 
hand  for  a  history  of  Henley,  omitting  some  of 
general  information,  that  I  would  first  refer  him 
to  Hastings  Past  and  Present,  Lond.  1 855,  Append, 
pp.  i.  Ixii.,  the  last  work  I  am  acquainted  with,  as 
giving  a  long  list  of  works  which  have  reference 
to  the  locality  it  treats  of.  They  cannot  of  course 
be  transferred  at  once  to  a  Henley  Past  and  Pre- 
sent, but  they  will  indicate  sources  of  information 
which  he  must  have  recourse  to,  more  or  less,  if  he 
would  do  his  work  well. 

For  Henley  in  particular  there  may  be  men- 
tioned, — 

Turner,  Captain  Samuel,  A  true  Relation  of  a 
late  Skirmish  at  Henley-on-Thames,  wherein  a 
great  Defeat  was  given  to  the  Redding  Cavaliers, 
4to.,  Lond.  1643.  (There  is  a  copy  in  the  Bod- 
leian.) • 

Gough's  Sepulchral  Monuments  of  Great  Britain, 
vol.  i.  plate  4.  fig.  8.,  engraving  of  a  cross. 

The  Gentleman  s  Magazine,  vol.  Iv.  p.  931.,  and 
vol.  Ivi.  pp.  45.  363.,  an  account  of  Gainsborough, 
brother  to  the  painter,  with  his  epitaph  ;  vol.  Ixiii. 
p.  716.,  and  vol.  Ixxxiii.  part  i.  p.  716.,  church 
notes  ;  vol.  Ixxvii.  p.  79.,  presentation  of  cup,  &c., 
to  T.  Chapman  for  rescuing  a  child  from  drown- 
ing; vol.  Ixxxiii.  part  ii.  p.  183.,  discovery  of  mi- 
neral spring.  (The  general  index  does  not  ex- 
tend to  the  recent  volumes.) 

Henley  Guide,  earlier  than  1827.  (See  Skel- 
ton's  Oxfordshire.) 

Skelton,  J.,  Engraved  Illustrations  of  the  Paro- 
chial Antiquities  of  Oxfordshire,  4to.,  Oxford, 
1823-7.  There  is  a  view  of  Henley  Church,  and 
an  interesting  account  of  the  town. 

Ecclesiastical  Antiquities  of  England,  arranged 
in  Dioceses  :  Oxford,  8vo.,  J.  H.  and  J.  Parker, 
Oxford.  E.  M. 


In  a  note  to  the  Coucher  Book  of  Whalley,  edited 
for  the  Chetham  Society  by  W.  A,  Hulton  (p.  979.), 
it  is  stated  that  Robert  de  Holland,  elsewhere  said 
to  have  been  first  the  secretary,  and  afterwards  the 
betrayer,  of  Thomas  Earl  of  Lancaster,  was  be- 
headed at  Henley-on-Thames  in  1328  ;  and  Dods- 
worth,  who  alludes  to  the  circumstance,  says  that 
he  owed  his  death  to  the  hatred  which  his 
treachery  had  excited  against  him,  and  that  the 
mob,  who  found  him  concealed  in  a  wood  near  to 
Henley-on-Thames,  conducted  him  to  that  place, 
and  there  put  him  to  death.  Anon. 

Special  Report  from  Committee  of  House  of 
Commons  (2°'^  S.  i.  461.)  —  The  Committee  of  the 

House  of  Commons  referred  to  by  N.  E,  was  ap- 
pointed Feb.  22,  1719  (House  of  Commons  Journal, 
p.  274.  b.).  The  Committee  reported  March  18 
{Id.  p.  305.  a.),  and  the  House  resolved  that  several 
informations  given  before  the  Committee  tending 
to  accuse  the  Attorney-General  "  of  corrupt  and 
evil  practices  are  malicious,  false,  scandalous,  and 
utterly  groundless,"  4he  report  and  other  papers 
to  be  printed,  and  that  Mr.  Speaker  do  appoint 
the  printing  of  the  said  report  {Id.  310.  b.). 

The  Committee  again  reported  April  27  {Journal, 
p.  341.),  and  the  House  came  to  a  resolution  that 
the  subscribers  having  acted  as  corporate  bodies 
without  legal  authority,  "  and  thereby  drawn  in 
several  unwary  persons  into  unwarrantable  under- 
takings, the  said  practices  manifestly  tend  to  the 
prejudice  of  the  publick  trade  and  commerce  of 
the  kingdom  ;"  and  a  Bill  was  ordered  "  to  re- 
strain the  extravagant  and  unwarrantable  practice 
of  raising  money  by  voluntary  subscriptions  for 
carrying  on  projects  dangerous  to  the  trade  and 
subjects  of  this  kingdom."  And  Mr.  Secretary 
Craggs,  Mr.  Walpole,  Mr.  Comptroller,  Mr.  Chan- 
cellor of  the  Exchequer,  do  prepare,  and  bring  in 
the  same  {Id.  351.  a.).  Mr.  Lowndes  was  added 
May  2  {Id.  353.  b.).  Parliament  was  prorogued 
June  11. 

The  Reports  are  printed  in  the  House  of  Com- 
mons Journals.  See  Index  to  House  of  Commons 
Journals,  under  "  Projects."  J.  H.  P. 

There  is  a  copy  of  this  Report  in  the  library  of 
Trinity  College,  Dublin,  from  which  I  shall  have 
pleasure  in  copying  any  extracts  desired  by  N.  E. 

Dublin.  « 

Writers  bribed  to  Silence  (2"''  S.  i.  471.)  —  In- 
formation has  lately  been  sought  in  "  N.  &  Q."  for 
any  information  respecting  writers  who  may  have 
been  bribed  to  silence.  It  would  be  equally 
curious  and  interesting  to  trace  the  extent  of 
bribery  in  modifying  or  altogether  changing  a 
journal's  politics. 

In  1816,  the  Journal  de  VEmpire,  an  influential 
French  newspaper,  published  the  following : 

"  We  are  assured  the  English  Journal  called  The  Courier, 
has  received  500.000  francs  from  the  bankers  of  M.  de 
Blacas  to  write  against  France.  At  first  10,000  Louis 
were  offered  to  the  Journalist ;  but  was  seriously  angry, 
and  protested  that  he  was  not  a  man  to  allow  himself  to 
be  corrupted  for  such  a  trifle." 

William  Mudford,  author  of  half  a  dozen  novels 
now  forgotten,  and  of  several  miscellaneous  works, 
including  the  greater  part  of  the  Border  Antiqui- 
ties of  Scotland,  generally  regarded  as  the  sole  off- 
spring of  Sir  Walter  Scott's  brain,  edited  the 
Courier  at  this  period,  and  replied : 

"  Five  hundred  thousand  francs,  nearly  21,000/.  sterling ! 
— The  Paris  Editor,  at  least,  shows  by  the  magnitude  of 
the  sum  of  what  importance  he  thinks  our  support  of  any 

2-JdS.  N0  27.,  Julys. '56.] 



cause  is.  So  far  we  are  obliged  to  him,  and  we  shall  be 
farther  obliged  to  him  to  add,  in  the  next  journal  he  pub- 
lishes after  the  receipt  of  our  paper  of  to-day,  that  there 
was  not  one  word  of  truth  in  his  assertion." 

This  contradiction  was  not  regarded  as  conclu- 
sive or  satisfactory  by  many  of  the  contemporary 
prints.     The  Antigallican  said : 

"  It  is  no  easy  matter  to  discover  whether  the  charge 
or  reply  be  the  more  correct,  but  thus  much  we  have 
had  an  opportunity  of  knowing,  that  the  Governments  of 
France  have  had  English  Journalists  in  their  pay  since 
the  Revolution.  Indeed  those  persons  who  were  in  the 
hiibit  of  reading  the  Courier  last  summer,  must  have  seen 
that  that  paper  was  not  very  friendly  to  the  Bourbons ; 
now,  however,  it  is  suddenly  changed,  as  if  touched  with 
a  magic  wand. 

"  Not  long  since  a  charge  of  a  similar  kind  was  pre- 
ferred against  a  Morning  Paper,  viz.  of  10,000/.  having 
been  received  by  its  proprietor  from  Blacas." 

It  would  be  curious  to  elicit  accurate  informa- 
tion on  this  subject. 

William  John  Fitz-Patrick. 

The  Silver  Greyhound  (2"'^  S.  i.  493.)  —  About 
seventy  years  ago  the  king's  messengers  always 
wore  this  badge  when  on  duty,  and  it  is  one  of 
these  officers  whom  Sir  Walter  Scott,  in  his  tale 
of  "  Aunt  Margaret's  Mirror,"  calls  the  man  with 
the  silver  greyhound  on  his  sleeve.  J.  de  W. 

Sir  JEdivard  Coke  (P'  ^.'iv.  passim.) — The  cor- 
rect spelling  of  the  surname  of  this  great  lawyer 
is  to  be  found  in  an  "  Epistle  Dedicatorie  "  to  him 

"A  Discourse  of  the  Damned  Art  of  Witchcraft,  so 
farre  forth  as  it  is  revealed  in  the  Scriptures,  and  manifest 
by  true  experience.  Framed  and  Delivered  by  Mr. 
William  Perkins,  in  his  ordinarie  course  of  Preaching, 
&c.  Printed  by  Cantrell  Legge,  Printer  to  the  Univer- 
sitie  of  Cambridge,  1613," 

namely,  — 

"  To  the  Right  Honourable  Sir  Edward  Cooke,  Knight, 
Lord  Chief  Justice  of  his  Majesties  Court  of  Common 
Pleas,  Grace  and  Peace,''  &c. 

The  author  discusses  the  subject  of  witchcraft 
with  considerable  ingenuity,  as  it  prevailed  in 
England  at  that  date;  and  with  a  zealous  sincerity, 
in  A  Resolution  to  the  Countryman,  proving  it 
utterly  unlawfull  to  buie  or  use  our  yearely  Prog- 
nostications, he  endeavours  to  put  down  what  had 
been  the  almanacks  in  circulation.  G.  N. 

Order  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem  (2"'>  S.  i.  197. 
264.  461.)  —  To  W.  W.,  who  informs  me  that  "  all 
masonic  degrees  are  separate  and  distinct,"  I  beg 
to  reply  that  I  am  quite  aware  of  this  ;  but  they 
are  occasionally  united  in  the  same  services,  and 
under  the  same  laws  and  regulations.  I  gave  two 
instances,  the  latter  being  from  a  book  of  Laws 
and  Regulations,  of  which  the  first  article  provides 

that  the  five  orders  of  masonic  knighthood  in 

be  united  under  one  general  administration,  and 

subject  to  one  code  of  laws.  I  need  not  repeat 
the  names  of  these  five  orders,  having  specified 
them  in  a  former  communication.  F.  C.  H. 

Poniatowski  Gems  (2°'^  S.  i.  471.)  —  About  ten 
or  twelve  years  ago  these  gems  were  in  the  pos- 
session of  a  gentleman  named  Tyrrell,  then  re- 
siding in  Craven  Street,  Strand,  and  he  employed 
an  Irish  scholar  named  Pendergast  to  compile  a 
Catalogue  JRaisonnee  of  his  treasure.  At  Mr. 
Tyrrell's  house  I  saw,  I  think,  the  whole  work, 
but  certainly  a  part,  in  print.  If  it  was  completed, 
and  was  published,  otherwise  than  privately,  I 
need  not  tell  Mr.  Gantillon  that  it  will  be  found 
at  the  British  Museum.  If  it  is  not  there  on 
either  the  one  ground  or  the  other,  I  think  I 
could  possibly  ascertain  Mr.  Tyrrell's  address  for 
Mr.  Gantillon.     "  James  Knowles. 

[We  cannot  find  a  copy  of  this  Catalogue  Raisonnee  in 
the  British  Museum.] 

The  Image  of  Diana  at  Ephesxis  —  Aerolite 
Worship  (2"''  S.  i.  410.)  —  I  recollect  once  hear- 
ing an  eminent  classic  and  D.D.-  of  this  University 
assert  as  his  opinion,  that  this  image  was  formed 
of  a  meteoric  stone  or  aerolite.  There  is  no 
doubt  that  aerolite  worship  was  common  in  the 
East ;  and  that  it  is  so  still  may  be  seen  by  the 
following  extracts  from  Lieut.  Burton's  Pilgi'i- 
mage  to  El  Medinah  and  Meccah  : 

"  At  Jagannath  thej'  worship  a  pyramidal  black  stone, 
fabled  to  have  fallen  from  heaven,  or  miraculously  to 
have  presented  itself  on  the  place  where  the  temple  now 
stands."  —  Vol.  iii.  p.  159. 

"  While  kissing  it  (the  celebrated  black  stone  at 
Meccah),  and  rubbing  forehead  and  hands  upon  it,  I  nar- 
rowly observed  it,  and  came  away  persuaded  that  it  is  a 
big  aerolite."  —  Vol.  iii.  p.  210. 

This  would  seem  to  favour  the  idea  that  the 
image  of  the  ^reat  Diana  was  composed  of  a 
similar  substance.  I  may  add,  that  I  have  in  my 
possession  a  perforated  bead,  probably  Druidical, 
evidently  formed  out  of  a  meteoric  stone. 

NoRRis  Deck. 


Black  Letter  (2"'^  S.  i.  472.)  —  Though  the 
Query  of  A.  L.  B.  is  addressed  to  another  tran- 
scriber of  black  letter  books,  I  may  be  permitted, 
as  one  who  has  had  much  practice  in  that  way,  to 
inform  him  that  I  find  the  best  kind  of  pen  for  the 
purpose  to  be  one  made  from  a  swan's  quill,  with 
a  short  slit  and  a  very  broad  nib.  There  are 
metal  pens  sold  for  the  purpose,  but  they  have  the 
great  disadvantage  of  getting  soon  clogged  up 
with  the  fine  powder  which  they  scratch  up  from 
the  vellum.  F.  C.  H. 

Bui-ning  of  Books  (2°^  S.  i.  397.)  —The  greatest 
Vandalism  perpetrated  in  more  modern  times  is 
that  of  the  Austrian  Government,  which,  after  the 
battle  of  the  Weisse  Berg,  1621,  sent  a  number  of 



[2nd  s,  N»  27.,  July  5.  '56. 

commissioners  (Jesuits)  through  the  breadth  and 
length  of  Czechia,  who  found,  in  almost  every  vil- 
lage, piles  of  books,  obnoxious  to  tyrannic  and 
bigoted  rule,  and  had  them  consumed  by  fire. 
Considering  what  flight  Czechian  literature  had 
taken  shortly  after  the  spreading  of  the  Reforma- 
tion,—  Petrarca's  Poems,  for  instance,  being  first 
translated  into  Czechian,  —  this  atrocity  struck  a 
fierce  blow  at  the  nascent  literature  of  the  great 
Panslavic  race.  I  saw  once  a  copy  of  a  huge 
volume  in  fol.  max.  in  the  Czechian  language,  in 
one  of  the  villages  of  that  country,  printed  also  at 
that  period.  I  think  it  related  to  some  geographi- 
cal subject.  As  I  do  not  believe  that  any  book  so 
large  had  been  then  printed  in  any  other  part  of 
Europe,  I  would  wish  to  learn  the  title.  It  must 
especially  have  excited  the  attention  of  those 
Jesuitic  incendiaries.  J.  Lotsky,  Panslave. 

15.  Gower  Street,  London. 

MedicBval  Parchment  (P'  S.  vii.  155.  317.)  — 
I  am  desirous,  with  F.  M.,  of  knowing  some  means 
of  preventing  parchment  from  crumpling  when 
moistened  by  the  application  of  colour  ;  but,  as  I 
cannot  refer  to  the  MSS.  mentioned  by  E.  G.  B., 
I  shall  be  much  obliged  to  any  one  who  will, 
either  through  these  columns  or  by  letter,  give 
me  the  information  I  seek.        John  P.  Stilwell. 


Isle  of  Man  (2"''  S.  i.  454.)  —  To  assist  in  de- 
ciding this  question  I  contribute  a  mite  of  informa- 
tion culled  from  the  pages  of  Heylin,  Hearne's 
Curious  Discoveries,  Mona  Antigua  7-estaurata,  and 
Campbell's  Survey. 

This  island  by  Ptolemy  is  called  Monceda,  or  the 
further  Mona,  to  distinguish  it  from  that  which 
we  call  Anglesey  or  Mona.  By  Pliny  it  is  called 
Mo7iabia  or  Movapia ;  by  Orosius  and  Beda  Me- 
navia ;  and  by  Gildas,  an  old  British  writer,  Eu- 
bonia.  Mona,  the  name  by  which  it  was  generally 
known  to  the  Romans  (Campbell  says),  is  evidently 
no  more  than  the  softening  of  the  British  appella- 
tion Mon,  or  Tir  Mon,  "  the  furthest  land,"  the 
ancient  Britons  calling  it  Manaw  Menaw,  or  more 
properly  main  au,  "  the  little  island,"  the  inhabit- 
ants mailing  and  the  English  man. 

It  had  a  second  name  also,  derived  from  its 
being  almost  covered  with  wood :  this  was  Tnis 
Touil,  or  as  the  moderns  write  it,  Ynys  Dywylh, 
"  the  shady  island  ;  "  and  from  the  Druids  having 
taken  shelter  there,  a  third,  Ynys  y  Cedeirn,  or 
the  "  Land  of  Heroes."  R.  W.  Hackwood. 

Blood  which  will  not  wash  out  (2"'^  S.  i.  374.)  — 
Has  Mr.  Cowper  ever  visited  Holyrood,  where 
the  stains  of  Rizzio's  blood  are  shown  on  the  floor 
in  the  passajie  near  the  back  stairs,  leading  from 
Queen  Mary's  room  ?  The  legend  runs  that  they 
cannot  be  removed  by  soap,  water,  and  a  scrub- 

bing brush.  I  am  sufiicient  of  an  infidel  to  be- 
lieve that  no  effort  has  ever  been  made  to  remove 
them,  and  that,  on  the  contrary,  the  stains  have 
been  from  time  to  time  carefully  renewed  by 
blood  procured  from  some  of  the  slaughter-houses 
in  "  Auld  Reekie."  Apropos  of  this  subject,  was 
it  ever  known  that  any  two  of  the  guides  at  Holy- 
rood  Palace  could  be  found  to  agree  as  to  the 
exact  number  of  stabs  inflicted  on  Rizzio  before 
life  was  extinct  ?     I  trow  not.  Sceptic. 

Cow  and  Snuffers  Ql^^  S.  i.  372.)  — Your  cor- 
respondent E.  E.  Byng  will  find  the  "  Cow  and 
Snuficrs  "  mentioned  in  the  Irish  song  of  "  Looney 
M'Twolter,"  introduced  in  an  old  farce,  whose 
author  has  escaped  my  memory  : 

"  Judy's  my  darling,  my  kisses  she  suffers, 

She's  an  heiress,  that's  clear, 

For  her  father  sells  beer, 
Och !  he  keeps  the  sign  of  the  Cow  and  the  Snuffers, 

Oh !  she's  so  smart, 

From  my  heart 

I  can't  bolt  her ; 
Oh !  Whack !  Judy  O'Flanajran, 
She's  the  girl  for  Looney  M'Twolter." 


Punishment  of  dishonest  Bakers  (2nd  S.  i.  332.) 
—  Queen  Elizabeth,  by  a  charter  in  the  forty-first 
year  of  her  reign,  granted  (inter  alia^  to  the  cor- 
poration of  Andover,  Hants,  power  to  make  and 
have,  within  their  borough  and  hundred,  the 
assize  and  assay  of  bread,  wine,  and  ale,  and 
other  victuals,  and  to  punish  bakers  and  others 
breaking  the  said  assize  ;  "  that  is  to  say,  to  draw 
such  bakers  and  others  offending  against  the  said 
assize  upon  hurdles  through  the  streets  of  the 
borough  or  town  and  hundred  aforesaid,  and  to 
otherwise  chastise  them  in  manner  as  in  our  city 
of  London  is  accustomed  concerning  such  bakers 
and  other  such  like  offenders."         "W.  H.  W.  T. 

Somerset  House. 

fiatitt^  ta  C0rrc!Sp0iiftent*. 

Owinr/  to  the  number  of  articles  of  interest  waiting  for  insertion  we 
have  this  week  been  compelled  to  omit  our  usual  Notes  on  Books. 

A.  Mt.    Received.    Many  thanks, 

D.  B.  Has,  we  think,  not  copied  quite  accurate!;/  some  of  the  words.  If 
he  would  entrust  us  with  the  original  document  we  sJiould  doubtless  be 
enabled  to  answer  his  question. 

Index  to  the  First  Series.  Js  this  is  now  published,  and  the  im- 
pression is  a  limited  one,  such  of  our  readers  as  dexire  copies  wo'ld  do 
well  to  intimate  tlietr  wish  to  their  respective  booksellers  nithtrnt  delay. 
Our  pvhli-'hers,  Mkssrs.  Bell  &  Daldv,  will  forward  copies  by  post  on 
receipt  of  a  Post  Office  Order  for  Five  Shillings. 

"Notes  and  Qoerifs "  is  published  at  noon  on  Friday,  so  that  the 
Country  Booksellers  may  receive  Copies  in  that  night's  parcels,  and 
deliver  them  to  their  Subscribers  an  the  Saturday. 

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venience of  those  who  may  either  have  a  difficulty  in  procuring  the  un- 
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Publisher.  The  subscription  for  the  stomped  edition  of  **Not»s  and 
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favour  of  the  Publisher,  Mr.  Georob  Bell,  No.  186.  Fleet  Street. 

2«'i  S.  N»  28.,  July  12.  '56.] 



LONDON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  12, 1856. 


Colley  Cibher  turned  out  of  the  House  of  Lords. 

Can  any  reader  of  "  N.  &  Q."  throw  light  upon  the 
incidents  referred  to  in  the  following  lines."  They  are 
printed  as  a  broadside  on  a  single  leaf,  with  the  half- 
penny stamp  impressed  upon  it. 

"  Upon  the  Poet  Lmu-eafs  being  expelled  the  House 
of  Lords. 

"  C r  (the  wonder  of  a  brazen  Age), 

Always  a  Hero,  off  or  on  the  stage, 
The  other  day,  in  courtesy,  affords 
His  lovely  Phyz  to  jirace  the  House  of  Lords; 
Quite  free  from  pride,  he  humbly  condescends 
To  treat  the  very  smallest  Peers,  as  Friends  : 
With  sneer  or  grin  approves  each  grave  debate, 
And  smiles  when  Brother  Dukes  support  the 
State : 

*  On  tlie  learn'd  Bishops  Bench,  looks  kind 

And  offers  good  Lord  King  a  Pinch  of  Snuff, 
Whilst  thus  he  rains  his  Favours  on  the  Crowd, 
An  old  rough  Earl  his  swift  destruction  vow'd ; 
Regardless  of  th'  Imperial  Crown  he  wore, 
Rejrardless  of  the  Bays  and  Brains  he  bore, 
A  Voice  as  hoarse  as  Sutherland's  gave  Law, 
And  made  the  King,  the  Fop,  The  Bard  with- 

O  C r,  in  revenge  your  wrath  forbear, 

This  once  your  stupid,  stingless  satire  spare, 
And  with  dull  panegyrick  daub  each  Peer 
Like    rhyming  Bellman's   Ghost   haunt    their 

And  frighten  them  with  Birth  or  New  Year 

If  banished    thence,   you   still    may   shine   at 

C 1; 

There  P rs  and  Scoundrels  equally  resort ; 

Unmatched  in  all.  Superiors  never  fear  ; 

But  since  you'r  Peerless  scorn  the  name  of  Peer. 

"  London  :  Printed  for  J.  Jenkins,  near  Ludgate. 
Price  (on  stamped  paper)  2d." 

Is  the  incident  on  wliich  this  satire  turns  recorded  by 
any  contemporary  writer  ?  or  is  there  any  mention  of  it 
in  the  Journals  of  the  House  of  Lords  ?  C.  L.  S. 


Portrait  of  Swift.  —  Faulkener  printed  an 
edition  of  Dean  Swift's  Works  in  1734.  To  the 
volume  which  completes  the  set  is  prefixed  a  full- 
length  portrait  of  the  Dean  seated  in  a  chair, 
about  to  be  crowned  with  laurels ;  at  his  feet,  in 
supplicating  attitudes,  the  daughters  and  children 
of  Ireland,  and  a  table  spread  with  coin,  which 
may  be  understood  to  be  "  Wood's  Halfpence." 
At  the  bottom  there  is  the  motto,  — 

"Exegi  Monumentum  ^re  perennius." —  Hor. 

The  plate  seems  to  be  a  good  likeness  of  the 
Dean,  and  altogether  a  well  executed  subject. 
No  engravei-'s  name  appears  on  it.  Query,  Can 
any  of  your  correspondents  inform  me  who  he 
was  ? 

It  has  often  struck  me  that  the  following,  ex- 
tracted from  a  Collection  of  Jests,  printed  at 
Edinburgh  by  R.  Fleming,  1753,  may  have  some 
relation  to  the  plate,  but  I  have  never  been  able 
to  connect  the  two. 

"  On  George  Faulkener's  promising  to  have  the  Dean  of 
St.  Patrick's  Effigies  prefixed  to  the  New  Edition  of  his 
Works,  from  a  Copperplate  done  by  Mr,  Veriue. 

"  In  a  little  dark  room,  at  the  back  of  his  shop, 
Where  poets  and  eriticks  have  din'd  on  a  chop, 
Poor  Faulkner  sat  musing  alone  thus  of  late,  — 
'  Two  volumes  are  done  —  it  is  time  for  the  plate ; 
Yes,  time  to  be  sure.     But  on  whom  shall  I  call 
To  express  the  great  Swift  in  a  compass  so  small? 
Faith,  Vertue  shall  do  it  —  I'm  pleas'd  at  the  thought,- 
Be  the  cost  what  it  will,  the  copper  is  bought.' 
Apollo  o'erheard,  who,  as  some  people  guess. 
Had  a  hand  in  the  work,  and  corrected  the  press. 
And  pleas'd  he  replied,  '  Honest  George,  j-ou  are  right. 
This  thought  was  my  own,  howsoe'er  you  came  by't; 
For  tho'  both  the  wit  and  the  style  is  my  gift, 
'Tis  Vertue  alone  can  design  us  a  Swift.' " 


Curll  and  the  Westmin.ster  Scholars.  —  The  fol- 
lowing additional  illustration  of  the  satirical  print 
which  forms  the  subject  of  a  Query  by  Griffin 
(!'*  S.  V.  585.),  and  which  is  rightly  described  by 
S.  Wmson  (P'  S.  vi.  348.)  as  referring  to  an  affair 
between  Curll  and  the  boys  of  Westminster  School, 
seems  worth  making  a  note  of.  It  is  from  The 
Grub  Street  Journal,  vol.  i.  p.  128. :  — 

"  The  following  Copy  of  verses  is  taken  from  the  Carmina 
Quadragesimalia  (  vol.  i.  p.  118.),  to  which  a  transla- 
tion is  subjoined :  — 

"  An  causae  sint  sibi  invicem  Causae  ?    Aff"". 

"  Authore  invito,  tenues  mandare  libellos, 

Furtivis  solitus  Bibliopola  typis, 
TJltores  pueros  deceptus  fraude  maligna 

Sensit  ab  excesso  missus  in  Astra  sago  : 
Nee  satis  hoc;  mensa  late  porrectus  acerna 

Supplicium  rigidae  fert  puerile  scholaj : 
Jam  virgae  impatiens  pueris  convitia  fundit; 

Vicinique  crepat  jurgia  nota  fori. 
Flagra  minas  misero  extorquent  repetita ;  rainasque 

Quo  magis  ingeminat,  vapulat  ille  magis. 

"  Whether  Causes  can  be  mutual  ?    Aflf. 
"  Much  had  piratic  Mun  by  pamphlets  got, 
For  print  he  would,  if  authors  would  or  not. 
By  vengeful  boys  decoyed,  he  takes  ten  flights 
From  blanket,  loftier  than  from  Grub  Street  Rights. 
Nay  more :  stretch'd  out  at  length  on  maple  board, 
Feels  boyish  pains  in  rigid  schools  abhorred, 
Impatient  of  the  rod,  '  Ye  dogs  uncivil,' 

He  cries,  'by I'll  sue  you  to  the  devil.' 

Lashes  loud'threats  extort :  in  greater  store. 
The  threats  flie  out,  the  wretch  is  lashed  the  more. 
"  Mr.  Bavius  objected  against  the  impropriety  of  trans- 



[2nd  s.  No  28.,  July  12.  '56. 

lating  '  latfe  porrectus,'  by  '  stretched  out  at  length.'  But 
Mr.  Msevius  vindicated  it  by  saying,  that  one  of  the 
agents  had  assured  him  that  the  patient  was  stretched 
out  at  length,  as  well  as  in  breadth ;  and  therefore  the 
translator,  as  well  as  the  author,  might  chuse  which  he 

Let  me  add  a  Query  :  Where  did  Curll 
" .        .         .        th'  oration  print 
Imperfect  with  false  Latin  in't?" 

—  the  offence  for  which  it  is  stated  he  was  subjected 
to  such  dishonourable  treatment.  M.  N.  S. 

Warburton.  —  Among  the  books  formerly  be- 
longing to  Samuel  Rogers,  and  now  on  sale  by 
AVillis  and  Sotheran,  is  a  copy  of  Dr.  Johnson's 
Tuhle  Talk,  1785,  "  ivith  the  following  severe  verae 
on  Warburton  written  by  Mr.  Rogers  on  the  fiy- 
leuf: " 

"  He  is  so  proud  that  should  he  meet 
'the  twelve  Apostles  in  the  street. 
He'd  turn  his  nose  up  at  them  all. 
And  thrust  our  Saviour  from  the  wall." 

Are  these  verses  by  Rogers,  or  merely  copied 
by  him  from  some  contemporary  satire  ?        S.  W. 

DOUCE  S    MS.    NOTES. 

The  following  notes  by  this  learned  antiquary 
iire  in  a  copy  of  R.  Gaguin's  Grandes  Croniques, 
fol.,  Par.  1514,  which  formerly  belonged  to  him, 
and  is  now  in  the  Douce  Collection  in  the  Bod- 
leian Library,  Oxford. 

"  Gaguin's  Gestes  Romaines,  printed  by  Verara,  with- 
out date,  in  folio.  This  is  not  the  Gesta  Romanorum,  as 
somewhere  stated,  but  a  compilation  of  the  Koman  history 
down  to  the  time  of  .     At  the  end  of  his  pro- 

logue he  speaks  of  the  tournaments  and  'joustes  h,  ou- 
trance '  that  he  had  seen  in  England  and  in  the  court  of 
Burgundy.  The  work  begins  with  Hasanibal's  being 
made  emperor  of  the  Carthaginians,  and  ends  with  Scipio's 
triumph  at  Rome.  Then  follow  various  matters  on  he- 
raldry, as  the  origin  of  Montjoye  king-at-arms,  manner 
of  electing  an  emperor,  duke,  viscount,  &c.,  observations 
on  war,  &c. ;  account  of  justs  in  England  and  Burgundy, 

"At  the  end  of  the  Roman  history  is  a  large  cut, 
copied,  I  think,  from  some  fine  illumination  of  which  I 
have  a  drawing  (from  Rive's  work,  in  outline).  On  the 
left  a  Gothic  chapel,  on  the  outside  arms  of  France  on  a 
shield,  inside  a  bishop  anointing  a  kneeling  and  naked 
person.  This  in  front.  Behind,  a  bishop  baptizing  a 
child.  On  the  right  hand  of  the  print,  King  Clovis  put- 
ting a  Roman  army  to  flight,  clovis  koy  on  his  horse- 
trappings.  Behind,  a  hermit  bringing  a  new  shield  with 
three  fleurs-de-lis,  instead  of  the  old  arms  on  the  king's 
breast,  viz.  three  *  *  *  (?)  On  a  hill  the  hermit 
receives  this  shield  fi-om  an  angel,  a  bird  attending  with 
the  ampoulle  in  his  mouth.  In  the  back-ground  pillars 
with  images  on  them  (as  in  a  large  painting  at  Somerset 
House  of  H.  P.  and  Sowers)  (?),  and  a  king  and  queen 
standing  near  them." 

"  On  Knight  Bannerets. 

"  Where  a  tenant  has  served  long  in  war,  and  has  land 
enough  to  maintain  fifty  gentlemen,  he  may  lawfully 

raise  his  banner,  and  on  the  first  battle  he  may  bring  a 
pennon  of  his  arms,  and  require  of  the  constable  or  mar- 
shal to  be  made  banneret,  which  if  granted,  the  trumpets 
are  to  announce  it,  and  then  the  tails  of  the  pennon  are  to 
be  cut,  in  order  to  be  carried  with  those  of  others  either 
above  or  below  barons." 

"  Mode  of  ordering  a  Battle  'par  eschelles,'  i.  e.  squadrons. 

"  The  ceremony  at  the  combat  at  lists  is  very  curious. 
The  regulations  themselves,  made  by  Thomas,  Duke  of 
Gloucester,  High  Constable  for  Rich.  11.,  are  given:  — 
'Et  si  la  dicte  bataille  est  cause  de  traison,  celluy  qui  est 
vaincu  et  descomfit  sera  desarmfe  dedans  les  lices,  et  par 
le  comandement  du  conestable  sera  mis  en  un  comet,  et 
en  reprehencion  de  luy  sera  traisne  hors  avec  chevaulx 
du  lieu  mesme  ou  il  est  ainsi  desarmi  parmy  les  lices 
jusques  au  lieu  de  justice  ou  sera  decole  ou  pendu  selon 
lusaige  des  paj's,  la  quelle  chose  appartient  au  mareschal 
voir  par  fournir  par  son  office  et  le  mettre  a  execution.' 

"  N.B.  —  The  hanging  and  beheading  was  confined  to 
cases  of  treason ;  in  a  simple  affair  of  arms  the  disabled 
party  was  only  disarmed  and  led  out  of  lists. 

"  'Ci  finist  ies  gestes  romaines  et  les  statuts  et  ordon- 
nances  des  heraulx  darmes,  translate  de  latin  en  francois 
par  maistre  Robert  Guaguin  general  de  lordre  des  Ma- 
turins.'  —  No  date,  but  pr.  bv  Ant.  Verard  in  folio,  Brit. 

"  Gaguin  died  at  Paris  in  1601.  His  history  extends 
to  1499. 

"  Gaguin  entreprit  un  ouvrage  qui  dans  onze  livres 
comprend  I'histoire  de  douze  siecles.  Rien  ne  manqua  h 
Gaguin  que  le  genie  pour  etre  un  bon  historien  ;  car  ses 
frequentes  ambassades  et  les  livres  de  la  biblioth^que  de 
Louis  XII  lui  procuroient  tous  les  secours  qui  pouvoient 
lui  etre  necessaires."  —  Carlencas,  Hist,  des  Belles  Lettres, 
p.  326." 

"  See  an  excellent  character  of  Gaguin  in  the  Recreations 
Historiques,  tome  ii.  p.  1 84." 

"  See  in  Chevillier,  Origine  de  I'imprimerie  de  Paris, 
p.  157.,  an  account  of  the  dissatisfaction  expressed  by 
Gaguin  at  the  inaccuracy  of  the  first  edition  of  his  work." 

"  See  Meusel,  Bibl.  Hist,  tom.  vii.  p.  9." 

"  Gaguin  was  librarian  to  Louis  XL,  Charles  VIIL, 
and  Louis  XII." 

W.  D.  M. 


{Continued  from  2"'*  S.  i.487.) 

"  The  Controversial  Letters,  or  the  Grand  Controversie 
concerning  the  Pope's  Temporal  Authority  between  two 
English  Gentlemen ;  the  one  of  the  Church  of  England, 
the  other  of  Rome.     4to.     London.     1673-75." 

"  History  and  Vindication  of  the  Irish  Remonstrance, 
&c.     1661.     Reprinted,  fol.     Lond.,  1674. 

"  A  Letter  to  the  Catholics  of  England,  &c.  &c,  &c. 
By  Father  Peter  Walsh.     8vo.     Lond.,  1674." 

'"  England's  Independency  upon  the  Papal  Power  his- 
torically and  judiciallv  stated,  out  of  the  Reports  of  Sir 
John  Davis  and  Sir  Edw.  Coke.  By  Sir  John  Pettus. 
4to.     Lond.,  1674." 

"  Some  Considerations  of  Present  Concernment ;  how 
far  Romanists  may  be  trusted  by  Princes  of  another  Per- 
suasion.    By  Henry  Dodwell.     8vo.     1675." 

"  A  Seasonable  Question,  and  an  Useful  Answer ;  con- 
tained in  an  Exchange  of  a  Letter  between  a  Parliament 
Man  in  Cornwall  and  a  Bencher  of  the  Temple,  London. 
Lond.,  1676." 

"  The  Jesuits'  Loyalty,  in  Three  Tracts,  written  by 

2'"i  S.  No  28.,  July  12.  '66.  *| 



them  against  the  Oath  of  Allegiance,  with  the  Reasons 
of  Penal  Laws.     1677(?)." 

"  Answer  to  Three  Treatises  published  under  the  Title 
of '  The  Jesuits'  Loyalty.'    4to.     Lend.,  1678." 

"  An  Account  of"  the  Growth  of  Popery,  and  Arbitrary 
Government  in  England ;  more  particularly  from  the 
long  Prorogation  of  Parliament  of  Nov.  1675,  ending 
the  15th  Feb.  1676,  till  the  last  Meeting  of  Parliament, 
the  16th  of  July,  1677.  Fol.  Lond.,  1678.  Reprinted 
in  'State  Tracts'  in  1689." 

"  Popery,  or  the  Principles  and  Positions  approved  by 
the  Church  of  Rome  (when  really  believed  and  practised), 
are  verj'  dangerous  to  all,  and  to  Protestant  Kings  and 
Supreme  Powers  more  especially  pernicious  and  incon- 
sistent with  that  Loyalty  which  (by  the  Law  of  Nature 
and  Scripture)  is  indispensably  due  to  Supreme  Powers. 
By  Thomas  Barlow,  Bishop  of  Lincoln.  4to.  Lond., 

"  Brutum  Fulmen,  or  the  Bull  of  Pius  V.  against  Q. 
Elizabeth,  with  Observations  and  Animadversions.  By 
the  Same.    4to.     Lond.,  1681." 

"  The  King- Killing  Doctrine  of  the  Jesuits,  translated 
from  the  French.     By  Peter  Bellon.     4to.     Lond.,  1679." 

"  The  Jesuits'  Catechism  according  to  St.  Ignatius 
Loyola  for  the  Instructing  and  Strengthening  of  all  those 
which  are  weake  in  that  Faith.  Wherein  the  Impiety  of 
their  Principles,  Pernitiousness  of  their  Doctrines,  and 
Iniquitv  of  their  Practises  are  declared.  4to.  Lond., 
1679." ' 

"  The  Jesuits  Unmasked ;  or  Politick  Observations 
upon  the  Ambitious  Pretensions  and  Subtle  Intreagues  of 
that  Cunning  Society.  Presented  to  all  High  Powers 
as  a  Seasonable  Discourse  at  this  Time.  4to.  Lond., 

"  Christian  Loj'alty ;  or  a  Dyscourse,  wherein  is  asserted 
that  just  Royal  Authority  and  Eminency,  which  in  this 
Church  and  Realm  of  England,  is  yielded  to  the  King. 
Especially  concerning  Supremacy  in  Causes  Ecclesiastical. 
Together  with  the  Disclaiming  all  Foreign  Jurisdiction  ; 
and  the  Unlawfulness  of  Subjects  Taking  Armes  against 
the  King.     By  William  Falkner.    8vo.     Lond.,  1679." 

"  An  Exact  Discovery  of  the  Mystery  of  Iniquity  as  it 
is  now  in  practice  among  the  Jesuits  and  other  their 
Emissaries.  With  a  particular  Account  of  their  Anti- 
christian  and  Devillish  Policy.     4to.     1679.'* 

"  The  Case  put  concerning  the  Succession  of  the  D.  of 
York.  With  some  Observations  upon  the  Political  Cate- 
chism, the  Appeal,  &c.,  and  Three  or  Four  other  Libels. 
2nd  edit,  enlarged.  [By  Sir  Roger  L'Estrange.]  Lond., 

"  Seasonable  Advice  to  all  true  Protestants  in  England 
in  this  present  Posture  of  Affairs.  Discerdlng  the  pre- 
sent Designs  of  the  Papists,  with  other  remafttable  Things, 
tending  to  the  Peace  of  the  Church,  and  the  Security  of 
the  Protestant  Religion.  By  a  Sincere  Lover  of  his  King 
and  Country.     4to.     Lond.,  1679." 

"  A  Seasonable  Memorial  in  some  Historical  Notes 
upon  the  Liberties  of  the  Press  and  Pulpit,  with  the 
Effects  of  Popular  Petitions,  Tumults,  Associations,  Im- 
postures, and  disaffected  Common  Councils.  To  all  good 
Subjects  and  true  Protestants.  4to.  Lond.,  1680."  [By 
Sir  Roger  L'Estrange,  partly  in  favour  of  the  succession  of 
the  Duke  of  York.] 

"  Three  Great  Questions  concerning  the  Succession, 
and  the  Danger  of  Popery.  Fully  examined  in  a  Letter 
to  a  Member  of  the  present  Parliament.     4to.     1680." 

"  The  True  Protestant  Subject,  or  the  Nature  and 
Rights  of  Sovereignty  discussed  and  stated.  Addressed 
to  the  Good  People. of  England.     4to.     Lond.,  1680." 

"  A  Seasonable  Address  to  both  Houses  of  Parliament 
concerning  the  Succession,  the  Fears  of  Popery,  and  Ar- 
bitrary Government.    4to.     1681." 

"  A  Conference  about  the  next  Succession  to  the  Crown 
of  England.     By  R.  Doleman.     Reprinted,  1681." 

"  The  Case  of  Protestants  in  England  under  a  Popish 
Prince,  if  any  shall  happen  to  wear  the  Imperial  Crown. 
4to.     1681." 

"  Loyalty  asserted,  in  Vindication  of  the  Oath  of  Al- 
legiance.    8vo.     1681." 

"A  Dialogue  between  the  Pope  and  a  Phanatic  con- 
cerning Affairs  in  England.  By  a  Hearty  Lover  of  his 
Prince  and  Country.     4to.     Lond.,  1681." 

"  Ursa  Major  et  Minor,  shewing  that  there  is  no  such 
Fear  as  is  factiouslv  pretended  of  Poperv  and  Arbitrary 
Power.     Lond.,  168'l." 

"  No  Protestant  Plot,  or  the  present  pretended  Con- 
spiracy of  Protestants  against  the  King  and  Government 
discovered  to  be  a  Conspiracy  of  the  Papists  against  the 
King  and  his  Protestant  Subjects.  (By  Antony  Ashley 
Cooper,  Earl  of  Shaftesbury.)     4to.     Lond.,  1681." 

"A  Letter  to  a  Friend  containing  certain  Observations 
upon  some  Passages  which  have  been  published  in  a  late 
Libel,  intituled,  The  Third  Part  of  No  Protestant  Plot ; 
and  which  do  relate  to  the  Kingdom  of  Ireland.  4to. 
Lond.,  1682." 

"  Last  Efforts  of  Afflicted  Innocence ;  being  an  Account 
of  the  Persecution  of  the  Protestants  of  France,  and  a 
Vindication  of  the  Reformed  Religion  from  the  Aspersions 
of  Disloyalty  and  Rebellion  charged  on  it  by  the  Papists, 
translated  from  the  French  by  W.  Vaughan.     1682." 

"  The  Loyaltj'  of  Popish  Principles  examined  in  answer 
to  a  late  Book  entitled  '  Stafford's  Memoirs.'  By  Robert 
Hancock.     4to.     Lond.,  1682." 

"  The  Judgment  of  an  Anonymous  Writer  concerning 
these  following  particulars :  1.  A  Law  for  Disabling  a 
Papist  to  Inherit  the  Crown,  &c.  &c.  The  second  edition, 
4to.     Lond.  1684." 

This  was  first  published  In  1674  under  a  dif- 
ferent title :  see  Biographia  Britannica.  Suppl., 
p.  95.,  n.  D.     Dr.  Geo.  Hickes  was  the  writer. 

"  The  Royal  Apology,  or  Answer  to  the  Rebel's  Plea, 
wherein  the  anti-monarchical  Tenents,  first  published  by 
Doleman  the  Jesuit,  to  promote  a  Bill  of  Exclusion  against 
King  James.  Secondh',  practised  by  Bradshaw  and  the 
Regicides  in  the  actual  Murder  of  King  Charles  the  1st. 
Thirdly,  republished  by  Sidney  and  the  Associators  to 
Depose  and  Murder  his  Present  Majesty,  are  distinctly 
considered.  With  a  Parallel  between  Doleman,  Hrad- 
shaw,  Sidney,  and  other  of  the  True  Protestant  Party. 
4to.     Lond.,  1684." 

Watt  ascribes  this  work  to  Sir  R.  L'Estrange  as 
well  as  to  Assheton. 

"  The  Apostate  Protestant.  A  Letter  to  a  Friend,  oc- 
casioned by  the  late  reprinting  of  a  Jesuit's  Book  about 
Succession  to  the  Crown  of  England,  pretended  to  have 
been  written  by  R.  Doleman.  Bj'  Edw.  Pelling.  4to. 
Lond.,  1685." 

The  first  edition  was  published  In  1682.  As- 
cribed by  Watt  to  Sir  R.  L'Estrange  also. 

"  Remarks  upon  the  reflections  of  the  Author  of  Popery 
misrepresented,  &c.,  on  his  Answerer ;  particularly  as  to 
the  deposing  Doctrine,  &c.  &c.  By  Mr.  Abednego  Seller. 
4to.     1686." 

"  Popery  anatomized ;  or  the  Papists  cleared  from  the 
false  Imputations  of  Idolatry  and  Rebellion.    4to.    1686." 

"An  Answer  of  a  Minister  of  the  Church  of  England  to 
a  Seasonable  and  Important  Question  proposed  to  him  by 
a  loyal  and  religious  Member  of  the  present  House  of 
Commons,  viz..  What  Respect  ought  the  true  Sons  of  the 
Church  of  England  in  point  of  Conscience  and  Christian 



[2nd  s.  NO  28.,  July  12.  '56. 

Prudence  to  bear  to  the  Religion  of  that  Church,  whereof 
the  King  is  a  Member.     4to.     Lend.,  1687." 

"  How  the  Members  of  the  Church  of  England  ought 
to  behave  themselves  under  a  Roman  Catholic  King,  with 
reference  to  the  Test  and  Penal  Laws.  By  a  Member  of 
the  same  Church.     12mo.     Lond.,  1687." 

"  The  True  Test  of  the  Jesuits,  or  the  Spirit  of  that 
Society  disloyal  to  God,  their  King,  and  Neighbour.  4to. 
Amsterdam,  1688." 

"  Tlie  Jesuits'  Reasons  Unreasonable.  Or  Doubts  pro- 
posed to  the  Jesuits  upon  their  Paper  presented  to  Seven 
Persons  of  Honour  for  Non -Exception  from  the  common 
favour  voted  to  Catholics.     4to.     1688." 

"The  True  Spirit  of  Popery,  or  the  treachery  and 
cruelty  of  the  Papists  exercised  against  Protestants  in  all 
ages  and  countries  when  Popery  hath  the  upper  hand, 
4to.     1688." 

"  An  Impartial  Query  for  Protestants,  viz.  Can  Good 
come  out  of  Galilee,  or  can  a  Popish  Ruler  propagate  the 
Reformed  Religion.     4to.     1688." 

"  The  Obligation  resulting  from  the  Oath  of  Supremacj' 
to  assist  and  defend  the  Prerogative  of  the  Dispensative 
Power  belonging  to  the  King.     Fol.     1688." 

"Allen's  (Will,  alias  Col.  Titus)  Killing  no  Murder, 
proving  it  lawful  to  kill  a  Tyrant.     4to.     1689." 

"  Ascham's  (Anthony)  Seasonable  Discourse  of  what  is 
lawful  during  the  Confusions  and  Revolutions  of  Go- 
vernment.   4to.     1689." 

First  published  in  1649. 

"  Brutus  (Junius)  VindiciiB  contra  Tyrannos ;  or,  a 
Defence  of  Liberty  against  Tyrants,  or  of  the  Prince  over 
the  People,  and  of  the  People  over  the  Prince,  translated. 
4to.     1689." 

The  translation  was  first  published  in  1648. 
The  original  is  by  some  ascribed  to  Hubert  Lan- 
guet,  by  others  to  Theodore  Beza.  It  was  trans- 
lated by  Walker,  the  presumed  executioner  of 
Charles  I. 

"  Sidney  Redivivus,  or  the  Opinion  of  the  late  Colonel 
Sidney  as  to  Civil  Government.    4to.     1689." 

See  tracts  relative  to  the  Revolution  in  1688. 



I  was  in  hopes  this  subject  would  have  been 
continued  (vide  1"  S.  v.  563.),  and  that  as  correct 
a  list  as  could  possibly  be  obtained  from  your  nu- 
merous correspondents  would  have  appeared  in 
your  valuable  columns  long  ere  this.  As  a  small 
confrihution  towards  so  desirable  an  object,  I  beg 
to  hand  you  the  following  motto  selected  by  Robert 
Price,  Esq  ,  of  Foxley,  co.  Hereford,  for  his  pre- 
sentation rings  on  being  made  serjeant-at-law  in 
1702  : 

"  Regina  et  Lege  gandet  Britannia." 

As  a  note  to  the  foregoing,  the  following  par- 
ticulars of  this  excellent  judge  may  not  prove  un- 
interesting. He  was  made  attorney-general  for 
South  Wales  in  1682,  and  elected  an  alderman  of 
the  city  of  Hereford.  Sat  in  the  remarkable  par- 
liament of  the  same  year  when  the  Act  of  Exclu- 

sion was  brought  in,  against  which  he  voted.  In 
1683,  Recorder  of  Radnor.  After  the  death  of 
Charles  IE.,  in  1684,  was  steward  to  her  majesty 
Catherine,  the  queen-dowagei'.  Elected  town 
clerk  for  the  city  of  Gloucester  in  1685.  King's 
counsel  at  Ludlow,  under  James  II.,  in  1686.  In 
1695,  he  strenuously  and  successfully  opposed  the 
exorbitant  grant  which  the  king,  William  III., 
proposed  to  confer  on  his  favourite,  the  Earl  of 
Portland.  In  1702,  was  made  one  of  the  Barons 
of  the  Exchequer  ;  in  which  Court  he  presided 
nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century.  And  on  the  death 
of  Mr.  Justice  Dormer  in  1726,  he  succeeded  him 
in  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  where  he  presided 
till  his  death,  which  took  place  at  Kensington  on 
Feb.  2,  1732,  in  his  seventy-ninth  year.  He  was 
buried  at  Yazor,  in  the  county  of  Hereford. 

What  relation  was  he  to  the  present  Sir  Robert 
Price,  Bart.,  of  Foxley  in  that  county  ? 

J.  B.  Whitborne. 

PLAT  BY  ST.  Paul's  eots  at  Greenwich,  1527. 

In  his  recently-published  History  of  England, 
Mr.  Froude  makes  an  extract  from  an  old  MS., 
which  he  introduces  in  a  manner  that  would  lead 
to  the  belief  that  it  had  never  before  been  pub- 

It  had  been  used  by  Mr.  Collier  in  the  Annals 
of  the  Stage,  and  connected  by  him  with  the  same 
passage  from  Hall.  With  those  unacquainted  with 
the  fact,  Mr.  Fronde's  language  might  deprive 
Mr.  Collier  of  some  of  the  praise  that  belongs 
to  him  for  the  compilation  of  his  extraordinary 
book,  which,  while  it  is  the  evidence  of  his  wonder- 
ful industry,  is  also  its  best  monument. 

His  History  of  England  bears  unmistakeable 
evidence  of  truthfulness,  but  unfriendly  critics 
might  say  that  in  this  case  Mr.  Froude  has  shown 
a  want  of  candour. 

As  I  cannot  think  it  such,  I  would  place  the 
coincidence^n  record  in  "  N.  &  Q.,"  that  a  future 
misunderstaWing  may  be  avoided. 

At  p.  62.  vol.  i.,  Mr.  Froude  says  : 

"As  I  desire  in  this  chapter  not  only  to  relate  what 
were  the  habits  of  the  people,  but  to  illustrate  them  also, 
within  such  compass  as  I  can  allow  myself,  I  shall  tran- 
scribe out  of  Hall  a  description  of  a  play  which  was  acted 
by  the  boys  of  St.  Paul's  School  in  1527,  at  Greenwich, 
adding  some  particulars,  not  mentioned  by  Hall,  from 
another  source.*     .    .     . 

Here  follows  the  passage  from  Hall,  at  the  con- 
clusion of  which  Mr.  Froude  continues : 

"  So  far  Hall  relates  the  scene,  but  there  was  more  in 
the  play  than  he  remembered,  or  cared  to  notice,  and  / 
am  able  to  complete  this  curious  picture  of  a  pageant  once 

*  77)6  Personages,  Dresses,  and  Properties  of  a  Mystery 
Play,  acted  at  Greenwicli,  by  Command  of  Henry  VIII- 
Rolls  House  MS. 

2nd  g.  No  28..  July  12.  '56.3  NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


really  and  truly  a  living  spectacle  in  the  old  Palace  at 
Greenwich,  by  an  inventory  of  the  dresses  worn  by  the 
boys,  and  a  list  of  the  dramatis  personm. 

"  The  schoolboys  of  St.  Paul's  were  taken  down  the 
river  with  the  master  in  six  boats,  at  the  cost  of  a  shilling 
a  boat ;  the  cost  of  the  dresses  and  the  other  expenses 
amounting  in  all  to  sixty-one  shillings.  The  characters 
were, — 

"  An  orator  in  apparel  of  cloth  of  gold. 

"Religio,  Ecclesia,  Veritas,  like  three  widows,  in  gar- 
ments of  silk,  and  suits  of  lawn  and  cypress.^ 

"  Heresy  and  False  Interpretation,  like  sisters  of  Bo- 
hemia, apparelled  in  silk  of  divers  colours. 

"  The  heretic  Luther,  like  a  party  friar  in  russet  da- 
mask and  black  taffety. 

"  Luther's  wife,  like  a  frow  of  Spiers  in  Almayn,  in  red 
Bilk,"  &c. 

At  p.  107.  vol.  i.  of  the  Annals  of  the  Stage, 
published  five-and-twenty  years  ago,  Mr.  Collier 
thus  introduces  the  same  passage  : 

"The  original  account  by  Richard  Gibson,  in  his  own 
writing,  giving  a  variety  of"  details  regarding  this  extra- 
ordinary exhibition,  is  now  in  my  hands*  ;  and  although 
he  was  evidently  an  illiterate  man,  and  wrote  a  bad  hand, 
and  although  the  paper  is  considerably  worm-eaten,  the 
•whole  is  legible  and  intelligible We  after- 
wards arrive  at  the  following  enumeration  and  description 
of  the  singular  characters  in  this  remarkable  interlude : 

"  The  kyng's  plessyer  was  that  at  the  sayd  revells  by 
clerks  in  the  latyn  tong  schouUd  be  playd  in  hys  hy 
presens  a  play,  where  of  insewethe  the  naames.  First  a 
Orratur  in  apparell  of  goUd  :  a  Poyed  (Poet)  in  apparell 
of  cloothe  of  goUd :  Relygyun,  Ecclesia,  Verritas,  lyke  iij 
nowessys  (novices)  in  garments  of  syllke,  and  vayells  of 
laun  and  sypers  (cypress) :  Errysy  (Heresy)  Falls-inter- 
prytacyun,  Corupcyoscryptoriis,  lyke  ladys  of  Beem  (Bo- 
hemia?) inperelld  in  garments  of  syllke  of  dyvers  kolours : 
the  errytyke  Lewter  (Luther)  lyke  a  party  freer  (iriar)  in 
russet  damaske  and  blake  taffata  :  Lewter's  wyef  (wife) 
like  a  frow  of  Spyers  in  Allmayn,  in  red  syllke,  &c.  &c.    . 

"  It.  payd  by  me  Rychard  Gybson,  for  vj  boots  (boats) 
to  karry  the  Master  of  Powlls  SkooU  and  the  chyldyrn  as 
well  hoom  as  to  the  Kourt  to  every  boot  12d. ;  so  payd 
for  frayght  for  the  chyldyrn  6s." 




Unpublished  Letter  of  Judge  Jeffryes.  —  The 
publication  of  Macaulay's  History  of  England  has 
drawn  much  attention  to  the  actors  in  the  events 
of  the  era  of  the  Revolution.  The  following  let- 
ter was  sent  by  this  judge  of  infamous  memory  to 
the  Mayor  of  Preston,  on  the  subject  of  the  sur- 
render of  the  municipal  charter  of  that  ancient 
borough  in  the  latter  portion  of  the  reign  of 
Charles  II.  The  charter  was  regranted.  It 
would  appear  that  the  judge  was  an  adept  in  the 
"  soft  sawder  "  line  : 

*  The  official  cogjf  of  it,  made  out  from  Gibson's  rough 
draught,  and  signed  by  Sir  Henry  Guildford  (as  Comp- 
troller of  the  Household)  and  by  Gibson,  is  in  the 
Chapter-House,  Westminster. 

"I  reed  yours  with  an  accompt  of  yo'  comunicating  my 
last  to  yo'  Brethren,  and  I  am  shure  nothing  I  sayd 
therein  could  be  more  pleasing  to  any  of  you  then  my 
being  in  condicon  to  doe  you  any  act  of  Service  or  ffriend-  , 
ship  is  to  me  and  as  a  Testimony  of  my  Sincerity  therein 
I  shall  for  y«  pnt  and  as  long  as  I  live  give  you  y«  best 
assistance  I  am  capable  off  nor  shall  yo'  Corporation  be 
any  wayes  Injured  in  any  of  your  priviledges  if  I  can 
prevent.  In  my  last  I  hinted  to  you  y«  most  pper  time 
for  your  attendance  upon  his  Sacred  Ma"®  and  shall 
hasten  y«  Confirmation  of  your  Chart"^  with  as  much  ease 
both  of  Charge  and  Trouble  as  possible  can  be.  His 
Mat»«  has  again  comanded  me  to  take  an  especiall  Care  on 
your  behalf,  and  y*  you  may  find  y«  elferts  of  his  Gratious 
acceptance  of  yo"^  unanimous  and  loyall  submission  to  his 
Royall  pleasure  by  his  bounty  in  yo"^  next  Charf,  and  so 
I  wish  you  and  all  your  Brethren  all  happiness,  and 

"Your  most  ffaithful  ffriend  and 

"  Oblidged  serv*, 

"  Geo.  Jeffryes. 

«  London,  Sept.  29th,  84." 

The  superscription  is,  — 

James  Ashton,  Esq.,  Mayor 

of  Preston  att  Preston  in 



The  Crystal  Palace  and  the  Monuments  of  the 
Templars  and  Freemasons  of  the  Middle  Ages.  — 
At  a  time  when  the  very  sinews  of  nations  are 
strained  to  erect  buildings  amongst  heaps  of 
ledgers,  cash-books,  &c.,  we  forget  that  those  far 
superior  Minsters  of  the  Middle  Ages  are  owing 
to  a  secret  association,  the  Lodges  and  Bauhiltten 
of  whom  had  nothing  at  their  command  but  en- 
thusiasm and  self-devotion  to  a  great  cause.  Their 
archives  and  banners  (rouge,  blanc,  bleu  I)  Vanished 
with  the  men  who  possessed  them  ;  still,  they  left 
their  mystical  emblems  on  the  stupendous  euiflces 
of  their  creation.  It  was  also  the  Knights  Templars 
who  extorted  from  John  Plaiitaganet  the  Ma^na 
Charta — a  possession  far  exceeding  any  thing  ob- 
tained during  the  six  hundred  years  I'oUowing. 
Such  an  order  of  men,  and  its  imprints  and  monu- 
ments, deserve  a  place  in  any  art  or  architectural 
collection,  which  lays  claim  to  even  comparative 
completeness.  There  exists  in  a  not  large  but 
charmipg  Templar  church  at  Schongrabem 
(Grave- beauty  !)  in  Austria,  a  series  of  alto- 
relievos  representing  the  very  rites  and  mysteries 
of  the  old  Knights  Templars,  which  Hammer  has 
figured  in  his  Mines  d  Orient.  They  are  perfectly 
well  preserved,  as  the  building  lying  somewhat 
aside  the  high  road  escaped  the  ravages  of  bigoted 
Vandalism.  Models  of  these  most  curious  rites 
and  mysteries,  together  with  similar  representa- 
tions, probably  existing  on  some  ancient  buildings 



[2°^  S.  No  28.,  July  12.  '56. 

of  France,  England,  &c.,  would  form  an  interest- 
ing series,  illustrating  the  history  of  those  builders 
and  artists,  whose  works  all  our  boasted  hut  Jejune 
and  formal  skill  has  not  yet  surpassed. 

P.  S.  The  name  of  the  sculptor  under  Goethe's 
jouth-hust  in  the  Crystal  Palace  ought  to  be  Trip- 
pel  and  not  Frippel.  J.  Lotskt,  Panslave. 

Inscription.  — In  the  Harl.  MS.  6894.  (p.  91.), 
occurs  the  following  ungallant  couplet : 

"  On  the  atchievement  of  a  married  Lady  deceased  at 
Stanmore  Magna,  Middlesex : 

"  Satis  mihi  propitius  est  Deus, 
Quod  ego  adlmc  superstes  sum." 

"  God  has  to  me  sufficiently  been  kind, 
To  take  mv  wife,  and  leave  me  here  behind." 

J.  Y. 
Concert  for  Horses.  — 

"  The  eccentric  Lord  Holland  of  the  reign  of  William 
in.  used  to  give  his  horses  a  weekly  concert  in  a  covered 
gallery  specially  erected  for  the  purpose.  He  maintained 
that  it  cheered  their  hearts,  and  improved  their  temper, 
and  an  eye-witness  says  that  'the}'  seemed  to  be  greatly 
delighted  therewith.' "  —  Stray  Leaves  from  the  Book  of 

R.  W.  Hackwood. 

Funeral  Expenses.  —  Funeral  expenses,  100 
years  ago,  were,  very  different  from  what  they  are 
now.  I  give  you  two  accounts  of  some  Quaker 
ancestors  of  mine,  buried  at  that  time  :  — 

The  funeral  expenses  of  Edward  Halsey,  June 
9,  1751,  his  wife  executrix,  as  per  bill,  cost  37/. 
He  died  in  London,  and  buried  at  Wandsworth. 
Twelve  glass-coaches  and  six  hackney  coaches 

The  funeral  expenses  of  John  Smith,  Esq.,  of 
Stockwell  House,  Surrey,  July  23,  1757,  cost 
171.  lis.  Five  glass-coaches  followed,  his  son, 
Daniel  Smith,  executor. 

Mourning  coaches  were  not  allowed  by  Quakers, 
neither  black  habiliments,  but  everything  new  was 
put  on  at  that  time.  Julia  R.  Bockbtt. 

Southcote  Lodge. 

*'  To  call  a  spade  a  spade."  —  Some  of  your  cor- 
respondents are  doubtless  able  to  trace  this  ex- 
pression, if  not  to  its  origin,  to  a  much  earlier 
period  than  I  am  in  the  following  writers.*  Baxter, 
in  his  Narrative  of  the  most  Memorable  Passages 
of  his  Life  and  Times,  1696,  thus  introduces  it: 

"  I  have  a  strong  natural  inclination  to  speak  of  every 
subject  just  as  it  is,  and  to  call  a  spade  a  spade,  and  verba 
rebus  optare,  so  as  that  the  thing  spoken  of  may  be  fulliest 
known  by  the  words,  which  methinks  is  part  of  our 
speaking  truly.  But  I  unfeignedly  confess  that  it  is 
faulty,  because  imprudent." 

This  is  the  passage  referred  to  by  Mr.  Blunt  in 
his  posthumous  work,  Duties  of  the  Parish  Priest. 

[*  See  our  !'*■  S.  iv.  274. 456.,  for  some  earlier  instances 
of  the  use  of  this  saying.] 

A  later  writer  of  a  very  different  school  to 
Baxter — Dr.  Arbuthnot — in  his  Dissertations 
upon  the  Art  of  Selling  Bargains,  says  : 

"  In  the  native  region  of  our  itinerant  salesman,  there 
is  an  immemorial  prescriptitn/or  calling  a  spade  a  spade ; 
they  are  not  over  curious  in  using  circumlocutions  or 
other  fgurative  modes  of  speech,  but  choose  rather  to  ex- 
press themselves  in  the  most  plain  and  proper  words  of 
their  Mother-Tongue." 

Swift  is  quoted  as  using  this  expression,  but  I 
have  no  reference  to  the  particular  passage  in  his 
writings  where  it  may  be  found. 

Ray  has  given  this  amongst  his  Proverbial 
Phrases,  but  without  a  comment.  J.  H.  M. 

Inscriptions  on  Houses.  —  In  the  village  of  Ax- 
mouth,  Devon,  the  houses  are  for  the  most  part 
built  of  small  stone  or  of  cob  ;  but  the  chimney- 
stacks  are  carefully  constructed  of  cut  stone,  and 
form  the  most  elaborate  and  ornamented  portion 
of  the  edifice. 

A  few  minutes'  leisure  enabled  me  to  copy  the 
following  inscriptions  carved  on  the  chimney  tops, 
and  from  a  glance  at  the  character  of  the  farm- 
houses visible  from  the  road,  I  have  no  doubt 
but  that  such  records  are  characteristic  of  the  dis- 
trict. Any  of  your  correspondents  who  may  love 
the  secluded  nooks  where  beauty  nestles  and  an- 
tiquity lingers,  may  find  occupation  here. 

On  a  house  whose  windows  are  deeply  embayed 
in  flourishing  myrtle,  is  the  following : 
"Anno  Britannico 


On  another  at  the  entrance  of  the  village : 

« 1570. 
God  qiveth  all." 

S.  R.  Pattison. 
1.  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields. 

Toledo  Blades.  —  I  send  the  marks  and  inscrip- 
tions upon  the  few  examples  I  possess  of  these 
blades.  On  a  flamboyant  dagger  of  the  seven- 
teenth century  : 

+  +  +  +  EN   TOLEDO  •     +  + 

On  faulchion  of  the  sixteenth  century  : 

•    \     •    IVAN    •     ;     •    MARTINES    •     |     •    EN   •    TOLEDO    |     • 
•  [   IN  TE   DOMINE    [  •    ESPERAVI   [  •- 

On  flamboyant  rapier : 


and  the  figure  of  a  heart. 
On  rapier  :  on  one  side 

EE   »N»T»0»L»E#D»0»«» 

on  the  other 

T*V*N»0«D»E    •*•    »    • 


I  have  used  Roman  capitals,  as  it  is  not  to  be 

2nds.N''28.,^uLYi^.»56.]  NOTES  ANt)  QUERIES. 


expected  that  "N.  &  Q."  could  reproduce  the 
semi-gothic  forms  of  the  original  characters. 

W.  J.  Bebnhar©  Smith. 





(2"'»  S.  i.  452.) 

Since  writing  these  Notes  and  Queries  I  have 
found  or  been  furnished  with  answers  to  some  of 
the  latter,  but  first  I  must  correct  an  error  in  my 
Notes.  The  family  name  of  Isabella,  wife  of 
Richard  Rawson,  the  sheriff  of  London  in  1476, 
was  not  Trafford,  but  Craford. 

One  of  her  sons,  John,  mentioned  in  her  will 
as  a  knight  of  Rhodes,  bore  two  coats  quarterly  : 
the  first  Is,  parted  per  fess  undee,  sa,  and  az.  a 
castle  with  4  towers  arg.  (Rawson)  ;  the  second 
is,  Or,  on  a  chevron,  vert,  3  ravens  heads  erased, 
arg.  (Craford),  ensigned  all  over  with  a  chief 
gules,  and  thereon  a  cross  of  the  third.  (Gwillim's 
Display  of  Heraldry^  p.  435.) 

This  Sir  John  Rawson  was  elected  Prior  of 
Kilmainham  in  1511,  and  by  order  of  King  Henry 
VIII.  was  sworn  of  the  Privy  Council  of  Ireland. 
In  1517  he  was  Lord  Treasurer  of  that  kingdom. 
In  1526,  on  the  request  of  King  Henry  VIII.  to 
the  Grand  Master,  he  was  appointed  Turcopolier 
of  the  Order  of  Knights  of  St.  John,  which  office 
he  exchanged  with  Sir  John  Babington  for  the  dig- 
nity of  Prior  of  Ireland,  and  in  33rd  Henry  VIII. 
he  surrendered  the  Priory  of  Kilmainham  to  the 
king,  obtaining  a  pension  of  300  marks  out  of  the 
estates  of  the  hospital,  and  as  he  had  sate  in  the 
Irish  House  of  Lords  as  Prior  of  Kilmainham,  he 
exchanged  his  spiritual  dignity  for  a  temporal 
peerage,  being  created  Viscount  Clontarff.  (Query 
if  for  life  only.) 

This  title  became  extinct  in  1560;  I  presume 
upon  his  death  :  but  he  is  said  to  have  left  a 
daughter,  Catherine,  married  to  Rowland  Whyte, 
second  Baron  of  the  Exchequer.  (Notices  of 
Babingtons,  Knts.  of  St.  John,  GentlemarCs  Mag. 
for  June,  1856,  p.  564.  Archdall's  Monasticon 
Hihernicum,  title  Kilmainham.) 

The  names  of  Alured  and  Averey  are  identical. 
See  "  Charters  of  Marrigg  Abbey"  {Collectanea 
Topographica  et  Genealogica,  vol.  v.  p.  246.  et 
seq.)  as  to  Alvered  or  Averye  Uvedale. 

Mr.  Hunter  in  his  History  of  the  Deanery  of 
Doncaster,  gives  a  pedigree  of  the  Rawsons  of 
Bessacar  Grange,  from  the  Visitations  of  1563, 
1585,  and  1612,  wherein  Henry  Rawson  of  Bes- 
sacar Grange,  Averey  Rawson,  and  Christopher 
Rawson,  appear  to  have  been  sons  of  James  Raw- 

son  of  Fryston  ;  and  he  says  that  Henry  Rawson, 
in  his  will,  dated  May  12,  1500,  mentions  his 
brothers,  Averey  and  Christopher  Rawson,  mer- 
chants in  London  ;  but  Averey  and  Christopher 
Rawson  were  undoubtedly  sons  of  Richard  Raw- 
son,  the  sheriff,  as  appears  from  the  wills  of  their 
father  and  mother,  and  that  of  Christopher  ;  and, 
therefore,  unless  there  were  two  Avereys  and  two 
Christophers  merchants  in  London  at  the  same 
time,  there  must  be  an  error  in  the  pedigree ; 
and  it  is  probable  that  Henry  Rawson  of  Bessacar, 
and  his  brothers,  Averey  and  Christopher,  sons  of 
Richard  Rawson,  were  not  sons,  but  nephews  or 
grandsons  of  James  Rawson,  of  Fryston. 
I  am  still  desirous  of  knowing  — 

1.  In  what  part  of  Essex  the  Crafords  (not 
TrafTords)  were  seated. 

2.  The  place  of  interment  of  Dr.  Richard  Raw- 
son,  Archdeacon  of  Essex,  and  Dean  of  Windsor, 
ob.  1543,  if  any  monument  remains  of  him,  and  a 
reference  to  his  will. 

3.  The  like  as  to  Sir  John  Rawson,  Prior  of 
Kilmainham,  and  afterwards  Viscount  Clontarff, 
ob.  (as  I  presume)  1560. 

4.  Any  further  particulars  of  him  or  his  de- 
scendants, through  his  daughter,  Catherine,  wife 
of  Rowland  Whyte. 

5.  Was  that  Rowland  Whyte  the  Sir  Rowland 
Whytt,  mentioned  in  Mr.  Winthrop's  List  of 
Knights  of  St.  John  (A"  1528),  in  "  N.  &  Q." 
(P'  S.  viii.  192.)  ;  and  Sir  Rowland  Whyte,  men- 
tioned in  Gentleman's  Magazine,  June,  1856, 
p.  569.,  as  having  been  appointed,  with  Sir  James 
Babington  to  the  commandery  of  Swinfield,  Kent. 
The  arms  of  Sir  John  Rawson  as  given  by  Gwil- 
lim,  i.e.  Rawson  and  Craford  quarterly,  ensigned 
over  with  the  Cross  of  the  Order  of  St.  John, 
were  in  one  of  the  windows  of  Swingfield  church. 
(Hasted's  Kent,  vol.  viii.  (8vo.)  p.  12.^.)  Was  he 
buried  there  ? 

6.  The  connexion  between  the  present  fami- 
lies of  Rawsons  in  Yorkshire  and  Lancashire,  and 
those  of  Fryston,  Bessacar,  London,  and  Essex 
before  mentioned,  through  the  Rawsons  of  Shipley 
or  otherwise.  G.  R.  C. 

smith's    "  HISTORY    OF   KERRY. 

I  have  two  copies  of  this  work,  nosTiace  and 
book  :  one  being  so  beautifully  clean,  a^ersonal  ap- 
good  condition,  that  I  was  tempted  +-'»"  of  noble, 
*'.  ,         n  I  J,  r  '      /I        nis  day  could 

either  for  myself  or  some  friend.    ^^^[^^^  ^j^^^  ^^ 

"  copies,"  but  they  are  not  strictly  S'l^jg  time,  so  fm 
of  my  old,  but  fine  copy,  being  : 

"  The  Antient  and  Present  State  oeech  by  Sheriff 
Kerrv.    Being  a  Natural,  Civil,  Ecclesia  monument  to 
and  iTopographical  Description  thereof,  gported  in  The 
Remarks  made  on  the  Baronies,  Pari    ^ 
lages,  Seats,  Mountains,  Rivers,  Harb< 
Medicinal  Waters,    Fossils,  Animals,  ondents  will  be 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.  [2««>s.no28.,July12.'56. 

with  useful  Notes  and  Observations,  on  the  further  Im- 
provement of  this  part  of  Ireland.  Embellished  with  a 
large  Map  of  the  County  from  an  actual  Survey ;  a  Per- 
spective View  of  the  Lake  of  Killarney,  and  other  Plates. 
Undertaken  with  the  Approbation  oip  the  Physico-His- 
torical  Society.  By  Charles  Smith,  Author  of  the  Natural 
and  Civil  Histories  of  the  Counties  of  Cork  and  Water- 
ford."  Then  a  Latin  motto  from  Pliny,  which  it  is  not 
here  necessary  to  give,  followed  by — "  Dublin:  printed 
for  the  Author,  and  sold  by  Messrs.  Ewing,  Faulkner, 
Wilson,  and  Exshaw,  mdcclvi." 

The  title  of  my  later  purchase  is  — 

"  The  Ancient  and  Present  State  of  the  County  of 
Kerry.  Containing  a  Natural,  Civil,  Ecclesiastical,  His- 
torical and  Topographical  Description  thereof.  By  Charles 
Smith,  M.D.,  Author  of  the  Natural  and  Civil  Histories 
of  the  Counties  of  Cork  and  Waterford  "  Then  the  same 
quotation  from  Pliny  as  on  the  other  title-page,  after 
which  a  vignette  of  the  Irish  harp,  between  two  branches, 
followed  by  —  "  Dublin:  printed  for  the  Author." 

Facing  this  latter  title  is  a  portrait  of  "  C.  Smith, 
M.D.,"  the  author.  The  books  are  in  all  other 
respects  the  same,  except  that  the  "  contents' " 
leaf  is  placed  before  the  "dedication"  in  the  copy 
lately  obtained  ;  but  the  paging  settles  this. 

I  have  seen  several  copies  of  Smith's  Kerry, 
and  I  do  not  remember  that  any  of  them  had  the 
portrait  except  two  —  my  own  and  one  other. 
Can  any  one  explain  for  me,  why  the  title-pages 
of  my  two  copies  are  different  ?  and  why  one  has 
the  portrait,  which  the  other  has  not  ?  Has  the 
second  title,  above  given  (without  date,  as  will 
have  .been  observed),  been  substituted  for  the 
original '  one,  and  the  portrait  added  by  some 
bookseller  after  the  first  publication  of  the  work  ? 

E.  H. 


Wishing  to  ascertain  the  relative  value  and 
estimation  of  a  particular  edition  of  Birch's 
Lives  of  Illustrious  Men,  with  portraits  by  Hou- 
braken  and  Vertue,  I  have  consulted  such  biblio- 
graphical works  on  the  subject  as  were  within  my 
reach,  and  am  surprised  to  find  them  generally  so 

Lowndes  mentions  the  edit.  Lond.  1743,  52  pi., 

two  vols.,  saying  that  two  hundred  copies  were 

struck  off  on  large  paper,  viz.  one  hundred  before, 

and  one  hundred  after  the  small  paper  copies. 

oj  /(/^Jso,  that  an  edition,  with  retouched  impressions 

"  I  have  a  St'®®'  appeared  in  1813,  on  small  and  large 

subject  just  as  i 

rebus  optare,  so  an  his  Library  Companion,  says  that  in 
known  by  the  w^rth  in  one  magnificent  folio  volume 
speaking  truly.  Tgads  of  Illustrious  Persons,  but  does 
faulty,  because  imp  ^,        -^        ,        ,  ■      ^^im      x 

■'  the  second  volume  m  1752.     rn   a 

This  is  the  paste  he  describes  the  edition  of  1756  ; 
his  posthumous  v^q  there  being  three  sorts  of  paper, 

_.   _  ;;    iTTd  imperial,  as  noticed  by  Brilnet. 

ofLtro7t;;ssa?-f- ^-^•.  article  -  Birch,-  says 
J  or  this  work,  which  came  out  m 

numbers,  was  completed  in  1747,  and  the  second 
in  1752. 

Brunet  gives  the  edition  1743-52,  two  tom.  in 
one.  He  calls  the  edition  of  1756  the  second 
edition,  in  which  the  plates  are  generally  chiffres^ 
which  those  of  the  first  edition  are  not. 

De  Bure  gives  only  the  edition  of  London, 

Now  this  appears  a  loose  and  imperfect  account 
of  this  celebrated  publication,  since  none  of  these 
bibliographers,  except  Dr.  Kippis,  appear  to  men- 
tion the  edition  which  I  have  before  me,  viz. 
Lond.  1747,  two  vols,  in  one,  and  which  may 
properly  be  considered  as  the  second  edition  —  as 
far  as  relates  to  the  letter-press  —  for  tliat,  no 
doubt,  as  Dibdin  mentions,  was  several  times  re- 
printed, but  the  plates  in  my  copy  are,  I  conceive, 
of  the  first  impression. 

I  should  be  glad  to  receive  a  more  precise  and 
full  account  of  the  several  editions  of  this  work, 
and  to  learn  whether  there  is  any  material  differ- 
ence between  them  in  the  estimation  of  book  col- 
lectors. R.  G. 

Admission  of  Foreigners  to  Corporation  Honours. 
— A  Citizen  of  Edinburgh  desires  information  on 
the  point  as  to  whether  a  foreigner  not  natu- 
ralised by  Act  of  Parliament,  or  otherwise,  can 
receive  the  freedom  of  a  city  or  other  munici- 
pality in  this  country.  The  question  is  suggested 
by  the  fact  of  the  freedom  of  the  city  of  Edin- 
burgh having  been  conferred  on  Dr.  D'Aubigne, 
the  historian  of  the  Reformation,  during  a  visit 
made  to  Scotland  recently  by  that  distinguished 
and  estimable  man. 

Crests  and  Mottoes.  —  The  subjoined  extract, 
from  the  National  Index  to  the  Harl.  Mis.  (vol.  ii. 
p.  43.),  suggests  a  question  not  undeserving  the 
attention  of  your  correspondents  versed  in  he- 
raldry : 

"  Num.  1422.,  art.  16.  Arms  (mostlj'  without  erests) 
given  in  the  time  of  Henry  5 ;  and  since,  in  the  reigns  of 
Henry  6«^  Edward  4*^,  Richard  S^d,  Henry  7,  and  Henry 
^^\  &c.  &c." 

Without  assuming  or  denying  the  fact,  that 
occasionally  arms  were  granted  during  the  period 
of  those  reigns  without  crests,  it  is  but  a  reason- 
able question  to  ask  why  many  coats  do  not  pos- 
sess the  usual,  and  frequently  the  most  significant 
additions  of  a  crest  ? 

The  same  Query  may  be  extended  to  the  motto, 
or  rather  the  omission  of  a  cherished  sentence  or 
abbreviated  allusion  to  some  event  sought  to  be 
recorded,  and  interesting  to  the  bearer's  family. 

The  omission,  in  both  instances,  is  not  to  be 
doubted ;  but,  whether  station  in  society,  merit, 
services,  oi*  pecuniary  considerations  had  any  in- 

2»d  S.  No  28.,  July  12.  '56.] 


fluence  on  the  matter,  is  the  question  to  which  an 
explanatory  reply  is  requested. 

Henry  Daveney. 

Christian  Names.  —  What  is  the  meaning  of  the 
practice  which  prevails  in  the  United  States,  of 
inserting  between  a  man's  Christian  name  and 
surname  a  letter  of  the  alphabet  ?  Is  this  part  of 
his  baptismal  name,  and  the  initial  of  a  second 
Christian  name,  or  the  name  itself?  It  seems 
that  in  our  own  country  a  letter  may  be,  and 
sometimes  is,  a  good  name  of  baptism.  In  the 
case  of  The  Queen  v.  Dale^  17  Queen's  Bench 
Reports,  p.  66.,  Lord  Campbell,  C.  J.,  said,  with 
reference  to  an  objection  that  the  name  of  a 
person  mentioned  in  a  declaration  was  not  stated 
in  full : 

"I  do  not  see  that  there  is  anj'  reason  for  supposing 
that  the  magistrate's  actual  name  is  not  '  J.  H.  Harper.' 
There  is  no  doubt  that  a  vowel  may  be  a  good  Christian 
name ;  why  not  a  consonant  ?  I  have  been  informed  by 
a  gentleman  of  the  bar,  sitting  here,  on  whose  accuracy 
we  can  rely,  that  he  knows  a  lady  who  was  baptized  by 
the  name  of '  D.'  Why  may  not  a  gentleman  as  well  be^ 
baptized  by  a  consonant  ?  " 

Medal  of  Charles  I.  and  Henrietta  Maria.  —  I 
have  in  my  possession  an  oval  silver  medal,  with 
the  head  of  Charles  I.  on  one  side,  and  on  the 
other  that  of  Henrietta  his  queen.  This  medal  is 
said  to  have  been  made  from  the  plate  melted  up 
by  the  nobility  and  gentry  for  the  king's  service, 
and  to  have  been  worn  as  a  badge  of  loyalty.  It 
has  a  small  ring  at  each  end,  as  if  to  sew  it  on  to 
the  hat  or  coat.  Can  any  of  the  readers  of  "  N. 
&  Q-"  give  me  any  information  respectiVig  it  ? 

G.  H.  C.  (A  Subscriber.) 

Passports.  —  In  the  case  of  the  present  dis- 
turbed state  of  feeling  betwixt  this  country  and 
the  United  States,  the  word  passports  occurs.  It 
may  be  worth  while  to  inquire  what  this  means, 
and  whether  it  is  not  a  mere  meaningless  term, 
borrowed  from  another  and  different  domestic 
policy  than  obtains  in  the  one  case  and  the  other. 
In  Russia  or  France,  for  example,  a  passport  is 
necessary  in  order  that  one  may  be  entitled  to 
enter  the  country,  and  I  assume  the  same  autho- 
risation is  necessary  in  leaving.  But  in  the  United 
Kingdom  and  in  the  States,  locomotion  is  free  to 
everybody  whatever,  not  detained  in  a  regular 
way  as  a  criminal  or  debtor.  What  is  free  to  a 
private  party  is  certainly  no  less  the  right  of  an 
ambassador.  Still,  as  the  word  passports  is  used, 
I  would  be  glad  if  some  of  your  correspondents 
would  explain  what  it  means  in  the  specific  case 
indicated.  Scotus. 

Greek  and  Queen  Elizabeth.  —  Hallam  (citing 
Peck's  Desiderata  Curiosa,  p.  270.)  notes  it  as  a 
mark  of  the  revival  of  the  English  Uiiiversities, 
that  at  Cambridge  an  address  was  delivered  to 

Elizabeth  in  Greek  verse,  to  which  she  returned 
an  answer  in  the  same  language.  This  was  ia 
1564.  Is  this  account  a  mistaken  tradition  of  the 
following,  or  are  we  to  say  that  tivo  Greek  ad- 
dresses are  on  record  ? 

To  a  small  edition  (London,  1669,  12mo.)  of 
the  Parcenesis  of  Isocrates  is  appended  (without 
date)  a  speech  in  Greek  made  to  Queen  Elizabeth 
at  Trinity  College  by  Doddington,  the  Greek 
Professor.  It  is  added  that  there  might  not  be 
too  many  fly-leaves;  as  appears  by  the  heading, 
"  Ne  post  terminum  immodica  esset  vacatio,  en  tibi." 
The  speech  follows,  in  Greek  and  Latin ;  after 
which  comes  a  Latin  address,  informing  the  Queen 
that  her  humble  servants  are  ready  to  repeat  in 
Latin  what  had  just  been  said  in  Greek.  To  this 
she  answfered :  "Ego  iiitelligo,  non  est  opus,  'Ara- 
•ywdxTKO}  vfj-wy  r)]v  euvoiav:  "  unless  indeed  the  Latin 
be  the  editor's  translation  of  the  Queen's  Greek, 
in  which  case  she  must  be  supposed  to  have  spoken- 
very  satirically  of  their  kind  oflFer  to  translate. 


Norfolk  Clergymen  suspended. — It  is  commonly 
believed  in  various  parts  of  Norfolk  that  some 
years  ago,  in  that  county,  a  clergyman  was  sus- 
pended from  exercising  the  functions  of  his  office 
for  having  in  the  pulpit  offered  to  bet  upon  a 
certain  black  dog  which  had  unluckily  and  pro- 
fanely selected  the  holy  edifice  for  a  ring  in  which 
to  fiuht  a  pitched  battle  with  another  of  the  canine 
species  of  some  other  colour.  The  tale  is  exceed- 
ingly improbable,  and  is  rendered  more  so  by 
the  fact,  that  to  my  knowledge  at  least  a  dozen 
clergymen  in  different  parishes  have  received  the 
benefit  of  having  this  profane  act  attributed  ta 
them  ;  but  as  I  have  not  unfrequently  come  in 
contact  with  persons  who  declare  that  the  circum- 
stance came  under  their  own  personal  observation, 
I  should  be  glad  if  some  of  your  Norfolk  corre- 
spondents would  inform  me  whether  there  is  any 
small  moiety  of  truth  in  the  report,  or  whether  it 
is  an  entire  fabrication  belonging  to  the  domaia 
of  myths,  being,  to  use  a  Norfolk  expression, 
"  made  out  of  whole  stuff." 

G.  Sexton,  M.D.,  F.R.G.S. 

Kennington  Cross. 

Remote  Traditions  through  few  Links.  — 

"  In  the  fifteenth  century  King  James  I.  (of  Scotland) 
met  with  an  old  lady  who  remembered  Wallace  and. 
Bruce,  and  he  inquired  eagerly  about  their  personal  ap- 
pearance. She  told  him  that  Bruce  was  a  man  of  noble, 
admirable  appearance,  and  that  no  man  of  his  day  could 
compete  with  him  in  strength.  But  she  added,  that  so 
far  as  Bruce  excelled  all  the  other  men  of  his  time,  so  iax 
did  Wallace  excel  Bruce  in  strength." 

The  preceding  extract  is  from  a  speech  by  Sheriflf 
Bell  at  a  meeting  at  Stirlinfj  for  a  monument  to 
the  memory  of  Sir  W.  Wallace,  reported  in  The 
Times,  June  30,  1856. 
Probably  some  of  your  correspondents  will  be 



|;2na  s.  No  28.,  July  12. '56. 

nble  to  give  Sheriff  Bell's  authority  for  the  state- 
ment, as  woU  as  the  "  old  lady's  "  name,  age,  and 
history.  I  do  not  remember  her  being  quoted  in 
your  interesting  collection  of  remote  traditions 
through  few  intermediate  links.  E.  C. 

Davis  the  Almanac  Maker.  —  In  my  wander- 
ings among  the  churches  and  churchyards  of  our 
merry  England,  in  the  autumn  of  last  year,  I  paid 
a  short  visit  to  the  parish  of  Priors  Marston,  in 
the  county  of  Warwick,  where  the  village  school- 
master was  my  cicerone ;  and,  finding  I  was  in 
search  of  the  curious,  he  called  my  attention  to 
an  inscription  on  a  flat  stone  between  the  high 
pews  in  a  side  aisle,  which,  from  the  darkness  of 
the  place,  would  have  escaped  my  observation  ; 
but  here  it  is  : 

"  In  Memory  of 

Mr.  Richard  Davis, 

An   Eminent   Scholar*, 

Could  make  Almanacks, 

Who   died   10"»   Ocf,    1793, 

'     Aged  85  years. 

The  stone-mason  appears  to  have  committed  a 
most  grievous  error  in  cutting  the  inscription,  by 
the  omission  of  that  which  was  evidently  the  most 
important  portion  of  it ;  for  the  line  "  *  Could 
make  Almanacks"  is  cut  at  the  foot  of  the  stone, 
with  an  asterisk  at  the  end  of  "  Scholar"  pointing 
thereto,  which  omission,  if  not  duly  corrected, 
would  probably  have  consigned  the  reputation  of 
the  deceased  in  this  curious  art  to  oblivion.  As 
it  is  not  so  long  since  this  venerable  gentleman 
was  gathered  to  his  fathers,  it  may  be  hoped  that 
some  of  your  correspondents  may  be  able  to  give 
us  an  a(>count  of  his  life,  and  whether  he  really 
was  the  maker  of  any  of  the  Almanacs  of  the 
period  in  which  he  lived.  J.  B.  Whitborne. 

"  Chimcera"  —  Can  any  of  your  readers  name 
the  author  of  a  short  poem,  in  four  stanzas,  called 
"  The  Chimasra,"  the  first  stanza  of  which  I  sub- 
join ?     It  was  copied,  several  years  ago,  from  a 
novel,  the  title  of  which  was  not  preserved  : 
"  I  dreamed  one  morn  a  waking  dream, 
Brighter  than  slumbers  are, 
Of  wandering  where  the  planets  gleam, 

Like  an  unsphered  star. 
Round  a  Chimaira's  yielding  neck 
With  grasping  hands  I  clung; 
No  need  of  spur,  no  fear  of  check, 
Those  fields  of  air  among." 

"  Rebukes  for  Sin"  — 

"  Rebukes  for  Sin  bj'  God's  Burning  Anger :  by  the 
Burning  of  London  :  by  the  Burning  of  the  World  :  by 
the  Burning  of  the  Wicked  in  Hell -Fire.  To  which  is 
added,  A  Short  Discourse  of  Heart-Fixedness,  as  a  Means 
against  Perplexing  Fears  in  Times  of  Danger :  occasioned 
by  tlie  General  Distractions  of  the  Present  Times.  By 
T.  D.  London :  printed,  and  are  to  be  sold  by  Dorman 
Newman,  at  the  Chyrurgeons'  Arms  in  Little  Britain, 
near  the  Hospital,  1667." 

Who  was  T.  D.  ?  Anon. 

John  Hollyhush.  —  I  shall  be  much  obliged  by 
any  one  informing  me,  through  your  pages,  who 
was  Jhon  Hollybush.  I  have  a  folio,  bound  up 
with  my  Turner's  Herhal  and  Battles  in  England, 
bearing  this  title : 

"  A  most  Excellent  and  Perfecte  Homish  Apothecarye, 
or  homely  Physicke  Booke,  for  all  the  Grefes  and  Diseases 
of  the  Bodye.  Translated  out  of  the  Almaine  Speche  in 
English,  by  Jhon  Hollybush.  Imprinted  at  Collen,  by 
Arnold  Birckman,  in  the  yeare  of  our  Lord  1561." 

Miles  Coverdale  translated  the  New  Testament 
out  of  the  Latin,  and  it  was  published  in  1538 
(2nd  edit.),  and  its  title-page  states  it  Is  "  fayth- 
fuUye  translated  by  Johan  Hollybushe."  Had 
Coverdale  anything  to  do  with  translating  the 
Homish  Apothecarye  ?  G.  W.  J. 

[John  Hollybushe  was  an  assistant  of  James  Nichol- 
son, printer  in  Southwark,  who  seems  afterwards  to  have 
settled  at  Cologne.  It  is  quite  certain  that  Coverdale  had 
nothing  t»  do  with  the  publication  of  the  Homish  Apnthe^ 
tarye.     The  history  of  the  edition  of  the  New  Testament 

%earing  the  name  of  Hollybushe  is  somewhat  curious.  In 
the  enrly  part  of  1538  Nicholson  proposed  to  print  Cover- 
dale's  translation  and  the  Vulgate  in  parallel  columns; 
and  previously  to  the  bishop  setting  off  for  Paris,  he  had 
written  a  dedication  to  Henry  VIIL,  trusting  to  Nichol- 
son's care  for  the  correcting  of  the  press.  When  the  book 
came  out  it  was  so  incorrectly  executed  that  the  bishop 
immediately  disowned  it,  and  brought  out  at  Paris,  in 
December,  1538,  a  more  correct  edition.  In  his  dedi- 
cation to  Lord  Cromwell  he  saj-s,  "Truth  it  is  that  this 
last  Lent  I  did,  with  all  humbleness,  direct  an  epistle 
unto  the  King's  most  noble  Grace,  tnisting  that  the  book, 
whereunto  it  was  prefixed,  should  afterwards  have  been 
as  well  correct  as  other  books  be.  And  because  I  could 
not  be  present  myself,  by  the  reason  of  sundry  notable 
impediments,  therefore  inasmuch  as  the  New  Testament, 
which  I  had  set  forth  in  English  before,  doth  so  agree 
with  the  Latin,  I  was .heartilj' well  content  that  the  Latin 
and  it  should  be  together :  Provided  alway  that  the  cor- 
rector should  follow  the  true  copy  of  the  Latin  in  any 

•  wise,  and  to  keep  the  true  and  right  English  of  the  same. 
And  so  doing,  I  was  content  to  set  mj'  name  to  it :  and 
even  so  I  did ;  trusting  that  though  I  were  absent  and  out 
of  the  land,  yet  all  should  be  well.  And,  as  God  is  my 
record,  I  knew  none  other,  till  this  last  July,  that  it  was 
my  chance  here  in  these  parts,  at  a  stranger's  hand,  to 
come  by  a  copj'  of  the  said  print :  which,  when  I  had 
perused,  I  found  that  as  it  v.'as  disagreeable  to  my  former 
translation  in  English,  so  was  not  the  true  copy  of  the 
Latin  observed,  neither  the  English  so  correspondent  to 
the  same  as  it  ought  to  be :  but  in  many  places  both  base, 
insensible,  and  clean  contrar}',  not  only  to  the  phrase  of 
our  language,  but  also  from  the  understanding  of  the  text 
in  Latin."  {Gov.  State  Papers,  vol.  i.  p.  591.)  Nichol- 
son the  printer,  wishing  in  some  wa3'to  cover  the  loss  he 
had  incurred,  printed  another  edition,  which  was  stated 
in  the  title  to  be  "Faythfullye  translated  by  Jhon  Holly- 
bushe," to  distinguish  it  from  the  previous  edition.  See 
the  Rev.  Henry  Walter's  First  Letter  to  the  Bishop  of 
Peterborough,  p.  31. ;  and  Anderson's  Annals  of  the  En- 
glish Bible',  vol.  ii.  p.  36.] 

Miirdiston  v.  Millar.  —  In  an  article  on  dogs  in 
Chambers's  Misccllanif,  vol.  i.,  and  also  in  Sir 
AValter  Scott's  notes  to  St.  Ronans  Well,  men- 

2»«  S.  No  28.,  July  12.  'oCT 



tion  is  made  of  a  Scotch  cause  or  trial,  under  the 
name  of  "Murdiston  v.  Millar,  in  which  a  witness 
gives  some  interesting  evidence  respecting  the  in- 
stincts of  animals,  particularly  of  sheep.  Is  this 
trial  published  ?  and  where  can  it  be  obtained  ? 

[A  lengthened  notice  of  the  celebrated  case  of  Murdis- 
ton and  Millar  is  given  in  Blackwood's  Magazine,  vol.  ii. 
p.  83.,  but  without  any  intimation  where  tihe  trial  itself 
is  to  be  found.] 

Grace  Cups.  —  What  is  the  origin  of  "Grace 

•  Cups  ?"  and  where  is  any  account  to  be  found  of 

the  one  formerly  possessed  by  Thomas  a  Becket  ? 

H.  L.  K. 
[The  pnculum  charitatis,  wassail  bowl,  and  grace-cup, 
for  promoting  brotherly  love,  may  be  traced  to  the  classi- 
cal cup  of  the  Greeks  and  Romans,  called  aya^ov  SaCfiovoi, 
or  boni  genii,  each  of  whom  at  their  feasts  invoked  this 
supposed  deity  at  the  time  of  drinking.  The  custom  of 
wassailing,  or  drinking  healths,  however,  seems  to  have 
been  of  German  origin,  and  introduced  into  this  country  by 
our  Saxon  ancestors  (Verstegan's  Restitution  oJtDecayed 
Intelligence).  William  of  Malmesbury,  describing  the  cus- 
toms of  Glastonbury  soon  after  the  Conquest,  says,  that 
on  particular  days  the  monks  had  "  Medonem  in  justis  et 
vinum  in  charitatem,"  Mead  in  their  cans,  and  wine  in 
the  grace-cup.  The  ivory  cup,  set  in  gold,  popularly 
called  "The  Grace-cup  of  St.  Thomas  h  Becket,"  was  for- 
merly in  the  Arundelian  Collection,  and  is  now  possessed 
by  Henry  Howard,  Esq..  of  Corby  Castle,  to  whom  it  was 
presented  by  Bernard  Edward,  Duke  of  Norfolk.  The  in- 
scription round  the  cup  is  "  a'inum  tuum  bibe  cum 
GAUDio,"  Drink  thy  wine  with  joy;  but  ronnd  the  lid, 
deeply  engraved,  is  the  restraining  injunction,  "  sobrii 
ESTOTE,"  with  the  initials  "  T.  B."  interlaced  with  a  mitre. 
Kound  the  neck  of  the  top  is  the  name  "  God  *  Ferare." 
It  is  engraved  in  the  Antiquarian  Repertory,  vol.  iii. 
p.  170.,  and  in  Antiquarian  Gleanings,  by  W.  B.  Scott,  of 
Newcastle.  Mr.  -John  Gough  Nichols  {Pilgrimages  to 
Saint  Mary  of  Wahingham,  p.  229.)  saj'S,  that  "this  cup 
Avas  attributed  to  Becket  from  its  bearing  the  initials 
T.  B.  under  a  mitre;  but  modern  skill  in  archffiological 
chronolog}' has  reduced  it  to  a  very  different  ajra,  for  it 
is  reallv  of  the  early  part  of  the  sixteenth  century."  See 
also"N.  &Q."  l»t  S.  i.  142.] 

'''■How  Commentators" Sfc. — Whence  is  the  qtio- 
tation : 

"How  commentators  each  dark  passage  shun. 
And  hold  their  farthing  candles  to  the  sun." 


[See  Dr.  Edward  Young's  Poems,  Satire  vii.  line  97.] 

Quotation  wanted :  "  Knoivledge  and  Wisdom." — 
I  should  be  greatly  obliged  to  any  of  your  corre- 
spondents who  would  inform  me  where   the  fol- 
lowing passage  is  to  be  found  ? 
"  Knowledge  and  Wisdom,  far  from  being  one. 

Have  oft  times  no  connection  : 

The  curious  hand  of  Knowledge  doth  but  pick 

Bare  simples.    Wisdom  pounds  them  for  the  sick. 

In  my  affliction,  Knowledge  apprehends  * 

Who  is  the  author,  what  the  cause  and  ends ; 

To  rest  contented  here  is  but  to  bring 

Clouds  without  rain,  and  summer  without  spring,"  &c. 

J.  E.  W. 

[The  first  two  lines  are  from  Cowper's  Task,  book  vi. 

lines  88,  89. 

Francis  Quarles  is  a  claimant  for  what  fol- 

(2"-^  S.  ii.  6.) 

The  readers  of  John  Dunton's  Life  who  have 
made  a  note  of  Mr.  Cunningham's  communication 
will,  no  doubt,  think  it  worth  while  to  add  the 
following  particulars. 

I  have  before  me  a  copy  of  a  little  tract  en- 
titled : 

The  Grays  Inn  Greedy-Gut,  or  the  surprising 
Adventures  of  Mr.  Marriott,  the  famous  glutton, 
loith  his  receipts  for  many  choice  dishes.  Glasgow: 
Printed  by  William  Duncan,  and  sold  at  his  shop 
at  Gibson's  Land,  Mercat  Cross,  1750. 

This  is  little  better  than  a  chap-book,  and  its 
contents  are  derived  entirely  from  a  4to.  tract  of 
forty  or  fifty  closely-printed  pages,  a  copy  of  which 
is  in  the  (old)  Collection  of  King's  Pamphlets  in 
the  British  Museum.  Marriot  having  again  be- 
come a  character  of  interest,  I  give  the  title  at  full 
length  : 

The  Great  Eater  of  Grayes  Inne,  or  the  life 
of  Mr.  Marriot  the  cormorant.  Wherein  is  set 
forth,  all  the  Exploits  and  Actions  by  him  per- 
formed ;  with  many  pleasaiit  Stories  of  his  Travells 
into  Kent  and  other  places.  Also,  a  rare  physicall 
dispensatory,  being  the  manner  how  he  makes  his 
Cordiall  Broaths,  Pills,  Purgations,  Julips,  and 
Vomits,  to  keep  his  Body  in  temper,  and  free  from 
Surfeits.  By  G.  F.  Gent.  London :  W.  Rey- 
boulde,  1652. 

This  consists  of  a  number  of  chapters  devoted 
to  stories  of  his  surprising  feats  of  eating.  It 
is  evidently  written  by  some  enemy  of  the  Gray's 
Inn  Lawyer,  for  most  of  the  anecdotes  related 
are  not  by  any  means  flattering.  In  addition  to 
the  sin  of  gormandising,  we  learn  that  Marriot 
was  apt  to  entertain  himself  rather  at  the  ex- 
pense of  an  unhappy  friend  or  client  than  at 
his  own  ;  and  if  G.  F.  were  not  a  slanderer,  his 
hero  even  at  times  carried  his  meanness  to  the 
pitch  of  secreting  some  portions  of  the  feast  in  his 
sleeve,  or  in  a  bag  which  he  carried  with  him. 
In  the  "  character  "  addressed  to  the  reader  the 
author  says  : 

"  He  loves  Cook  and  Kitchin  not  so  much  for  their  law 
as  for  their  names'  sake,  and  at  Bacon  his  mouth  waters." 

And  we  have  the  following  sketch  of  his  exterior : 

"  He  vv'alks  the  street  like  Pontius  Pilate  in  robes  of 
purple,  but  not  like  Dives  in  fine  linen,  for  he  holds  shirts 
unnecessary,  and  his  cloaths  are  so  ornamented  with 
patches,  that  many  are  buried  alive  in  them." 



[2nd  s.  No  28.,  July  12.  '56. 

The  Gray's  Inn  Glutton  may  be  well  supposed 
to  have  been  annoyed  by  this  publication,  but 
about  the  same  time  appeared,  probably  by  the 
same  hand,  another  4to.  tract,  entitled  : 

The  English.  Mountebank :  or,  a  Physical  Dis- 
pensato7-y,  wherein  is  prescribed,  many  strange  and 
Excellent  Receits  of  Mr.  Marriot,  the  Great  Eater 
of  Grays  Inn,  ^c.  With  sundry  Directions,  1.  How 
to  make  his  Cordial  Broath.  2.  His  pills  to  appease 
hunger.  3.  His  strange  Purgation ;  never  before 
practised  by  any  Doctor  in  England.  4.  The 
maimer  and  reason  why  he  swalloivs  bullets  and 
stones.  5.  How  he  orders  his  Baked  Meat,  or  rare 
Dish  on  Sundays.  6.  How  to  make  his  neio  fashion 
Fish' Broath,  7.  How  to  make  his  Sallet  for  cool- 
ing of  the  Bloud.  8.  How  to  make  his  new  Dish, 
called  a  Erigazee  ;  the  operation  whereof  expels  all 
Sadness  and  Melancholy.  By  J.  Marriot,  of  Grays 
Inn,  Gent.     London:  G.  Horton,  1652. 

Prefixed  to  this  we  have  a  full-length  portrait 
of  Marriot,  holding  in  one  hand  a  large  substance 
of  pumpkin  shape,  which  I  take,  from  the  text, 
to  represent  one  of  his  "pills;"  while  on  his  arm 
hang  three  sheep's  heads,  and  seven  large  hearts 
of  some  animal  —  no  doubt  his  usual  dinner  al- 
lowance. Out  of  his  mouth  issue  the  words, 
"  Behold  the  wonder  of  the  age ! "  From  the 
spirit  of  this  tract  it  is  evident  that  the  author's 
motive  was  not  honestly  the  advancement  of  the 
culinary  art :  for  old  Marriot,  whose  name  he  im- 
pudently affixes  to  it,  figures  in  it  in  a  manner 
still  farther  calculated  to  irritate  him.  Let  us 
take  as  a  specimen  :  — 

**  How  to  make  bis  pills  ta  appease  hunger,  ordinarily  car- 
ried about  him :  — 

"  Take  of  rye  meal  9  pound,  of  Chandler's  graves 
3  pound,  of  the  Skimmings  of  honey  one  pound ;  warm 
water  as  much  as  will  make  it  into  Paste ;  then  roll  them 
up  into  a  dozen  balls ;  then  put  them  into  some  boiling 
broath,  till  they  be  thorough  boiled ;  then  set  them  to 
cool ;  but  beware  that  the  dogs  do  not  deceive  you  of 
them,  as  they  have  done  him  oftentimes.  The  chief  use 
of  these  pills  is  for  travelling ;  for  Mr.  Marriot  carried 
always  a  dozen  to  Westminster  in  the  Term  time  for 
fear  of  fasting.  His  ordinary  place  for  eating  them  was 
in  the  dark  place  neer  the  Common  Pleas  Treasury; 
where  one  might  see  him  swallow  these  pills,  as  easily  as 
an  ordinary  man  would  do  a  gilt  pill  in  the  pap  of  an 

How  many  of  these  characteristics  of  old  Mar- 
riot, the  great  eater,  were  really  true,  or  how  far 
they  were  the  invention  of  G.  F.  Gent,  for  the 
gratification  of  private  animosity,  the  world  will 
now  probably  never  know.  These  attacks  were 
not,  however,  allowed  to  pass  unnoticed.  Your  bon 
vivant,  rascal  or  not,  is  rarely  without  some  friends 
who  think  him  a  "good  fellow  ;"  and  it  is  therefore 
not  surprising  that  an  answer  to  G.  F,  appeared 
about  two  months  afterwards  (if  I  can  trust  the 
manuscript  notes  on  the  copies  before  me)  in  a 
tract  bearing  the  following  title  :  — ' 

A  Letter  to  Mr.  Marriot  from  a  friend  of  his  : 
wherein  His  Name  is  redeemed  from  that  Detrac- 
tion G.  F.  Gent,  hath  indeavoured  to  fasten  upon 
him,  by  n  Scandalous  and  Defamatory  Libell,  in- 
tituled "  The  Great  Eater  of  Grayes  Inn,  or.  The 
Life  of  Mr.  Marriot  the  Cormorant,"  Sfc.  London  : 
Printed  for  the  Friends  of  Mr.  Marriot,  1652 

To  this  we  have  another  full-length  portrait  of 
old  Marriot,  besides  a  picture  of  G.  F.,  Gent.,  on 
his  knees,  and  performing  an  act  of  homage  and 
apology  towards  the  unbreeched  and  injured  law- 
yer, not  to  be  described  in  the  pages  of  "  N.  &  Q." 
It  is  only  fair  to  the  memory  of  our  hero  to  hear 
what  his  friend  can  say  in  his  favour.  He  ad- 
dresses him  thus : 

"  Had  I  not  known  you  myself,  as  well  as  by  the 
report  of  your  neighbours,  a  common  easiness  of  credulity 
might  have  carried  me  on  to  believe  a  late  publisht  pam- 
phlet, pretended  to  be  the  True  History  of  your  Life,  for 
the  author  assures  the  Reader  he  set  down  nothing,  but 
what  haA  truly  been  acted  by  you ;  whereas  indeed  'tis 
nothing  else  but  a  mere  libell  of  his  scandal  and  defama- 
tion, spun  out  to  a  great  length  without  one  syllable  of 
wit  or  honesty,  whereof  he  sufficiently  accuses  himself  by 
shrouding  his  name  under  the  covert  of  two  letters,  and 
thereby  securing  his  person  from  that  punishment  the 
law  hath  provided  for  him;  the  injury  of  fastening  upon 
your  name  so  vile  a  detraction,  and  presenting  you  a 
derision  to  posterity,  is  of  so  high  a  nature  that  it  exceeds 
any  satisfaction  such  an  abject  vermin  can  give,  neither 
can  I  find  out  a  better  expedient  for  your  reparation  than 
by  letting  the  world  know  what  you  are  indeed :  aad 
this  I  shall  do  as  an  equal  friend  to  you  and  the  truth. 

"  That  you  are  a  gown-man  and  a  most  ancient  member 
of  the  Honourable  Society  of  Grayes  Inne  now  resident, 
the  Book  of  Entrance  can  witness,  having  been  a  Student 
and  Professor  of  the  Law  above  47  years.  For  j-our 
abilities  and  knowledge  of  the  law,  and  for  your  easy  fees, 
3''our  Clients  do  very  much  commend  you.  For  your 
private  way  of  life,  you  have  given  it  a  Geometrical  pro- 
portion, squaring  your  mind  and  fortune  with  equal  lines 
to  a  fit  subserviency  of  Nature's  requisites  in  food  and 
rayment.  For  your  Societj'  you  have  made  choice  of 
honest  men,  not  despising  the  meanest,  whereby  you  have 
stood  firm  in  these  Nationall  Hurricanes,  which  have 
blown  down  the  lofty  and  ambitious,  and  for  your  general 
deportment  it  hath  been  so  fair  and  clear,  that  I  never 
3'et  heard  you  had  wronged  any  man." 

Mr.  Marriot's  friend  goes  on  to  predict  that  the 
slanderous  G.  F.  will  have  his  due  reward,  and 
concludes  thus  : 

"  In  the  interim  let  him  stand  to  the  publike  view  in 
that  becoming  posture  the  frontispiece  presents  him,  as 
destined  by  charity  to  repentance." 

Can  all  this  be  true ;  and  can  it  be  that  the  al- 
lusion of  John  Dunton,  and  the  verses  of  Cotton, 
and  the  republication  a  hundred  years  after  by  the 
Glasgow  bookseller,  are  all  acts  of  injustice  done  to 
the  memory  of  an  upright  and  temperate  lawyer, 
who  was  driven  out  of  the  world  in  twelve  months 
by  the  unrelenting  persecution  of  G.  F.  ?  Such 
a  case  of  "giving  a  bad  name"  would  probably  be 
not  without  parallel  in  the  memory  of  any  thought- 

2nd  s.  No  28.,  July  13.  '66.] 



ful  investigator  of  the  liistoriaH's  materials.  Had 
Harriot  lived  in  Pope's  days,  I  fear  that  fifty 
"  Letters  from  a  friend  of  his  "  would  not  have 
saved  him  from  infamy ;  and  "  Darty  and  his  ham 
pie,"  an  allusion  in  some  obscure  pamphlet,  might 
only  have  remained  to  puzzle  Mr.  J.  B.  Nichols 
or  his  commentators.  W.  Moy  Thomas. 

In  the  lasrt  edition  of  Granger's  Biographical 
History,  four  portraits  of  Harriot  are  mentioned 
with  a  brief  notice  of  him  taken  from  the  follow- 
ing, which  is  contained  in  Caulfield's  Remarkable 
Persons,  vol.  iii.  p.  225. : 

"  Marriot  was  a  lawyer  of  Gray's  Inn,  wlio  piqued  him- 
self upon  the  qualifications  of  a  voracious  appetite, 
and  a  powerful  digestive  faculty,  and  deserves  to  be 
placed  no  higher  in  the  scale  of  beings  than  a  cormorant 
or  an  ostricli.  H^e  increased  his  natural  capacity  for  food 
by  art  and  application  ;  and  had  as  much  vanity  in  eating 
to  excess,  as  any  monk  had  in  starving  himself^  See  two 
copies  of  verses  upon  him  among  the  works  of  Charles 
Cotton,  Esq.  Great  eaters  are  common  in  all  ages,  but 
the  greatest  eater  on  record  is  described  by  Ta3dor  the 
water-poet,  in  his  works,  under  the  title  of  '  The  Great 
Eater,  or  Part  of  the  admirable  Teeth  and  Stomach  Ex- 
ploits of  Nicholas  Wood,  of  Harrisom,  in  the  County  of 
Kent  ;  his  excessive  manner  of  eating  without  Manners, 
in  strange  and  true  Manner  described,  by  Joha  Tailor."— 
Works,  edit.  1G30,  page  142. 

John  I.  Deedge. 


(P*  S.  xii.  205.,  &c.) 

I  beg  to  subjoin  a  few  extracts  and  remarks 
relating  to  Samuel  Cooper's  miniature  of  Crom- 
well, and  other  relevant  matters  ;  which  may  not 
be  devoid  of  interest  to  your  correspondent  Ces- 
TRiENsis,  and  perhaps  enable  him  to  infer  the  pre- 
sent locus  in  quo  of  one  or  more  of  the  portraits 
of  which  he  is  in  search.  I  transcribe  the  fol- 
lowing passage  from  a  well-compiled  book  of 
anecdote : 

"  Robert  "Walker,  a  portrait  pointer,  contemporary 
with  Vandyke,  was  most  remarkable  for  being  the  prin- 
cipal painter  employed  by  Cromwell,  whose  picture  he 
drew  more  than  once.  One  of  those  portraits  represented 
him  with  a  gold  chain  about  his  neck,  to  which  was  ap- 
pended a  gold  medal  with  three  crowns,  the  arms  of 
Sweden  and  a  pearl,  sent  to  him  by  Christina  in  return 
for  his  picture  by  Cooper,  on  which  Milton  wrote  a  Latin 
Epigram.  This  head  by  Walker  is  in  possession  of 
Lord  Mountford  at  Horseth,  in  Cambridgeshire,  and  Was 
given  to  a  former  lord  by  Mr.  Commissary  Greaves,  who 
found  it  in  an  inn  in  that  county.  Another  piece  con- 
tained Cromwell  and  Lambert  together ;  this  was  in  Lord 
Bradford's  collection.  A  third  was  purchased  for  the 
great  Uuke,  whose  agent  having  orders  to  procure  one. 
and  meeting  with  this  in  the  hands  of  a  female  relation 
of  the  Protector,  offered  to  purchase  it ;  but  being  refused, 
and  continuing  his  solicitation,  to  put  him  off,  she  asked 
500/.,  and  was  paid  it."  —  The  Arts  and  Artists,  §-c.,  by 
James  Elmes,  vol.  i.  p.  41. 

Mr.  Sarsfield  Taylor,  in  his  Origin,  Progress, 

Spc,  of  the  Fine  Arts  in  Great  Britain  and  Ire- 
land (2  vols.  8vo.,  1841),  omits  to  mention  Cooper, 
but  speaks  of  Walker  as  being  tie  principal  artist 
during  the  Protectorate : 

"  He  became  eventually  Cromwell's  chief  artist,  and 
painted  his  portrait  several  times.  Cromwell  made  pre- 
sents of  these  heads :  one  was  sent  to  Christina,  Queen  of 
Sweden,  in  return  for  a  gold  chain  and  medal  sent  to 
Oliver  by  that  extraordinary  woman;  others  he  gave  to 
Col.  Cooke,  to  Speaker  Lenthall,  &c.  Walker  was  a 
clever  portrait  painter,  with  original  feeling ;  his  colour- 
ing was  verj'  good,  and  his  peacil,  though  free,  was 
careful."  —  v  ol.  i.  p.  352. 

Walpole,  speaking  of  Cooper's  portrait,  appa- 
rently from  actual  observation,  says  : 

"  This  fine  head  is  in  the  possession  of  Lady  Frankland, 
widow  of  Sir  Thomas,  a  descendant  of  Cromwell.  The 
bod}'  is  unfinished.  Vertue  engraved  it,  as  he  did  an- 
other in  profile,  in  the  collection  of  the  Duke  of  Devon- 
shire."— Anec.  of  Painting;  Straw.  Hill  edit,  vol.  iii.  p.  61. 

Cooper  was  a  miniature  painter,  and  probably 
painted  more  than  one  head  of  the  Protector.  I 
think  it  probable  that  it  was  one  of  these,  rather 
than  a  portrait  by  Walker,  which  was  transmitted 
to  Christina,  not  only  on  account  of  its  greater 
portability  and  fitness  for  a  present,  but  because 
Cooper  himself  (according  to  some,  or  his  elder 
brother  Alexander,  according  to  Barry, — see  his 
edition  of  Pilkington's  Dictionary,  4to.,  1798),  had 
at  one  time  held  the  appointment  of  miniature 
painter  to  Christina. 

Cooper  also  painted  a  portrait  of  Milton ;  and 
this,  Bryan  informs  us,  was  recently  discovered, 
and  is  now  in  the  possession  of  the  Duke  of  Buc- 

For  this  portrait  of  Cromwell,  Cooper  was 
offered  150/.  by  the  French  king  ;  which  offer  he 
refused  (Cunningham's  Pilkington). 

Voltaire  spealts  of  the  transmission  of  a  por- 
trait to  Christina ;  without,  however,  mentioning 
the  name  of  the  artist.  In  an  article  on  Crom- 
well, in  the  Diet.  Philosophique,  he  says  : 

"  Lorsqu'il  eut  outrage  tous  les  rois  en  fesant  couper 
la  tete  h  son  roi  legitime,  et  qu'il  commeQ<;a  lui-meme  k 
regner,  il  envoya  son  portrait  h  une  tete  couronnee; 
c'etait^^  la  reine  de  Suede,  Christine.  Marvell,  fameux 
poete  anglais,  qui  fesait  fort  bien  des  vers  latins,  aceom- 
pagn|fcce  portrait  de  six  vers  ou  il  fait  parler  Cromwell 
lui-meme.  Cromwell  corrigea  les  deux  derniers,  qui 
voici : 

"  '  At  tibi  submittit  frontem  reverentior  umbra, 
Non  sunt  hi  vultus,  regibus  usque  truces.' 

"  Le  sens  hardi  de  ce  six  vers  peut  se  rendre  ainsi :  — 

"  *  Les  armes  a  la  main  j'ai  defendu  les  lois; 
D'un  peuple  audacieux  j'ai  venge  la  querelle. 
Regardez  sans  fremir  cette  image  fidfele ; 
Mon  front  n'est  pas  toujours  Tepouvante  des  rois.' " 

It  will  be  observed  that  Voltaire  ascribes  this 
epigram  to  Marvell.  Newton  and  Birch  attri- 
bute it  to  Milton  ;  but  Dr.  Warton,  in  his  edition 
of  Milton's  Minor  Poems  (8vo.,  London,  1791, 
which  only  wa»t8  an  index  to  render  it  one  of  the 



[2"*S.iI<>28.,JuLrl2. '56. 

most  valuable,  as  it  is  one  of  the  most  interesting 
books  in  the  language),  though  including  It  in  the 
Epigrammatum  Liber,  inclines  to  the  belief  that  it 
is  the  production  of  Marvell ;  in  the  various  edi- 
tions of  whose  works  it  is  to  be  found,  preceded 
by  a  distich,  apparently  written  before  the  ulti- 
mate destination  of  the  portrait  was  known. 
"While  upon  the  subject,  I  may  as  well  transcribe 
each :  — 

"  In  Effigiem  Oltveri  Cromwell, 
"  Hxc  est  qujB  toties  Inijiicos  Umbra  fugavit, 
At  sub  qua  Gives  Otia  lenta  terunt." 

"  In  eandem,  Regince  Suecias  transmissam. 
"  Bellipotens  virgo,  Septem  Regina  Trionum, 
Christina,  Arctoi  lucida  Stella  Poli ! 
Cernis,  quas  merui  dura  sub  Casside  Rugas, 

Sicque  Senex  Armis  impiger  Ora  tero : 
Invia  fatorum  dum  per  Vestigia  nitor, 
Exequor  et  Populi  fortia  jussa  manu. 
Ast  tibi  submittit  frontem  reverentior  Umbra : 
Nee  sunt  hi  Vultus  regibus  usque  truces." 
I  may  add  to  these  desultory  remarks,  that  I 
have  in  my  possession  a  plaster  mask,  purporting 
to  be  that  of  Cromwell's  face  after  death.     I  was 
informed   moreover   that  the  mould  from  which 
it  was  made  was  taken  surreptitiously  from  a  cast 
preserved  in  the  Tower  of  London.    Is  there  such 
a  relic  ?  William  Bates. 

(2'«>  S.  i.  374. 440.) 

There  is  nothing  said  in  Scripture  about  any 
Mount  Calvary.  "  The  present  church,  the  keys 
of  which  have  been  the  cause,  ex  concesso,  of 
enormous  blood-shedding  the  last  two  years,"  has 
not  the  shadow  of  a  foundation  for  its  claim.  It 
could  not  have  been  the  place  of  the  Crucifixion. 

Paul  the  apostle  says,  Heb.  xiii.  12.,  "  Where- 
fore Jesus  also  suffered  without  the  gate:  "  but  the 
site  at  present  pointed  out  is  not  without  the  ancient 
fortifications  of  Jerusalem  ;  it  could  not  therefore 
have  been  the  place  of  our  Lord's  death. 

Some  writers,  retaining  the  erroneous  idea  that 
the  place  must  have  been  on  a  hill-top,  hav€  fixed 
on  the  "  Hill  of  Evil  Counsel "  as  the  prdaable 
scene  of  the  Crucifixion,  but  no  satisfacto^  rea- 
sons are  assigned.  The  apostle  in  the  verse  pre- 
vious to  that  I  have  quoted  says,  "  For  the  bodies 
of  those  beasts,  whose  blood  is  brought  into  the 
sanctuary  by  the  high  priest  for  sin,  are  burned 
without  the  camp.  Wherefore  Jesus  also,"  &c. 
Reference  to  the  following  passages  will  show  the 
ground  for  the  declaration  that  the  sin  offerings 
were  burned  outside  of  the  camp,  Exod.  xxix.  14.; 
Lev.  i.  11.,  iv.  12.  21.,  vi.  11.,  and  viii.  17. 

Doubtless  when  the  Temple  service  was  es- 
tablished at  Jerusalem,  the  sin  offerings  were 
burned  in  some  one  particular  spot  outside  the 
city.     In  that  place  would  be  found  many  uncon- 

sumed  remains  of  the  larger  bones  of  the  sacrifices, 
especially  of  the  skulls  of  the  victims.  Hence  the 
place  would  most  appropriately  be  called  Golgotha 
Calvary  —  The  place  of  a  skull.  Now  it  is  a  fair 
inference  from  the  apostle's  writing,  that  where 
the  typical  sin  offerings  were  consumed,  in  that 
identical  place  the  great  antitype  himself  expired. 

It  only  remains  to  inquire  if  Scripture  indicates 
the  precise  quarter  of  the  compass  in  which  the 
burnt  sacrifice  was  to  be  slain.  This  has  hitherto 
been  most  unaccountably  overlooked  :  but  in  Le- 
viticus, chap.  i.  V.  11.,  we  read,  "  And  he  shall  kill 
it  on  the  side  of  the  altar  narthioard  before  the 
Lord."  Who  will  doubt  but  that  our  Blessed  Lord 
suffered  on  the  north  side  of  Jerusalem  ?  If  he  did 
not,  then  in  this  particular,  and  in  this  only,  did 
he  fail  to  fulfil  to  the  letter  all  that  was  shadowed 
forth  in  Jewish  rites  and  ceremonies.  It  is  clear, 
too,  that  the  place  must  have  been  convenient  for 
a  large  concourse  of  persons,  and  that  it  must 
have  been  close  to  a  high  road.  Matt,  xxvii.  39., 
"  And  they  that  passed  by  reviled  him,  wagging 
their  heads." 

The  scene  of  the  Crucifixion,  then,  must  have 
been  on  the  north  side  of  Jerusalem,  by  the  side 
of  the  road  leading  to  Shechem,  or  Sychar,  now 
Nablous  ;  a  road,  then  as  now,  the  one  great  high-    , 
way  leading  to  the  Holy  City. 

The  sacred  spot  was  probably  in  a  shallow  valley 
on  the  road  to  Nablous,  a  short  distance  beyond 
the  Tombs  of  the  Kings. 

The  Royal  Saviour  thus  in  His  death  lay  very 
near  to  David,  his  kingly  ancestor. 

I  think  it  will  be  found  that  ray  argument 
throws  some  light  on  that  difficult  conclusion  of 
Ezekiel,  as  in  chap.  xl.  44.,  xli.  11.,  xlii.  1.,  xlvi. 
19.,  &c.  &c. 

I  will  not  apologise  for  a  paper  of  such  a  nature 
as  the  present ;  for  if  unacceptable,  you  would  not 
have  introduced  the  Query  which  gave  rise  to  it. 
I  do  fear,  however,  that  I  have  somewhat  exceeded 
the  proper  limit,  and  my  excuse  shall  be  that  I 
have  discussed  the  most  important  and  interesting 
subject  which  topography  affords.     S.  Evershed. 



(2"'>  S.  i.  494.) 
Mr.  Latrobe,  in  his  Introduction  to  the  last 
edition  of  that  valuable  collection  of  chorales,  the 
Moravian  Tune  Book  (Mallalieu,  Hatton  Garden, 
1854),  says : 

"That  the  so-called  'Old  Hundredth' was  really  com- 
posed by  Claude  Goudimel,  and  was  probably  unknown 
to  Luther  and  his  immediate  contemporaries,  seems  now 
to  be  generally  admitted.  Fine  as  it  is,  and  deservedly  a 
favourite,  especially  in  this  countrj',  it  will  not  be  less 
valued  by  British  Protestants  when  they  are  informed 
that  the  author  was  one  of  the  victims  of  Popish  perseca- 

2nd  s.  No  28.,  July  12.  '56.] 



tion,  having  perished  at  Lyons  in  the  Massacre  of  St. 
Bartholomew,  in  the  year  1672."  —  P.  13. 

And  it  13  added,  in  a  note  in  p.  14. : 

"  The  Rev.  W,  Havergal,  in  his  Old  Church  Psalmody, 
states  that  it  was  first  published  in  England  in  Day's 
Psalter,  A.D.  1563.  Handel's  belief,  to  which  he  alludes, 
that  Luther  composed  the  tune,  is  not  a  little  singular ; 
inasmuch  as  it  is  found  in  none  of  the  collections  published 
by  that  great  Reformer,  and,  in  point  of  fact,  the  melody 
is  to  this  day  but  little  known  or  used  in  the  Lutheran 

These  two  facts  seem  to  render  the  notion  that 
Luther  composed  it  quite  untenable. 

Goudimel  was  music-director  at  Lyons,  and 
appears  to  have  been  a  musical  co-adjutor  of 
Theodore  Beza  and  Clement  Marot  in  the  adap- 
tation of  the  Psalms  to  congregational  use.  The 
tune  in  question  was  originally  composed,  and  is 
to  this  day  sung  in  the  Reformed  Churches  of 
France  and  Switzerland,  not  to  the  100th,  but 
to  the  134th  psalm  (Latrobe's  Introd.,  p.  31.). 

A  corrupt  version  of  the  latter  part  of  the 
melody  is  getting  into  very  general  use.  Assum- 
ing the  key  to  be  G,  the  last  strain  is  often  given 
thus :  DBGABCAG:  but  it  ought  to  be, 
BBGACBAG.  The  latter  is  the  form  in 
most,  if  not  in  all,  of  the  old  collections  of  psalmody 
in  common  use,  and  is  adopted  in  the  Moravian 
book.  Mr.  Latrobe  says  it  "  is  evidently  the 
original  one  "  (Introd.,  p.  31.).  I  can  produce  as 
authorities  two  ancient  copies  :  one  from  the 
Psalms  of  the  Reformed  Churches  of  France,  and 
the  other  from  an  old  copy  of  Sternhold  and 
Hopkins,  in  both  of  which  this  is  the  reading  found. 

There  is  another  matter  connected  with  the 
tune,  to  which  perhaps  I  may  be  allowed  to  call 
attention,  and  that  is  the  funereal  pace  at  which  it 
is  usually  sung.  The  psalms  to  which  it  has  been 
specially  appropriated,  the  100th  and  134th,  are 
not  penitential,  but  joyful  and  jubilant ;  and 
assuming  either  that  it  was,  as  Mr.  Latrobe  says, 
first  composed  to  the  latter  psalm,  or  that  the 
appropriation  was  in  accordance  with  some  early 
tradition,  we  may  infer  that  the  composer  did  not 
intend  the  tune  to  be  sung  in  a  heavy,  drawling, 
and  doleful  manner,  as  we  often  hear  it  now.  It 
evidently  was  not  regarded  as  a  mournful  or  even 
as  a  grave  tune  in  the  time  of  Tate  and  Brady  :  for 
in  the  "  Directions"  annexed  to  their  version,  it 
is  said  that  psalms  of  what  we  now  call  long 
^letre,  "  if  psalms  of  praise  or  cheerfulness,  may 
properly  be  sung  as  the  old  100th  psalm." 

J.  W.  Phillips. 


This  tune  if  not  of  Lutheran,  but  Huguenot  ori- 
gin; it  has  been  ascribed  to  Luther,  and  this  mistake 
arose  from  the  circumstance  that  one  of  Luther's 
tunes  commences  with  ty|same  phrase  as  that  of  the 
Old  Hundredth.     Whoever  might  have  composed 

the  Old  Hundredth,  it  is  manifest  he  made  it  from 
this  tune  of  Luther ;  but  it  was  not  the  work  of 
any  German,  because  the  tune  does  not  appear 
in  the  early  editions  of  Luther's  Chorals,  nor  do 
the  Germans  themselves  ascribe  it  to  Luther. 
Luther's  first  book  appeared  in  1519,  and  I  ima- 
gine (I  am  writing  Irom  recollection  only)  that 
the  Old  Hundredth  did  not  appear  in  Germany 
for  nearly  forty  years  after  this  period.  The 
earliest  printed  copy  we  know  appears  with  the 
harmony  of  Goudimel,  and  in  the  French  rhythm, 
thus : 

—      \     \y     \^     \J     y./      I      —     —      1      — 

Such  rhythm  is  adverse  to  the  supposition  of  a 
Lutheran  origin.  Tliose  of  your  readers  who 
may  wish  to  compare  Luther's  tune  with  the  Old 
Hundredth  will  find  both  in  Bach's  Choralge- 
sange  (Becker's  edition),  the  former  to  the  hymn 
"Nun  lob  mein  Seel  den  Herren,"  in  pp.  8.  13. 
67.  155.  and  171.;  the  latter  to  the  hymn  "  Herr 
Gott  dich  loben  alle  wir,"  in  pp.  164.  and  191. 
The  Old  Hundredth  does  not  ap])ear  in  the 
earliest  editions  of  the  Psalter  by  Sternhold  and 
Hopkins.  The  tunes  that  therein  appear  are  all 
of  foreign  manufacture.  The  tunes  which  subse- 
quently enlarged  that  collection,  and  of  English 
manufacture,  bear  the  name  of  some  cathedral 
city,  or  some  English  town  of  importance.  The 
Old  Hundredth,  having  no  English  name,  is 
clearly  a  foreign  importation,  and  not  the  com- 
position of  any  Anglican  organist.  It  has  been 
ascribed  to  Dowland,  but  Dowland  was  only  the 
author  of  the  four-part  harmony.  The  Tudor 
harmonists  affixed  their  names  to  the  "  common 
tunes,"  as  they  were  called,  as  an  announcement 
that  they  composed  the  choir  harmonies,  but  they 
intended  no  more  by  such  application  of  the  name. 
We  exceedingly  dislike  the  tune,  and  it  never  would 
have  attained  its  popularity  in  England  had  it  not 
been  constantly  used  to  the  psalm  sung  at  the 
Holy  Eucharist ;  its  application  to  the  Hundredth 
Psalm  was  a  remove,  and  hence  its  more  general 
adoption  as  the  metrical  Jubilate  of  the  Pro- 
testants in  this  country.  As  a  jubilate,  however, 
it  is  the  most  melancholy  of  all  joyful  ditties. 

H.  J.  G. 

Michael  Este  in  his  collection  published  1592, 
ascribes  this  psalm  tune  to  his  contemporary, 
John  Dowland ;  so  that  if  there  is  any  truth  in 
its  French  origin,  Dowland  must  have  borrowed 
it.  J.  C.  J. 


(S"''  S.  i.  422.) 

The  skull  and  cross  bones  on  the  Lancers'  caps  is  a 
species  of  rather  indifferent  rebus.  Mr.  Macken- 
zie Walcott  will  find  that  over  the  device  in  ques- 



L2°a  s.  i?o  28.,  July  12,  '56. 

tion,  which  is  to  be  read  "  Death,"  are  the  words 
"  Victory  or."  I  have  seen  a  still  more  clumsy 
design  engraved  on  the  brass  traps  in  gun-stocks 
of  a  Volunteer  Rifle  corps  of  the  last  century,  viz. 
the  skull  and  cross  bones  followed  by  the  words 
"  comes  swiftly."  W.  J.  Bjbenhaed  Smith. 


I  am  told  that  the  57th  regiment,  from  its 
courage  at  Albuera,  earned  the  name  of  "  Die 
Hards ; "  and  the  28th,  from  their  conduct  in 
Egypt,  received  the  privilege  of  wearing  the  regi- 
mental plate  before  and  behind  the  shako ;  being 
hard  pressed  by  the  enemy  they  presented  a  double 
face,  the  word  having  been  given  "  Rear  rank, 
right  about  face ! "  The  9th  were  called  in  the 
Peninsula  '  'The  Holy  Boys,"  from  a  sale  of 
Bibles  which  they  held.  The  Duke  of  Athol's 
Highlanders  carry  the  significant  motto  "  Firth, 
forth,  and  fill  the  fetters !  "  (in  Gaelic.) 

Mackenzie  Walcott,  M.A. 

thing  to  be  killing  men  speaking  our  own  Ian 


T.  F. 

"The  28th"  is  the  regiment  who  wear  the 
plate  in  front  and  at  the  back  of  their  shako. 
I  think  that  in  Egypt  this  corps,  drawn  up 
"  two  deep,"  were  charged  in  Iront  and  rear 
by  the  French  cavalry ;  and  the  colonel  of  the 
gallant  28th  gave  the  word  "  Rear  rank,  right 
about  face  ! "  "  fire  a  volley ! "  which  sent  the 
enemy  flying.  Upon  the  Queen's  birthday,  in- 
spection, and  other  gala  days,  "the  22nd"  wear 
in  their  caps  a  sprig  of  oak,  and  a  branch  of  the 
same  is  tied  on  the  colours.  The  tradition  in  the 
corps  is,  that  in  the  retreat  after  the  battle  of 
Dettingen,  George  II.  was  rescued  from  imminent 
danger  by  a  company  of  the  regiment.  In  "  The 
23rd  Royal  Welsh  Fusileers,"  the  officers  wear  a 
black  silk  bag  with  three  tails  at  the  back  of  their 
coats.  This  is  still  the  custom  of  the  corps,  and 
I  suppose  that  the  origin  is  derived  from  some 
sort  of  wig. 

I  have  heard  somewhere  of  "The  5th  Fusi- 
leers," whose  plumes  are  tipped  with  red,  and  who 
were  called  "  The  Bloody  Fifth,"  that  this  sobri- 
quet was  given  in  consequence  of  the  men  dipping 
their  worsted  plumes  in  the  enemy's  blood  at  one 
of  the  Peninsular  battles. 

"The  69th"  are  very  proud  of  their  facings, 
which  are  the  true  Lincoln  green  in  colour. 


"  Springers  "  is  the  name  given  to  the  62nd  re- 
giment. When  at  the  battle  of  New  Orleans  a 
regiment  considered  themselves  to  be  ill-supported, 
the,  men  exclaimed,  "  This  would  not  have  been 
if  the  Springers  had  been  here  with  us."  This 
was  told  me  by  a  serjeant,  who  also  added,  "  We 
did  not  like  the  American  war  :  it  seemed  a  cruel 

In  the  Army  and  Militia  Almanac  for  1856, 
edited  by  J.  Stocqueler,  Esq.,  published  by  Web- 
ster, 60.  Piccadilly,  a  tabular  list  is  given  of  the 
badges,  mottoes,  facings,  &c.,  together  with  other 
useful  particulars  of  the  cavalry  and  foot  regi- 
ments. C.  ().) 

Eaton  Stannard  Barrett :  "  Lines  on  Woman  " 
(P'  S.  viii.  292.)  — In  Vol.  viii.  of  "N.  &  Q." 
several  communications  were  elicited  relative  to 
the  then,  as  now,  almost  forgotten  Eaton  Stan- 
nard Barrett,  author  of  some  exquisite  "  Lines  on 
Woman,"  —  the  heading  of  all  the  letters  which 
appeared  in  "  N.  &  Q."  on  the  subject.  Of  these, 
the  most  interesting  was  one  from  Mr.  Robert 
Bell,  author  of  the  History  of  Russia  and  Ladder 
of  Gold;  but  in  regard  to  the  time  of  Barrett's 
death,  no  more  satisfactory  information  was  elicited 
than  that  it  occurred  "  many  years  ago."  Al- 
though the  present  communication  is  somewhat 
behind  date,  yet,  to  perfect  what  has  already  ap- 
peared, and  to  carry  out  the  main  object  of  "  N.  & 
Q.,"  the  following  cutting  from  a  newspaper  of 
the  year  1821  may  be  with  propriety  annexed. 
Is  the  book  in  existence  whicli  was  nearly  finished 
at  the  time  of  Eaton  Stannard  Barrett's  death, 
and  what  is  the  nature  of  it  ? 

"  Died,  on  the  20th  of  March,  in  Glamorganshire,  of  a 
rapid  decline,  occasioned  by  the  bursting  of  a  blood  vessel, 
Eaton  Stannard  Barrett,  Esq.,  so  well  known  to  the  lite- 
rary and  poUtical  world,  as  the  author  of  All  the  Talents, 
The  Heroine,  &c.  &c.  There  were  few  gentlemen  whose 
private  worth  gained  more  esteem,  or  whose  manners 
possessed  greater  attractions.  Ardently  pursuing  his 
favourite  occupations,  he  had  nearly  completed  a  Work, 
of  which  his  unexpected,  death  has  deprived  the  world, 
and  which  might  long  since  have  been  finished,  had  not 
another  study  divided  his  time  and  thoughts."  * 

His  brother,  Richard  Barrett,  whom  Mr.  Beli. 
referred  to  as  living  in  1853,  editor  of  the  Dublin 
Pilot,  and  &  fellow-prisoner  of  O'Connell's,  died  at 
Dalkey,  about  eighteen  months  ago. 

William  John  Fitz-Patrick. 

Miss  Edgeworth  (2"'^  S.  i._383.)  —  W.  J.  Fitz- 
patrick  is  in  error  in  stating  that  Miss  Edge-' 
worth  was  the  daughter  of  Honora  Sneyd  :^  that 
distinguished  writer  was  the  child  of  Mr.  Edge- 
worth  by  his  former  wife,  Miss  Elers  (see  Quart. 
Rev.,  xxiii.  528.).  #  «•  ^• 

Spelling  of  Names  (2°^  S.  i._372.)— The  spell- 
ing of  names  sometimes  v^ies  in  the  present  day. 

[*  Eaton  SUnnard  Barrett Weatli  is  also  noticed  in  the 
Gent.  Mag.  for  April,  1820,  p.  377.] 


S.N0  28.,  July  12. '56.3 



I  was  acquainted,  many  years  ago,  with  an  old 
clergyman,  the  Rev.  Warren  Brooks,  of  great  re- 
spectability. In  the  later  part  of  his  life  he  emi- 
grated to  Van  Diemen's  Land  ;  and  there  I  have 
understood  that  the  old  gentleman  was  in  the 
habit  of  writing  himself  Brook.  a.  fi. 

Major  General  Stanwix  (2"^  S.  i.  511.)  —  Gene- 
ral Stanwix,  about  whom  the  Messrs.  Cooper 
have  put  a  Query,  is  surely  the  person  the  cir- 
cumstances of  whose  death  gave  rise  to  a  remark- 
able case  on  the  question  of  survivorship.  The 
case  is  reported  in  the  first  volume  of  Sir  Wm. 
Blackstone's  Reports,  p.  640.,  and  is  thus  noticed 
by  Mr.  Best,  in  his  book  on  Presumptions  of  Law 
and  Fact : 

"  General  Stanwix,  in  October,  1766,  together  with  his 
second  wife  and  a  daughter  by  a  former  marriage,  set 
.sail  in  the  same  vessel  from  Dublin  to  England.  The 
ship  was  lost  at  sea,  and  no  account  of  the  manner  of  her 
perishing  ever  received.  Upon  this,  the  maternal  uncle 
and  next  of  kin  of  the  daughter  claimed  the  effects  of  the 
general,  on  the  principle  of  the  civil  law,  that,  where 
parent  and  child  perish  together,  and  the  manner  of  their 
death  is  unknown,  the  child  must  be  supposed  to  have 
survived  the  parent.  Similar  claims  were,  however,  put 
forward  by  the  nephew  and  next  of  kin  of  General  Stan- 
wix, who  moved  the  King's  Bench  for  a  mandamus  to 
compel  the  Prerogative  Court  to  grant  administration  to 
him.  The  rule  for  that  purpose  was,  after  argument, 
made  absolute,  on  the  ground  that  the  question  of  sur- 
vivorship sought  to  be  established  could  only  arise  under 
the  Statute  of  Distributions,  and  that  the  nephew,  being 
next  of  kin,  was  entitled  to  the  administration  of  the 
goods  of  the  deceased.  This  case  is  clearly  no  decision  as 
to  the  presumption  of  survivorship,  and  the  suit  is  said  to 
have  been  compromised,  upon  the  recommendation  of 
Lord  Mansfield,  who  said  he  knew  of  no  legal  principle 
on  which  he  could  decide  it." 


6.  Pump  Court,  Temple. 

Translation  of  Camoens  (2"''  S.  i.  510.)  —  I  can 
tell  B,.  J.  that  the  "  Island"  was  a  translation  by 
a  now-forgotten  author  of  the  name  of  Thomas 
Wade,  many  years  subsequently  known  as  the 
author  of  one  or  tiro  not  very  successful  plays 
produced  at  Covent  Garden  Tlieatre  ;  of  a  volume 
of  poems  (published  by  Miller,  of  Henrietta 
Street),  with  the  out-of-the-way  title  oi  Mundi  et 
Cordis  Carmina  ,•  of  a  poem  called  Prothanasia, 
with  Moxon's  name  as  publisher  ;  and  whose  last 
publication,  as  far  as  I  have  seen,  was  an  e.ssay  or 
"lecture,"  entitled  What  does  Hamlet  mean?  —  a 
notice  of  which  I  remember  having  read  in  The 
Athenoeum.  I  have  no  recollection  of  the  merits 
of  his  translation  from  Camoens,  referred  to  by 
R.  J.,  although  I  certainly  perused  it  on  its  ap- 
pearance in  the  pages  of  the  European  Magazine. 

M.  F.  Z. 

J.  Larking :  Paper-^arh  (2"^  S.  1. 433.)  — Yl)ur 
correspondent  Chartophtlax  has  not  correctly 
fixed  the  date  of  this  paper-mark.  J.  Larking  s 
paper-mill  is  situated  in  this  parish,  and  was  built 

by  him  between  the  years  1785  and  1790.  It  has 
long  since  passed  into  other  hands ;  but  I  can 
assert  positively,  from  information  which  I  pos- 
sess, that  no  mill  of  the  kind  existed  here  previous 
to  that  period,  nor  did  J.  Larking  possess  any 
here  or  elsewhere  at  any  time  antecedent  to  the 
year  1785.  If  it  be  material,  I  can  obtain  for  you 
the  date  of  the  exact  year  in  which  the  mill  was 
built ;  but  the  information  given  above  will  pro- 
bably be  sufficient  for  your  purpose.  A.. 
East  Mailing,  Kent. 

The  Rev.  Robert  Montgomery  (2"'^  S.  i.  521.)  — 
I  for  one  am  obliged  to  G.  for  the  information 
concerning  the  name  of  the  father  of  the  gentle- 
man above  indicated.  Can  G.,  or  will  Mr.  Cat- 
ling, be  good  enough  to  inform  me  where  he  was 
christened?  I  am,  of  course,  aware  that  Weston 
has  been  mentioned ;  but  which  Weston  P  for  there 
are  at  least  a  score  places  so  named  in  the  Clerical 
Directory.  D. 

York  Service  Boohs.  —  As  York  books  are  of 
great  rarity,  I  beg  to  send  you  the  following  note 
as  an  addition  to  A.  Mt.'s  Note  in  2°''  S.  i.  489. 
I  have  a  York  Horce  B.  Virg.,  which,  as  far  as  I 
can  make  out,  is  unique.  The  Museum  has  one 
also,  but  it  does  not  contain  any  of  the  distinctive 
services  for  York  Saints,  and  consequently  not 
the  following : 

"  De  Sancto  Ricardo  Scrupe  Mar.  et  Conf." 
"  Alme  Ricarde  Dei  martyr  nostri  miserere. 
"  Ut  placeamus  ei :  fac  nos  peccata  cavere." 
"  V.  Intercede  pro  nobis  Ricarde  Beate,  ut  quee  salu- 
briter  petimus  consequamur  a  te." 

"  Deus  qui  beatum  et  electum  Martirem  tuum  Ri- 
cardum  prseclarse  patientiae  titulis  in  ipso  suse  mortis  arti- 
culo  singulariter  illustrasti:  da  nobis  famulis  tuis  ejus 
piis  meritis  et  amore  sic  in  prjesenti  vivere,  ut  ad  reterna 
valeamus  gaudia  perv^enire,  per  Christum." 

There  was  a  good  stained  glass  portrait  of  him 
in  York  Minster,  but  I  fancy  it  was  destroyed 
by  the  fire :  of  this  1  am  not  certain.  J.  C.  J. 

Longevity  (2""^  ^  i.  452.) —The  following  sta- 
tistics are  worth  adding  to  the  series  of  Notes  that 
have  appeared  on  longevity  : 

"  In  1851  there  were  in  Lower  Canada,  over  100  years 
of  age,  38  persons;  between  90  and  100  years,  417;  be- 
tween SO  and  90,  3030 ;  between  70  and  80,  11,084 ;  be- 
tween 60  and  70,  24,095. 

"  In  Upper  Canada  in  the  same  year,  there  were,  over 
100  years  of  age,  20  persons ;  between  70  and  80,  7156 ; 
between  60  and  70,  20,267." — Canada  and  Her  Resources^ 
two  Prize  Essays,  by  J.  Sheridan  Hogan  and  Alexander 
Morris,  p.  114. 

K.  P.  D.  E. 

Lees vf  Alt  Hill,  Family  of  (V  S.  xii.  265.)  — 
The  name  is  "Lees,"  and  not  "Lee,"  and  the 
"  heiress  "  was  Alice,  daughter  of  John  Lees  and 
Alice  Bardsley  his  wife. 

The  word  "heiress"  would  induce  the  sup- 



[2»«  S.  N»  28.,  JtTLT  12.  'ft 

position  that  she  was  the  only  child,  but  such  was 
not  the  fact,  as  she  had  a  brother,  James,  who 
succeeded  to  his  father's  property,  as  Alice  did  to 
her  mother's,  the  Bardsleys. 

The  family  of  Leese,  or  Lees,  have  been  resi- 
dent at  Alt  since  1422,  when  Thomas  de  Leghes, 
Adam  de  Leghes  and  John  de  Leghes  held  lands 
under  Sir  Jolm  Assheton,  Bart.,  at  Alt,  Nether 
Leghes,  and  Palden  Leghes,  Palden  being  consi- 
dered an  abbreviation  of  Palus  Densata,  a  fen  or 

I  have  this  information  from  a  carefully-com- 
piled pedigree  made  by  a  lineal  descendant  of  the 
family,  a  physician  here;  but  there  does  not  appear 
to  be  any  connection  with  the  family  of  Lee  of 

Jonathan  Pickford,  Esq.,  of  Macclesfield,  was 
the  lineal  ancestor  of  Sir  Joseph  Radcliflfe,  Bart., 
of  Mihies  Bridge.  K.  E. 


Geranium  (2°'^  S.  i.  494.)  —  I  have  extracted 
from  The  Language  of  Flowers,  the  following 
significations  of  the  different  kinds  of  geranium 
for  the  benefit  of  VV.  H.  P. :  — 

"  Scarlet  Geranium 
Ivy,  ditto     - 
Nutmeg,  ditto 
Eose-scented,  ditto 
Silver-leaved,  ditto 

'  Comforting.' 
'  Bridal  Favour.' 
'  Expected  Meeting.' 
'  Preference.' 
'  Recall.'  " 


Common  Place-Books  (P'  S.  xii.  478. ;  2"'^  S.  i. 
486.)  —  When,  in  the  first  of  the  above  pages,  I 
explained  an  improvement  upon  Locke's  method 
of  keeping  a  common-place  book,  I  did  not  refer 
to  the  plan  which  Bibliothecar.  Chetham.  sup- 
poses. I  mentioned  that  the  method  to  which  I 
referred  first  appeared  about  thirty-five  years 
ago  ;  but  I  should  have  said  upwards  of  forty,  for 
one  of  my  common-place  books  was  kept  upon 
this  improved  plan  forty-three  years  ago.  What 
I  had  in  my  mind  was  published  as  a  common- 
place book  with  a  ruled  and  lettered  index,  and  a 
page  or  two  of  directions,  explaining  also  the  su- 
perior advantages  of  this  new*  method.  It  was 
new  at  the  time;  and  if  your  correspondent  will 
turn  again  to  my  former  communication,  he  will 
see  that  I  did  not  refer  to  any  of  the  works  which 
he  mentions,  but  described  a  plan  very  different. 

F.  C.  H. 

Popular  Names  of  Live-stock  (2°''  S.  i.  416.)  — 
The  very  interesting  paper,  under  the  above  title, 
does  not  make  mention  of  ever  as  a  name  for  the 
boar-pig.  I  have  heard  it  used  by  the  lower 
classes  in  Sussex,  but  very  rarely  —  and  usually 
pronounced  heaver.  The  word  is  evidently  de- 
rived from  the  German  or  Saxon  eber,  a  boar ; 
the  b  and  v  being  interchangeable. 

Till  I  made  this  discovery,  I  was  much  puzzled 
respecting  the  etymology  of  a  not  unusual  surname 

in  Sussex,  pronounced  in  our  towns  Ever-shed,  but 
by  the  country  people  Ever-sed  :  it  was  undoubt- 
edly originally  Evers-hed,  that  is,  boar's-head. 


Glycerine  for  Naturalists  (2"^  S.  i.  412.) — I  too 
have  been  disappointed  in  glycerine.  But  if 
I.  M.  4.  wishes  to  be  successful,  let  him  get  the 
article  direct  from  Price's  Candle  Company,  Vaux- 
hall.  Much  that  is  sold  under  the  name  is  not 
glycerine  at  all.  Eber. 


The  Ducking  Stool  (2"-^  S.  i.  490.)  —With  re- 
ference to  the  inquiry  as  to  the  use  of  the  duck- 
ing stool  since  1738,  as  a  punishment  for  women, 
I  beg  to  refer  to  Mr.  Brooke's  recent  work  on 
Liverpool  from  1775  to  1800,  in  which  evidence 
will  be  found  of  the  use  of  it  in  1779,  and  perhaps 
still  later,  by  the  authority  of  the  magistrates,  in 
the  House  of  Correction,  which  formerly  stood 
upon  Mount  Pleasant  in  Liverpool. 

There  is  yet  preserved  in  the  parish  church  of 
Leominster,  in  Herefordshire,  a  moveable  ducking 
stool  (upon  wheels)  for  women,  and  the  last  time 
that  it  was  used  was  about  seventy  years  ago,  to  a 
woman  of  the  town  named  Jane  Corran,  but  often 
called  Jenny  Pipes.  J.  R.  H. 

Birkenhead,  Cheshire. 

Crooked  Naves  (2"''  S.  i.  499.)  —  It  is  some- 
where said,  that  before  our  pious  ancestors  com- 
menced the  construction  of  a  church,  the  first  ray 
of  the  rising  sun  was  sedulously  watched,  and  the 
east  end  was  then  so  planned  as  to  catch,  through 
future  ages,  the  first  dawn  of  that  light  which 
blessed  and  guided  their  early  labours. 

This  rule,  if  not  fabulous  or  universal,  may 
have  had  some  influence  on  the  builders,  and  oc- 
casioned that  varying  now  sought  to  be  explained 
by  your  correspondents. 

Few  of  the  ancient  churches  vary  more  from 
the  apparently  established  cu|jtiom  than  the  noble 
cathedral  of  Antwerp  ;  but  there,  for  some  reason 
probably  unexplained,  a  brazen  meridian  line  is 
drawn  along  the  pavement :  showing  at  once  the 
cardinal  points,  and  the  deviation  of  the  building 
from  east  to  west.  • 

If  such  a  custom  as  the  one  above  named  ever 
existed,  it  must  have  been  alike  applicable  to  the 
enlargement,  reconstruction,  or  the  reparation  of 
churches  ;  and  from  this  probability,  through  the 
numerous  alterations  at  the  east  end,  Norwich 
cathedral  is  by  no  means  exempt. 

Henry  Davenet. 

Jacob  Behmen  (P'  S.  viii.  13.  246.;  ix.  151.; 
2""  S.  i.  395.  513.)  —While  I  am  as  grateful  as 
any  other  of  your  correspondents  can  be  for  au- 
thentic information  relative  to  the  Teutonic 
theosopher  and  his  remarkable  writings,  I  am  as 

2nd  s.  No  28.,  July  12.  '66.] 



indignant  as  I  well  can  be  at  the  sneer  in  which 
your  correspondent  Anon,  has  been  pleased  to  in- 
dulj^e  at  the  expense  of  our  own  great  Newton. 
After  an  allusion  to  Malebranche,  in  which  he  is 
said  to  have  drawn  his  all  "  from  one  small  rivulet " 
of  Behmen,  Anon,  tells  us,  "  Of  how  many  other 
originals  (the  Italics  are  his)  also  may  this  be 
truly  said,  from  Newton,  if  not  Harvey,  to  Hah- 
nemann." Let  poor  Hahnemann's  reputation  be 
left  to  the  care  of  those  who  think  it  worth  de- 
fending. I  do  not.  But,  I  cannot  hold  my  peace 
when  I  find  an  anonymous  mystic  assailing  the 
fame  of  Newton.  Newton  a  borrower  from  Beh- 
men ?  The  thing  is  supremely  ridiculous.  I 
agree  with  Anon,  in  saying  that  "  a  magic  under- 
standing is  needful "  for  the  comprehension  of 
Behmen.  Newton  had  no  magic  about  his  under- 
standing. His  was  the  strong  vigorous  English 
common  sense,  and  practical  as  well  as  theoretical 
English  genius.  Some  evidence,  at  least,  will  be 
necessary  to  convince  me  that  lie  drew  any  of  his 
Principia  from  the  vapours  of  the  great  mystic  — 
something  more  than  the  ipse  dixit  of  Anon.  Let 
that  correspondent  either  make  good  or  retract : 
let  him  cite  from  Behmen  a  statement  of  the  law 
of  iniiversal  gravitation,  or  let  him  sit  on  the 
stool  of  repentance  for  having  without  evidence 
uttered  a  sneer  at  the  originality  of  Newton. 
There  is  no  middle  course  for  a  lover  of  truth. 

C.  Mansfield  Jngleby. 

Mayor  of  London  in  1335  (2°"  S.  i.  353.  483.) 
—  In  Stow's  Survey  of  London,  edited  by  Strype, 
1720,  Reginald  at  Conduit  is  stated  to  have  been 
mayor  in  1334,  and  a  note  by  Strype  in  the  margin 
of  the  entry  says  : 

"  He  served  two  years  and  impaired  his  estate  thereby. 
King  Edward  III.  gave  him  a  yearly  rent  of  houses  in 
London.    J.  S." 

W.  H.  W.  T. 

Somerset  House. 

Parochial  Libraries  (2"^  S.  i.  459.) — In  ad- 
dition to  those  you  have  noticed  you  may  insert  — 

Parish  of  Crundal,  Kent.  (I  do  not  know  the 

Parish  of  Elhaofc  Kent,  founded  by  Lee  Warly, 
Esq.,  in  1808.  EDwiiiD  Foss. 

Numerous  Families  (2"''  S.  i.  469.)  —  I  have  not 
access  to  Thoresby's  History  of  Leeds,  and  cannot 
therefore  ascertain  whether  he  mentions  the  fol- 
lowing particulars  respecting  the  wife  of  Mr. 
William  Greenhill,  cited  by  Mr.  Hackwood. 

In  a  family  paper,  which  must  be  about  100 
years  old,  I  find  Mrs.  Greenhill  noticed  as  having 
had  thirty-nine  children  by  one  husband,  all  born 
alive  and  baptized,  and  all  single  births,  save  one. 
The  last  child  was  born  after  his  father's  death, 
and  lived  to  be  o.  surgeon,   practising  in  King 

Street,  Bloomsbury,  and  author  of  a  work  on 
Embalming  Human  Bodies.  The  family  took  for 
their  crest,  in  commemoration  of  this  singular  fer- 
tility, a  gryphon  with  thirty-nine  stars  on  its  wings. 


The  following  is  a  verbatim  extract  from  the 
Rejiister  of  Burials  belonging  to  the  parish  of  St 
Mary  the  Pure  Virgin,  at  Marlborough : 

"  John  Jones  (had  31  children  born  and  baptized) 
buried  29  March,  1743." 


Melrose  Abbey  (2"^  S.  i.  510.)  —  I  have  reason 
to  think  that  no  estimate  was  ever  given  for  the 
restoration  of  the  Abbey  of  Melrose.  A  few  years 
since,  the  Duke  of  Buccleuch  being  anxious  to 
promote  the  erection  of  a  church  for  the  Episco- 
palians of  the  neighbourhood,  I  considered  whether 
it  might  not  be  possible  to  restore  one  of  the  aisles 
of  the  abbey  church  instead.  The  scheme  was 
however  wisely  abandoned,  and  I  designed  the 
present  small  church,  which  was  erected  by  sub- 
scription, his  grace  contributing  largely,  as  well 
as  giving  the  ground.  Benj.  Fibrey. 

English  Translation  of  Aristotle's  "  Organon " 
(2"d  s^  jj  12.)  —  The  only  translation  of  Aris- 
totle's Organon  (excepting  Taylor's,  which  is 
worthless)  is  published  in  Bohn's  Classical  Library. 
The  translator,  Mr.  O.  F.  Owen,  is  said  to  have 
done  his  work  well ;  and  by  his  illustrations  from 
Whately  and  other  logicians,  has  rendered  the 
book  interesting,  even  to  those  who  do  not  want 
to  "  take  it  up."  B.  S.  W. 

The  Tune  the  Cow  died  of  (2"''  S.  i.  375.  500.)  — 
I  see  no  casus  mortis  in  either  of  the  versions 
given  ;  but  the  following,  which  is  as  common  as 
either,  would  explain  the  catastrophe  well  enough : 

"  There  was  an  old  man,  and  he  had  an  old  cow, 
And  he  had  no  fodder  to  give  her, 
So  he  took  up  his  fiddle,  and  played  her  this  tune, 

•  Consider,  good  cow,  consider, 
This  isn't  the  time  for  grass  to  grow, 
Consider,  good  cow,  consider.' " 

Probably  by  "the  tune  the  cow  died  of"  was  ori- 
ginally meant  a  satirical  reference  to  a  good 
reason  being  no  sufficient  substitute  for  a  good 
dinner.  M. 

NOTES    ON    BOOKS,    ETC. 

Although  the  words  "  Printed  for  Private  Circulation 
only  "  on  a  title-page  may  well  serve  to  protect  from  un- 
friendly criticism  the  work  .so  inscribed,  they  surely  may, 
without  impropriety,  be  passed  over  unnoticed  when  they 
appear  in  front  of  a  volume  of  unquestionable  value  and 
importance.  Such  is  the  goodly  quarto,  for  a  copy  of 
which  we  are  indebted  to  the  courtesy  of  the  distin- 
guished nobleman  under  whose  auspices  it  has  been  pro- 



[2nd  s.  No  28.,  July  12.  '56. 

duced,  entitled  Descriptive  Catalogue  of  a  Cabinet  of 
Roman  Family  Coins  belonging  to  His  Grace  tlie  Duke  of 
Northumberland,  K.G.,  bv  Rear- Admiral  William  Henry 
Smj'th,  K.S.F.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S.,  &c.  There  are  few  socie- 
ties for  the  advancement  of  archaeology  which  cannot  bear 
witness  to  the  good  taste  and  liberality  with  which  the 
Duke  of  Northumberland  promotes  that  important  study : 
and  no  one  who  knows  the  Duke  can  doubt  the  readiness 
with  which  he  accepted  the  suggestion  made  by  Admiral 
Smyth,  that  the  several  cabinets  of  coins  and  medals 
which  had  been  in  the  possession  of  the  Northumberland 
familj'  for  many  years  should  be  carefully  examined  and 
arranged  by  him.  But  the  gallant  Admiral  has  done 
more  than  this.  He  has  not  only  carefully  examined, 
classified,  and  arranged  the  Northumberland  Collection  ; 
but  he  has  given  in  the  work  which  has  called  forth 
these  remarks  —  and  which  is  a  Catalogue  of  the  Roman 
Consular  and  Family  Coins  in  the  Collection  —  a  volume 
replete  with  learning  —  not  only  full  of  elucidation  of 
history,  chronology,  and  geography  generally,  but  par- 
ticularly illustrative  of  the  constitutional  divisions  of  the 
Eoman  people.  Of  the  160  families  here  treated  of,  14 
were  pure  patricians,  2G  patrician  with  plebeian  branches, 
7  equestrian,  91  plebeian,  and  22  whose  order  and  rank 
are  uncertain.  Those  who  know  how  various  are  the 
acquirements  of  Admiral  Smyth,  and  the  fund  of  humour 
with  which  his  learning  is  seasoned  and  set  off,  will 
readily  understand  that  this  Catalogue  is  amusing  as  well 
as  instructive ;  and  as  readily  believe  that  we  are  not 
guilty  of  any  exaggeration  when  we  pronounce  this 
handsome  volume  to  be  alike  creditable  to  the  scholar- 
ship of  Admiral  Smyth  and  the  liberality  of  the  Duke  of 

We  have  good  news  for  the  lovers  of  gossip.  A  new 
edition  of  the  Letters  of  Horace  Walpole  is  announced,  in 
which  the  various  letters  of  the  diflferent  collections, 
which  now  occupy  fourteen  volumes,  are  to  be  incor- 
porated into  one  series  —  in  eight.  Now,  therefore,  is 
the  time  for  those  who  have  Notes  to  make,  or  Queries 
which  they  wish  solved,  with  reference  to  the  men, 
manners,  or  events  touched  upon  by  this  Prince  of  Letter 
Writers,  to  let  us  have  them. 

The  Gentleman's  Magazine,  with  which  the  name  of 
Nichols  has  been  so  long  and  so  honourably  connected, 
has  passed  into  other  hands, — the  "great  age  of  the  one, 
and  the  want  of  health  of  the  other  proprietor,"  being  the 
cause  of  the  change.  It  is  now  published  by  Mr.  Parker 
of  Oxford;  and  we  can  scarcely  doubt  that,  under  his 
management,  its  character  a'S  an  antiquarian  and  his- 
torical Magazine  will  be  fully  sustained.  The  opening 
number  is  certainly  a  very  good  one. 

Books  Received.  —  The  Herd-Boy.  A  Fairy  Tale 
for  Christmas  Tyde.  From  the  Swedish  of  Upland.  This 
pleasant  versification  of  a  Swedish  Legend  has,  in  addi- 
tion to  its  own  interests,  the  merit  of  being  so  told  as  to 
make  the  young  persons  for  whom  it  has  been  written  fa- 
miliar with  some  of  the  good  old  English  words  and 
phrases  which  are  to  be  found  in  the  language  of  our 
Praj-er  Book  and  Psalter,  the  authorised  version  of  the 
Bible,  &c. ;  and,  with  this  view,  notes  have  been  added 
in  the  hopes  of  awakening  in  them  a  desire  to  understand 
thoroughly  the  English  language. 

The  English  Bible,  containing  the  Old  and  New  Testa- 
ments according  to  the  Authorised  Version,  newly  divided 
into  Paragraphs.  Part  X.,  S.  Mark  iii.  to  S.  Luke  xii. 
We  have  so  often  spoken  favourably  of  this  new  arrange- 
ment of  our  noble  Authorised  Version,  that  we  may  con- 
tent ourselves  with  simply  recording  the  publication  of 
this  further  portion  of  it. 

The  Dramatic  Works  of  William  Shakspeare.  The 
Text  carefully  revised,  with  Notes  by  Samvel  Weller  Singer, 

F.S.A.,  Sj'c,  Vol.  VIL  This  new  volume  of  Mr.  Singer's 
valuable  edition  contains  King  Henry  VHL,  Troilus  and 
Cressida,  and  Coriolanus. 

The  Boundaries  of  Man\  Knowledge.  A  Lecttire  de- 
livered to  the  Literary  Institutions  of  Bedford  and  Woburn 
by  William  White,  Principal  Door-Keeper  of  the  House  of 
Commons.  A  very  sensible  well-written  Lecture,  showing 
considerable  reading  and  much  reflection. 

History  of  the  Parliamentary  Representation  of  Preston 
during  the  last  Hundred  Years.  By  William  Dobson. 
This  narrative,  originally  prepared  for  publication  in  the 
Preston  Chronicle,  is  very  creditable  to  the  compiler.  It 
would  be  well  if  the  history  of  every  constituency  were 
produced  in  the  same  form. 



StRYPe's  CllANMER.      Vol.  HI. 

The    Prater  Book  accobdjno   to   the   text   op   the    Sealed    Books. 

Vol.  HI. 
Field  on  the  CnoKcn.    The  last  Vol. —  These  three  published  by  the 

Ecclesiastical  History  Society. 
Gogdhogh's  Gentleman's  Library  Mandal. 

*«*  Letters,  stating  particulars  and  lowest  price,  carriage  fre«,  to  be 
sent  to  Messrs.  Bell  &  Daluy,  Publishers  of  "  WOTES  AND 
QUERIES,"  186.  Fleet  Street. 

Particulars  of  Price,  &c.  of  the  following  Books  to  be  sent  direct  to 
the  gentlemen  by  whom  they  are  required,  and  whose  names  and  ad- 
dresses are  given  for  that  purpose : 

Bp.  Wilson's  Works.    Vol.  IV.    8vo. 
Coleridge  s  Biooraphia.     Vol.  I.    Pt.  2. 
Coleridge's  Lectures  ox  Dramatists.    Vol.  I. 
Shakspeare.    (.Diamond.)    Vol.  V. 
Friendship's  Opfkrino.     1837. 
Carrington's  Poems.    2  Vols. 
Napier's  Peninsular  War.    Vol.  VI, 
Peacocr's  Integral  Calculus.    2  Vols. 
Kuffman's  Dictionary  of  Merchandize. 
AuLiss  Pocket  Mao.    Vols.  III.  &  IV. 

Wanted  by  Thomas  Millard,  Bookseller,  70.  Newgate  Street. 

Horatii  Opera.    Vol.11.    Lond.,  Pine,  1733.    8vo.    Boards. 
Retrospective  Review.    Nos.  13.  25.  and  all  after. 

Wanted  by  Thomas  G.  Stevenson,  Bookseller,  87.  Princes  Street, 

Shakspeare.    By  Steevena.    Trade  Edition.    10  Vols.     18mo.    Large 

paper.    Vol.  I.    1823. 
Saturday  Magazine,  in  Parts. 
Grillparzer's  Sappho,  in  the  original. 

Wanted  by  Charles  F.  Blackburn,  Bookseller,  Leamington. 

fiaiitt^  ta  ^avreipaiitsmti. 

We  have  heen  compelled  b>/  want  of  space  to  postpone  until  next  week 
many  articles  of  considerable  interest. 

Index  to  First  Vol.  of  Second  Series.    This  is  at  press,  ami  will  be 
published  on  Saturday  next. 

suited  the  tiX articles  on  this  subject  in  our  Is^,  vii.  502. ;  x.  186. 

;r  J^hn.    Has  our  Correspondent,  IHUansfield  Inoleby,  con- 
;  tM articles  on  this  subject  in  our  Is",  vil 

Index  to  the  First  Series.  As  this  is  now  published,  and  the  im- 
pression is  a  limited  one,  such  of  our  readers  as  desire  copies  would  do 
well  to  intimate  wish  to  their  respective  booksellers  without  delay. 
Our  publishers,  Messrs.  Bell  &  Dalov,  will  forward  copies  by  post  on 
receipt  of  a  Post  Office  Order  for  Five  Shihings. 

"  Notes  and  Queries  "  is  published  at  noon  on  Friday,  so  that  the 
Country  Booksellers  may  receive  Copies  in  that  night's  parcels,  and 
deliver  them  to  their  Subscribers  on  the  Saturday. 

"Notes  and  Queries"  is  also  issued  in  Monthly  Parts, /o>-  the  con- 
venience of  those  who  may  either  have  a  difficulty  in  procuring  the  un- 
stamped weekly  Numbers,  or  prefer  receiving  it  monthly.  While  parties 
resident  in  the  country  or  abroad,  who  may  be  desirous  of  receiving  the 
weekly  Numbers,  may  have  stamped  copies  forwarded  direct  from  the 
Publisher.  The  subscription  for  the  stamped  edition  of  "  Notes  and 
Queries  "  (including  a  very  copious  Index)  is  eleven  shillings  and  four- 
pence  for  six  months,  which  may  be  paid  by  Post  Office  Order,  drawn  in 
favour  of  the  Publisher,  Mb.  Geobob  Beli.,  No.  186.  Fleet  Street. 

2nd  s.  No  29.,  July  19.  '56.] 



LONDON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  19,  1856. 

{Concluded  from  2"^  S.  i.  410.) 

In  "N.  &  Q,"  P'  S.  ix.  35.  84  113.  225.,  are 
several  notes  from  your  correspondents  on  the 
suV)ject  of  the  F.-d.-L. ;  and  names  of  families,  not 
included  in  the  above  lists,  are  cited  in  connection 
with  this  charge.  Such  are  the  five  bishops  named 
by  Mackenzie  Walcott.  According  to  Heylin, 
Trilleck,  Bishop  of  Hereford  (1275),  founder  of 
Trilleck  Inn,  now  called  New  Inn  Hall,  Oxford, 
is  alone  entitled  to  this  distinction,  as  bearing  the 
arms  of  his  see,  derived  from  S.  Thomas  de  Can- 
telupe,  the  44th  bishop.  Chancellor  of  England 
and  Oxford,  son  of  William  Lord  Cantiloupe,  for 
whom  see  the  third  crusade  under  Richard  I. 
Other  names  are,  France  of  Bostock  Hall,  Chesh- 
ire, Saunders,  Warwyke,  Presterfield,  Kempton, 
Velland,  Rothfeld,  and  references  are  made  to  the 
heraldic  dictionaries  of  Berry,  Burke,  Edmonson, 
Robson,  Glover's  Ordinary,  &c.  I  am  well  aware 
that  there  may  be  many  families  so  distinguished 
which  are  not  included  in  the  "  formidable  array  " 
which  my  lists  supply  from  the  four  sources  al- 
ready described  ;  but  as  I  have  already  trespassed 
too  long  on  your  pages,  and  on  the  patience  of 
your  readers,  I  shall  for  the  present  confine  my- 
self to  a  few  remarks  suggested  by  the  preceding 
Notes ;  and  leave  to  such  of  your  heraldic  cor- 
respondents as  may  have  a  knowledge  I  do  not 
possess,  or  a  facility  of  consulting  many  important 
authorities  not  within  my  reach,  the  task  of  sup- 
plying all  deficiencies.  Of  such  additional  sources 
of  information  it  may  be  sufficient  to  name  here 
the  valuable  Armorial  General  de  la  France,  par 
d'Hozier,  Paris,  1736,  in  ten  folio  volumes  ;  and,  to 
save  time,  many  French  and  English  works  on  this 
subject,  collected  in  the  fifth  volume  of  Brunet's 
Manuel  du  Lib)-aire,  p.  625.,  edit.  1844,  under 
Div.  VI.,  Hist,  de  la  Chevalerie  et  de  la  Noblesse, 
avec  VHistoire  Heraldique  et  Genealogique. 

It  may  be  remarked  that  an  undoubted  French 
origin  in  families  gives  no  title  to  the  distinction 
of  the  F.-d.-L.  This  appears  from  numerous  in- 
stances in  which  the  charge  is  not  borne.  Such, 
among  others,  are  the  names,  Butler,  descended 
from  the  ancient  Counts  of  Brien  in  Normandy  ; 
St.  Leger,  of  French  extraction,  coming  in  with 
the  Conqueror ;  St.  John  (Jean),  also  Norman  ; 
De  Brodrick,  the  same,  under  William  II.  ;  Eg- 
mont,  descended  from  the  Dues  de  Bretagne ; 
Moore,  of  French  extraction,  soon  after  the  Con- 
quest;  Fortescue,  from  the  Norman  Sir  Richard 
le  Forte  ;  Hervey,  coming  from  France  with  Wil- 
liam the  Conqueror,  descended  from  the  younger 
son  of  Henri,  Duke  of  Orleans ;  Harcourt,  also 

from  Normandy,  besides  many  others.  It  may  be 
said  that  most  of  these  were  of  Norman  descent, 
and  that  the  arms  of  Normandy  were  G,  2  L.  P. 
G.  or.  But  it  cannot  be  strictly  ascertained 
whether  all  these  families  were  exclusively  Norman ; 
and  among  the  Norman  Crusaders  (1096 — 1269) 
are  many  bearing  the  F.-d.-L.  Such  is  also  the 
case  with  the  names  Beliasyse,  St.  Maur,  Disney, 
&c.  In  the  above  category  are  also  many  names 
which,  though  strictly  French,  have  correspondent 
names  in  English,  and  are  now  absorbed  in  our 
genealogical  catalogues  as  part  and  parcel  of 
our  native  patronymics,  I  may  hereafter  give  a 
curious  list  of  these  correspondences,  which  have 
been  noted,  for  amusement,  in  the  course  of  a  pro- 
gress through  ancient  French  history. 

In  perusing  the  above  lists,  it  is  obvious  that, 
saving  the  unquestionable  claim  from  royal  de- 
scent or  alliance,  very  few  indications  appear  of 
the  grounds  on  which  this  royal  charge  is  assumed 
in  so  many  British  shields.  The  true  Norman 
race  bore,  as  above  stated,  G.  2  L,  P.  G.  or ;  the 
Saxon  line,  G.  3  L.  P.  G.  or  ;  and  in  1326,  Ed- 
ward IIL  assumed  quarterly  France  and  England, 
giving  the  first  place  to  France  :  thus  (1.  and  4.), 
az.  seme  de  Lis  (3.  2.  3.),  and  (2.  3  ),  gu.  3  L. 
P.  G.  or.  On  this  ground,  I  formerly  ventured 
to  object  to  the  accuracy  of  Heylin's  blazon  of 
the  arms  of  Henry  I.,  Beauclerc.  This  objection, 
however,  rested  on  a  mistaken  appropriation  of 
the  arms,  pi.  iii.  f.  20.  ;  which,  though  placed  so 
early  as  p.  16.,  had,  in  fact,  a  reference  to  p.  150., 
and  to  Charles  Beauclerk,  E.  of  Burford,  created 
D.  of  St.  Albans,  35  Chas,  IL,  1684. 

It  has  appeared  that,  though  they  are  recorded 
as  an  ornament  of  the  crown  of  previous  sove- 
reigns, no  Fs.-d.-L.  were  borne  by  Henry  II.  and 
Richard  I.;  though,  in  1190-2,  the  latter  sove- 
reign bestowed  on  Richard  Plowden  the  augmen- 
tation of  2  Fs.-d,-L.  fjM-  gallantry  at  the  siege  of 
Acre  (p.  350.).  In  th"same  thii'd  crusade,  as  we 
have  seen,  John  de  Cantelupe,  or  Cantiloupe,  bore 
3  leopards'  heads  jessant  Fs.-d.-L.;  of  which 
bearing  no  further  account  is  given  than  that  it 
descended  to  the  bishopric  of  Hereford. 

In  the  second  crusade  (1146),  under  Louis  VI., 
and  in  the  fourth,  fifth,  and  sixth  crusades,  no 
English  subjects  appear  to  have  borne  the  charge. 
In  the  years  1286-93,  Rauf  Sandwich,  Ld.  M. 
of  London,  first  bore  gu.  a  F.-d.-L.  or  ;  and  from 
those  years  to  the  year  1754,  the  last  recorded  by 
Heylin,  twenty-five  successive  Lords  Mayor  bore 
the  F.-d-L.,  or  R.  T.  Of  this  number,  nine  bore 
one  alone,  others  from  three  to  seme  d.  L.  No 
authority  is  given  for  the  assumption  of  this 
charge  by  the  Lords  Mayor,  In  1297  (25  Edw.  I.) 
the  name  of  Lennard  is  connected  (1.  and  4.)  with 
3  Fs.-d.-L.  In  1307,  John  Barrett  Lennard  was 
created  Lord  Dacre  by  Edw.  II.  But  when,  or 
on  what  ground,  the  above  ch»rge  was  granted,  is 



[2'>4S.  N<>29.,Jult19.'56. 

not  stated.  So  again,  in  1298,  (27  Edw.  I.,)  the 
same  doubt  exists  as  to  George  Townshend  (see 
Heylin  above),  who  quartered  France  and  Eng- 
land. In  1328,  J.  Holland,  E.  of  Huntington 
(afterwards  created  D.  of  Exeter  by  Richard  II.), 
whose  mother  was  Joan,  widow  of  the  Black 
Prince,  and  who  married  Elizabeth,  eldest 
daughter  to  John  of  Gaunt,  D.  of  Lancaster, 
brother  to  the  Black  Prince,  bore  a  border  of 
France,  13  Fs.-d.-L. 

Of  the  great  dignity  attached,  upon  all  occa- 
sions, to  the  royal  charge  of  the  F.-d.-L.,  frequent 
proofs  may  be  supplied  from  the  preceding  notes. 
In  many  eminent  instances  of  the  grant  being 
conferred  at  the  hands  of  the  sovereign,  a  single 
F.-d.-L.,  or  two,  are  the  only  concession  made ; 
so  as,  in  all  appearance,  to  avoid  a  trespass  upon 
privileges  strictly  royal.  Thus,  under  Richard  I., 
the  grant  to  Plowden  extended  only  to  2  Fs.-d.-L. : 
that  to  the  family  of  Leycester,  under  Richard  II., 
whose  descendant,  in  1544,  a  general  officer,  re- 
ceived the  honour  of  knighthood,  was  2  Fs.-d.-L. 
Under  Edward  IV.,  that  to  Kellett  was  a  single 
F.-d.-L.  Under  Henry  VIIL,  that  to  Gierke  was 
two  ;  that  to  Thomas  Manners,  E.  of  Rutland, 
though  of  royal  descent  from  Edward  IV.,  was 
limited  to  two.  We  have  seen  that  Charles  II. 
restricted  the  bearing  of  the  F.-d.-L.  in  their 
coronets  to  the  royal  dukes.  His  grant  to  Stephen 
Fox  admitted  only  a  single  F.-d.-L.  Queen 
Anne's  grant  to  Shovel  was  of  2  Fs.-d.-L.  Wol- 
cott  (of  Knowle),  of  Norman  extraction,  received 
as  an  augmentation  of  honour,  1  F.-d.-L.,  "  for 
good  service  unto  the  king  (quere,  which  ?)  in 
his  wars,"  though  the  honourable  augmentation 
to  the  D.  of  Marlborough  consisted  of  three. 
Neverthess,  in  looking  at  the  lists  of  the  Landed 
Gentry,  we  find,  in  many  instances,  that  the  grant 
extended  to  3  Fs.-d-L. ;  though  the  ground  of 
such  peculiar  extension  is  not  published.  Thus, 
the  family  of  Disney  beaAhree.  Their  ancestors, 
from  D'Isigny,  D'Isneux,  D'Eisney,  near  Bayeux, 
Normandy,  were  a  knightly  race  of  the  first  sta- 
tion and  influence,  who  came  in  at  the  Conquest. 
The  family  of  Leathes  also  bear  three.  They,  too, 
came  in  at  the  Conquest,  and  are  descended  from 
Mussenden  (Missenden),  who  was  Grand  Admiral 
of  England  under  Henry  I. 

The  family  of  Lenigan,  which  dates  from  before 
Hen.  II.,  bear  three.  That  of  Hawkins,  de- 
scended from  the  ancient  Norman  family  of  Ny- 
col,  temp.  Hen.  II.  and  Edw.  III.,  bear  5  Fs.-d- 
L.  The  family  of  Halford,  of  great  antiquity,  and 
dating  from  Hen.  III.,  hut  whose  documents  were 
lost  at  the  Revolution,  bear  3  Fs.-d-L.  That  of 
Birch  (of  whom  more  hereafter),  under  Edw.  III., 
bear  three.  Gilbert  of  Cantley  received  a  grant 
of  three  under  Q.  Elizabeth.  The  same  of  Hill, 
1560,  and  of  Hutton,  1584. 

Under  George  JII.,   Curtis,  Admiral  of  Red, 

created  a  baronet,  in  1794,  for  heroic  achieve- 
ments under  Lord  Howe,  who  had  also  been 
knighted,  in  1782,  for  the  same  at  the  siege  of 
Gibraltar,  received  as  an  augmentation  of  honour 
in  chief  the  Rock  of  Gibraltar,  and  in  base  3 

These  are  the  only,  or  the  principal  names,  to 
which  the  honourable  distinction  is  assigned  of  a 
privilege  to  bear  this  charge,  in  the  authorities  to 
which  my  labours  have  extended.  I  have  before 
hinted  that  it  would  be  of  great  historical  interest 
to  learn  from  the  numerous  bearers  of  the  F.-d.-L. 
the  grounds  on  which  such  charge  was  originally 
adopted.  By  favour  of  the  Rev.  Joseph  Birch, 
M.A.,  of  Brighouse,  Yorkshire,  I  have  been  sup- 
plied with  a  copy  of  the  honourable  grant  made 
to  his  ancestor  (above  named)  by  Edward  III.,  for 
services  under  the  Black  Prince,  and  it  has  a 
peculiar  interest,  as  the  only  instance  of  the  con- 
cession of  the  charge  by  the  first  monarch  who 
assumed  the  royal  arms  of  France  : 

"Lieutenant  General  Field  Marshall  John  Birch,  Ge- 
neral in  Chief  of  the  armies  of  his  late  Majesty  Edward 
III.  of  glorious  memory,  who,  in  his  glorious  campaign  in 
the  Kingdom  of  France,  took  three  Kings  of  France 
prisoners,  in  consideration  whereof  his  said  Majesty 
granted  unto  his  said  gallant  commander,  and  his  heirs 
lineal,  and  in  default  of  these  heirs  collateral,  in  his 
right  as  King  of  France,  the  privilege  of  wearing  their 
Fleurs-de-Lis,  in  token  of  the  bravery  of  the  one,  and 
the  generosity'  of  the  other.  In  Testimonium  Veritalis, 
§-c.  §-c." 

The  words  which  follow  are  — 

("Li.     Li.  1 

ILy.  Ly./  ; 

and  remain  a  mystery. 

Here,  then,  I  conclude  a  series  which  has  de- 
veloped itself  to  a  much  greater  length  and  im- 
portance than  I  could  have  expected  when,  in 
Paris,  last  year,  I  originated  the  inquiry  as  to  the 
descent  and  bearings  of  the  Hillier  family  (2""^  S. 
i.  53.),  in  both  of  which  questions  I  am  personally 

An  inquiry  conducted  upon  the  same  plan  in 
regard  to  the  various  crosses,  and  especially  the 
cross  crosslet  fitchy,  would  be  an  instructive 
sequel  to  this  on  the  F.-d.-L.  Crosses  were  al- 
ways considered  among  the  honourable  ordinaries, 
and  their  first  use,  as  an  heraldic  bearing,  is  said 
to  have  been  in  the  expeditions  to  the  Holy  Land 
in  the  year  1096.  They  are  now  common  in 
British  shields,  and  are  borne,  it  must  be  pre- 
sumed, by  those  whose  ancestors  were  engaged  in 
one  or  other  of  those  wars  which  disturbed  Europe 
for  178  years,  from  1095  to  1273.  C.  H.  P. 


2nd  s.  No  29.,  July  19.  '56.] 




Jacobite  Song.  —  I  copy  the  accompanying  Jaco- 
bite effusion  from  a  contemporary  MS.  Should  it 
not  have  been  printed,  it  may  probably  suit  you 
as  a  Macaulay  illustration.  J.  O. 

"  Lay  by  jt  reason, 

Truely  out  of  season  ; 
Rebellion  now  is  Loyalty,  and  loyalty  is  Treason  : 

Now  forty  one,  S', 

Is  quite  undone,  S"" ; 
A  Subject  then  depos'd  his  king,  but  now  it  is  his  Son,  S''  j 

The  nations  Salvation, 

From  male  Administration, 
Was  then  pretended  by  ye  saints,  but  now  his  abdication. 


"  Besides  ye  case,  S', 
Bears  another  face,  S' ; 
Billy  had  a  mind  to  reign,  and  Jemmy  must  give  place,  S"" ; 
Rais'd  Insurrections, 
With  base  reflections ; 
And  labour  tooth  and  naile  to  perfect  his  projections ; 
Rebellion  in  fashion, 
Declar'd  throughout  ye  nation ; 
Then  turn'd  his  ffather  out  of  doors,  and  call'd  it  abdica- 

"  A  declaration. 
For  self  preservation. 
Was  spread  abroad  wherein  was  prov'd  a  father  no  rela- 
tion ; 

Monarchy  halters, 
And  abdicators, 
Did  swear  themselves  into  a  league  with  dutchmen,  and 
with  traytors ; 

They  enter,  Indenture, 
Both  soul  and  body  venture. 
Whilst  att  Royal  Jimmy's  head  their  malice  still  did 

"  What  have  we  gained  ? 
Grievances  retained ; 
The  Government  is  still  ye  same,  ye  king  is  only  changed ; 
Was  ever  such  a  bargain. 
What  boots  it  a  farthing. 
Whether  ffather  Petre  rule,  Benting,  or  Carmarthen ; 
Oppressed,  distressed. 
With  Empty  Purse  Carressed, 
We  still  remain  In  Statu  quo,  their's  nothing  yett  re- 

"  Baile  for  Treason, 
Now  is  out  of  Season ; 
And  judges  must  bee  Courtiers  still  against  all  right  and 
reason ; 

Nay,  more,  I'll  mention. 
Ye  Senate  hath  a  pension, 
Which  overthrowes  the  contracts  made  with  ye  Select 
Convention ; 

Thus  wee,  S"",  you  see,  S"", 
Come  off  by  ye  bee,  S'' ; 
Wee  give  our  money  to  bee  Slaves,  Instead  of  being  free, 

"  Never  was  Beetle, 
Blind  as  this  people ; 
To  think  that  God  will  own  a  Church  with  a  Socinian 
Steeple ; 

By  Priests  deceived. 

That  have  brought  themselves  into  that  pass  ne'er  more 
to  be  believed ; 

They  leer,  S',  for  fear,  S^, 

Ould  Jemmy  should  come  here,  S^ 

And  then  they'll  all  repent  that  ere  they  took  ye  swear, 

"  Alas !  what  is  Conscience, 
In  Sherlock's  own  Sense : 
When  Interest  lyes  att  stake,  an  oath  with  him  is  non- 
sense ; 

The  Temple  Master, 
Fears  no  disaster ; 
He  can  take  ten  thousand  oaths,  and  ne'er  bee  bound  the 

And  all  theyr  Cause  Intangle ; 
Yet  nought  can  hold  ye  wretch  but  ye  old  Triangle. 

«  For  holy  Cause,  S' , 
You  may  break  all  lawes,  S""; 
For  perjury,  nor  treason,  then  do  signify  two  strawes,  S', 
So  bad  our  Case  is. 
We'd  better  far  bee  papist ; 
For  now  Socinians  rule  the  Church,  and  they'r  rul'd  by 
an  Athiest : 

The  nations  damnation. 
Was  their  last  reformation ; 
Either  you  must  take  ye  Swear,  or  starving,  leave  yr 

"  FINIS." 


Blaise  Pascal  says,  with  a  Rabelaistic  humour 
that  is  not  his  wont,  "  si  le  nez  de  Cldopatre  eut 
ete  plus  court,  toute  la  face  de  la  terre  aurait 
change."  And  copious  are  the  instances  that 
might  be  cited  in  exemplification.  The  subjoined, 
as  pertaining  to  our  English  history,  curiously 
illustrate  this  truth  of  the  momentous  flowing 
from  the  trivial,  the  great  from  the  minute,  and 
offer  us  a  field  of  speculation  on  the  proximate 
and  impelling  motive^  influencing  that  single  will 
which,  electing  one  scale,  thus  made  the  balance 
kick  the  beam  with  consequences  so  signal  to 
future  generations.  Perchance,  even  the  slightest 
dyspepsia  or  neuralgia  may,  in  the  chain  of 
causes,  account  for  that  single  vote,  or  that  "  mis- 
take," which  gave  us  the  ferial  observance  of  our 
Anglican  calendar  —  a  statute,  the  safeguard  of 
British  freedom,  —  and  the  blessings  of  stability  in 
the  firm  yet  mild  sway  of  the  line  of  Brunswick : 

1.  "  Bishop  Burnet  stated  that  the  Habeas  Corpus  Act 
passed  by  a  mere  mistake ;  that  one  peer  was  counted  for 
ten,  and  that  made  a  majority  for  the  measure."  —  Earl 
Stanhope's  Speech  before  the  House  of  Peers,  on  the  Abju- 
ration Bill,  June  24,  1856. 

2.  "  The  authority  upon  which  the  Saints'  days  stood 
in  our  Calendar  ought  to  be  considered.  At  the  begin- 
ning of  the  reign  of  Elizabeth,  when  the  Protestant  re- 
ligion was  restored,  the  question  whether  there  should  be 
Saints'  days  in  the  Calendar  was  considered  by  Convoca- 
tion, and  sharply  and  fully  debated.    The  Saints'  days 



[2na  s.  No  29.,  July  19.  '56. 

were  carried  only  by  a  single  vote ;  for  69  members  voted 
for  Saints'  days,  58  for  omitting  them."  —  Literary  Re- 
mains of  H.  Fj/nes  Clinton, 

3.  Many  years  ago,  I  was  informed  by  a  well- 
read  man,  my  tutor,  that  the  question  of  the  suc- 
cession of  the  house  of  Brunswick  in  these  realms, 
was  only  decided  by  one  vote. 

I  shall  gladly  receive  any  circumstances  relative 
to  the  latter  case,  if  it  be  confirmed ;  also  any 
other  remarkable  instances  of  similar  character. 

F.  S. 



The  origin  of  the  Irish  round  tower  is  involved 
in  as  profound  obscurity  as  that  of  the  Egyptian 
pyramids  ;  and  if  the  latter  extraordinary  monu- 
ments excite  our  curiosity  in  a  country  where  the 
same  gigantic  taste  pervaded  every  work  of  sculp- 
ture as  well  as  architecture,  how  much  more  im- 
pressive is  this  solitary  remain,  that  stands  — 

"  Sublime  and  sad 
Bearing  the  weight  of  years  !  "  — 

Beside  these  buildings,  of  which  more  than  fifty 
are  at  preserit  standing,  the  date  of  whose  form- 
ation is  not  known,  none  others  in  Ireland  de- 
serve notice  as  works  of  art.  On  the  round  tower, 
therefore,  rests  the  only  proof  of  the  skill  and 
knowledge  of  the  early  inhabitants  of  Ireland  ; 
ponderous  masses  of  uncouth  stones,  tumuli  and 
mounds,  being  works  equally  common  to  the  rude 
state  of  other  nations. 

The  conjectures  offered  as  to  the  use  of  the 
round  tower  are  numerous  as  well  as  satisfactory. 
By  some  they  are  supposed  to  have  been  the 
abodes  of  solitary  anchorites ;  by  others,  to  have 
contained  the  sacred  fire  worshipped  before  the 
Christian  era ;  some,  again,  maintain  that  they 
were  places  of  temporary  penance,  and  others  state 
them  to  have  been  belfries ;  nor  does  any  pecu- 
liarity of  situation,  except  in  the  vicinity  of  a 
church,  assist  the  antiquary  in  his  inquiry. 

I  find  the  following  novel  purpose  of  their  erec- 
tion in  one  of  Mr.  Crofton  Croker's  amusing  works 
on  the  reliques  of  Ireland,  as  replete  with  anti- 
quarian lore  as  with  those  quaint  repartees  so 
characteristic  of  the  lower  class  of  the  Irish  pea- 
santry : 

"  Mr.  W -,  of  the  Ordnance,  whilst  on  an  official 

tour  of  inspection  in  Ireland,  seeing  a  labourer  near  one 
of  the  martello  towers  on  the  coast,  carelessly  asked  him 
if  he  knew  for  what  purpose  it  was  built  ?  — 'To  be  sure 
I  do  your  honour,'  replied  he  archly;  'for  the  same  pur- 
pose as  our  ould  round  lowers.'    'And  pray  what  may 

that  have  been  ?'  inquired  Mr.  W ,  in  the  belief  of 

receiving  some  traditional  information.  '  Why,  your 
worship,'  returned  Pat,  '  the  only  use  in  them  that  I  can 
see  is  juat  to  bother  posterity.' " 

Some  extracts  from  the  opinions  of  Vallancey, 
Tanner,  Betham,  Dr.  Petrie,  and  other  Irish  his- 
torians would  be  acceptable  to  many  of  the  readers 
of  "N.  &  Q.,"  as  well  as  a  subject  worthy  of  dis- 
cussion in  its  pages.  J.  M.  G. 



"  All  the  vjorld's  a  stage ;"  Shdhspeare  and 
Erasmus.  —  The  following  passage  is  from  a  book 
Shakspeare  must  have  read.  Challoner's  Transla- 
tion of  Erasmus's  ^^ Praise  of  Folie"  has,  I  think, 
been  overlooked  by  over-read  commentators  : 

"  So  likewise  all  this  life  of  mortall  men,  what  is  it  els 
but  a  certaine  kynde  of  stage  plaie  ?  Whereas  men  come 
foorthe  disguised  one  in  one  arraie,  an  other  in  an  other, 
eche  plaiying  his  parte,  till  at  last  the  maker  of  the 
plaie  or  bokebearer,  causeth  them  to  avoj'de  the  skaf- 
folde,  and  yet  sometyme  maketh  one  man  come  in,  two 
or  three  tymes,  with  sundrie  partes  and  apparaile,  as 
who  before  represented  a  kynge,  beying  clothed  all  in 
purple,  havyng  no  more  but  shyfted  hym  self  a  little, 
shoulde  shew  hym  selfe  againe  lyke  an  woobegon- 
myser." — The  Praise  of  Folie.  Morise  Encomium:  a 
booUe  made  in  latine  by  that  great  Gierke  Erasmus  Ro- 
terodame.  Englished  by  Sir  Thomas  Chaloner,  knight, 
Anno  MDXLix.  (1549).     P.  43. 

As  a  proof  of  Shakspeare's  knowing  the  book, 
I  select  the  following  additional  extract : 

"  Seying  all  Doctours  take  it  commenly  for  theyr  pri- 
velege  to  ned  -xxt  leaven  (that  is  to  saie)  holy  writ  like 
a  cheverell  skin." 

Who  does  not  remember  the  Fool's  saying  : 
"  A  sentence  is  but  a  ckeveril  glove  to  a  good  wit." 

The  following  passage  from  Erasmus  seems  to 
well  illustrate  the  behaviour  of  Hamlet  when 
lying  at  Ophelia's  feet :  — 

"  Post  hasc  prandium,  a  prandio  stationes,  nugis  face- 
tiseque,  sparsim  procumbent  puellsa,  in  harum  gremium  se 
conjicient  viri.  Quae  neminem  repellit  maxime  laudatur 
a  civilitate." —  Erasmus,  Christiani  Matrimonii  Insti- 
tutio.    Fol.    Lugd.    Pp.  716,  717. 

G.  W.  T. 

"  RacJie"  or  "  Wreck,'^  Shakspeare,  "  Tempest,"^ 
Act  IV.  Sc.  1.  (2"^  S.  i.  425.)  —  Sometimes  we 
may  justly  exclaim,  "  plague  on  critics  !"  who  will 
puzzle  us  with  their  logomachies,  and  who  will 
not  be  satisfied  to  obey  the  old  admonition,  "  let 
well  alone."  While  1  read  the  article  of  your 
correspondent,  I  accidentally  take  a  peep  from 
my  window  ;  and  over  the  top  of  the  lofty  Ben- 
lomond,  I  see  dense  masses  of  dark  clouds  which 
have  gathered,  and  are  pouring  out  their  watery 
treasures  —  shortly  a  speck  of  blue  cloud  becomes 
visible  —  this  gradually  more  and  more  expands  — 
the  horizon  is  again  clear — and  not  a  rack  or 
vestige  remains  of  the  former  aspects. 

Now,  I  cannot  help  thinking  that  Shakspeare 

5^"^  S.  N»  29,,  July  19.  '66.] 



had  been,  "  once  on  a  time,"  among  the  mountains 
of  Scotland,  and  had  witnessed  the  many  beauti- 
ful phenomena  which  their  tops  often  put  on  in 
their  misty  "  cloud-capp'd  towers"  and  "  gorgeous 
palaces"  —  that  he  had  carefully  watched  their 
rolling  storms  —  the  dispersing  of  the  vapours 
absolutely  reduced  to  a  film,  leaving  "  not  a  rack 
behind" — all  of  which  had  conveyed  to  his  highly 
sensitive  imagination  one  of  the  most  sublime 
images  with  which  our  poetry  is  graced.  I  have 
also  a  kind  of  idea  that  the  poet  had  heard  the 
people  of  the  northern  country,  in  a  morning  like 
this  (June  4),  alternating  with  sunshine  and 
showers,  using  an  expression  at  this  moment  fa- 
miliar, that  "  the  day  would  rack  up ;"  or,  in  other 
words,  that  the  weather  would  soon  be  settled  and 
dry,  and  nowhere  any  traces  exist  of  the  frowning 
atmosphere,  —  the  force  of  his  simile  upon  a 
native  ear  reminding  one  of  that  which  would  be 
communicated  to  an  Asiatic  in  the  ornate  language 
of  "  the  Song  of  Solomon  :" 

"  For  lo  the  winter  is  past,  the  rain  is  over  and  gone, 
the  flowers  appear  on  the  earth,  the  time  of  the  singing 
of  birds  is  come,  and  the  voice  of  the  turtle  (dove)  is 
heard  in  our  land,"  &c. 

I  have  no  doubt  but  that  rack  was  the  true 
word  employed  by  Shakspeare ;  and  that  his  com- 
mentators, however  learned  and  ingenious  they 
may  be,  do  him  infinite  injustice  by  such  emend- 
ations as  "track,"  "wrack,"  "reek,"  &c.  The 
lines  of  the  Earl  of  Stirling,  who  could  write 
(1603) — 

"  Those  stately  courts,  those  sky-encountering  walls. 
Evanish  like  the  vapours  of  the  air"  — 

perfectly  explain  Shakspeare's  metaphor,  that 
nobleman  having  been,  before  his  creation  by 
James  I.,  Sir  William  Alexander  of  Menstrie  (a 
village  situated  at  the  base  of  the  Ochil  Hills), 
and  to  whose  eyes  the  appearances  he  describes 
must  have  been  of  common  occurrence.        G.  N. 

Allow  me  to  add  a  little  in  confirmation  of  Q.'s 
argument,  by  subjoining  to  it  the  two  following 
quotations  from  the  same  play,  The  Tempest,  in 
which  the  disputed  reading  occurs  : 

"  Alon.  If  thou  beast  Prospero 
Giiie  us  particulars  of  thy  preservation. 
How  thou  hast  met  ns  heere,  whom  three  howres  since 
Were  wrackt  vpon  this  shore." 

Tempest,  Act  V.  So.  1. 
"  Pros.  Know  for  certain 

That  I  am  Prospero,  and  that  very  Duke 
Which  was  thrust  forth  of  Millaine,  who  most  strangely 
Vpon  this  shore  (where  you  were  wrackt)  was  landed 
To  be  the  Lord  on't." 



Faxsage  in  "  AlVs  Well  that  Ends  Well"  (2"^  S. 
i.  494.)  —  A  sense  may  be  found  in  the  quoted 
lines,  although  not  a  very  poetical  one.    John- 

son and  Malone  (see  their  notes)  are  wrong, 
and  so  is  Mr.  Singer,  in  their  personification  of 
"  hate."  They  consider  "  sleeping  hate "  and 
"dreadful,  revengeful,  ruthless  hate"  as  being 
synonymous,  and  so  their  meaning  must  be,  that, 
it  hate  had  not  slept,  the  mischief  would  not  have 
been  done  ;  but  that  is  an  error  in  calculo :  "hate," 
of  course,  can  only  be  active  when  awake ;  sleep- 
ing, he  is  —  like  Anteus  lifted  up  from  his  mother 
earth  —  without  force,  and  so  is  "love."*  "Hate" 
and  "  love,"  directed  towards  the  same  object,  can 
not  be  awake  at  the  same  time. 

What  I  have  found  in  the  two  lines  is  this : 
"  Love  "  fell  asleep,  and  by  this  fact,  and  in  the 
same  moment,  "  hate  "  was  awaking,  and  did  mis- 
chief, profiting  by  "  love's  "  sleep.  Too  late,  after 
"hate"  being  tired,  " love "  awakes,  and  "cries 
to  see  what's  done,"  while,  at  the  same  time, 
"  shameful  hate  "  like  a  gourmand,  surfeited  by  a 
luxurious  repast,  "  sleeps  out  the  afternoon." 

If  that  is  not  poesy,  at  least  it  is  sense. 

F.  A.  Leo. 


Kneller's  Portrait  of  Shakspeare. — In  Dryden's 
Poem  to  Sir  Godfrey  Kneller,  printed  in  the  4th 
volume  of  the  Miscellany  Poems,  the  poet  speaks 
of  a  portrait  of  Shakspeare  painted  by  and  given 
to  him  by  Kneller  : 

"  Shakspeare  thy  Gift,  I  place  before  my  sight ; 
Witli  Awe,  I  ask  his  blessing  e're  I  write;  ^ 

With  Reverence  look  on  his  Majestick  Face ; 
Proud  to  be  less ;  but  of  his  Godlike  Race. 
His  Soul  inspires  me  while  thy  Praise  I  write, 
And  I  like  Teucer,  under  Ajax  fight ; 
Bids  thee,  through  me,  be  bold ;  with  dauntless  breast. 
Contemn  the  bad,  and  emulate  the  best,"  &c. 

And  a  side  note  on  the  first  words  refers  to  — 

"  Shakspeare's  Picture,  drawn  by  Sir  Godfrey  Kneller, 
and  given  to  the  author." 

Is  anything  known  of  this  picture  at  the  present 
time  ?  From  what  did  Kneller  make  his  copy  ? 
as  it  is  not  likely  he  would  have  taken  the  trouble 
to  copy  a  picture  without  being  first  satisfied 
that  it  was  a  genuine  portrait.  K.  P.  S. 

tOVmCAh  POEJt. 

As  the  political  squibs  of  the  last  century  are  thought 
worthy  of  being  collected,  I  send  you  a  copy  of  verses, 
the  appearance  of  which  bear  witness  to  its  having  been 
written  at  the  time  when  the  subject  it  refers  to  was 
of  recent  occurrence.      I  am  not  aware  whether  it  has 

*  See  as  analogous :  F.  A.  Leo,  BeitrOge  und  Verbesser- 
ungen  zu  Shakespeares  Drameti  nach  handschriftlichen 
Anderungen,  &c.  &c.,  1853,  Berlin,  A.  Asher  &  Co.,  page 
iSO,  some  remarks  about  the  word  "invisible." 



[2'">  S.  No  29.,  July  19.  '56. 

ever  been  published,  but  at  least  I  suppose  it  in  few 

Jonathan  Couch. 

Now  Phabus  did  y*  world  w***  frowns  swrvey, 
Dark  wear  y®  Clouds,  and  dismal  was  y®  day, 
When  pensive  Harley  from  y®  Court  returnd  ; 
Slow  by  his  Chariot  mov'd,  as  that  had  mourn'd. 
Heavy  the  mules  before  y*  statesman  goe, 
As  dragging  an  unusual  weight  of  woe  ; 
Sad  was  his  aspect,  and  he  waking  dreams 
Of  plots  abortive  and  of  rvin'd  schemes ; 
Like  some  sad  youth,  whose  greifs  alone  survie. 
Mourns  a  dead  mistress  or  a  wife  alive. 
Such  looks  would  Russels  Funeral  Trump  grace. 
So  Notingham  still  looke,  w*  such  a  dismal  face. 
To  Kensington's  high  tower,  bright  Masham  flyes, 
Thence  she  affar  y^  sad  procession  spyes  ; 
Whear  y*  late  statesman  dos  in  sorrow  ride. 
His  Welsh  supporter  mourning  by  his  side. 
At  wich  her  boundless  grief  sad  Cryes  began. 
And  thus  lamenting  thro  the  Court  she  ran  : 
•'  Hither,  yee  wretched  Toryes,  hither  Come, 
Behold  y*  Godlike  Hero's  fatal  doom. 
If  e're  yee  went  with  ravishing  delight 
To  hear  his  Banter  and  admire  his  Bite, 
Now  to  his  sorrow  yeild  the  last  releif, 
Who  once  was  all  your  hopes  is  now  your  grief. 
Had  this  Great  Man  his  envy'd  Post  enjoy' d, 
Torys  had  rul'd  and  Whiggs  had  been  destroy'd  : 
Harcourt  the  mace  to  which  he  long  aspir'd 
Had  now  possess'd,  and  Cowper  had  retir'd ; 
Sunderland  had  been  forc'd  his  place  to  quitt. 
Which  St.  Johns  had  supplyd  with  sprightly  witt ; 
Sage  Hanmer  passing  Court  employment  by 
Had  ruld  the  Coffers  Toryes  to  supply. 
Gower  had  shin'd  with  rich  Newcastle's  seal. 
And  Harley's  self  (to  shew  his  humble  zeale) 
Had  been  contented  with  that  triffling  wand 
Which  now  dos  mischeif  in  Godolphin's  band  : 
Our  Fleets  secure  had  been  Rook's  tender  care, 
And  Orraond  had  been  sent  to  Head  the  warr, 
Bleinheim  to  Radnor  had  been  forc'd  to  yeild, 
And  Cardiff  Cliffs  obscur'd  Ramellis'  ffeild." 

Cheap  Travelling  on  Cows.  —  In  an  article  on 
"Fashions,"  m  Encyclopcedia  Britannica,  8th  edit.. 
Part  II.,  vol.  ix.,  the  following  illustration  occurs  : 

"  We  have  never  heard  of  any  one  who  followed  the 
fashion  set  and  advocated  by  Asclepiades,  who  tried  to 
bring  cheap  locomotion  into  general  favour,  and  who 
travelled  about  the  world  on  a  cow,  living  on  her  milk 
by  the  way." 

Since  I  wrote  that  article,  however,  I  have  met 
with  mention  of  a  town  in  which  this  example 
was  followed.  In  the  Voyage  of  Italy ^  by  Richard 
Lassels,  Gent., — a  book  which  was  printed  in  Paris 

in  1670,  and  the  author  of  which  had  made  the 
"  voyage "  five  times  as  tutor  to  "  several  of  the 
English  nobility  and  gentry,"  —  the  subjoined  sin- 
gular instance  may  be  met  with  : 

"  I  observed  in  this  town  (Piacenza)  a  valuable  piece 
of  thriftiness  used  by  the  gentlewomen,  who  make  no 
scruple  to  be  carried  to  their  country  houses  near  the 
town  in  coaches  drawn  by  two  cows  yoked  together. 
These  will  carry  the  Signora  a  pretty  round  trot  unto  her 
villa ;  they  afford  her  also  a  dish  of  their  milk,  and,  after 
collation,  bring  her  home  again  at  night,  without  spending 
a  penny." 

J.  DoRAN. 

An  Advertisement.  —  Whether  this  advertise- 
ment, which  I  have  as  a  printed  post-bill,  was 
ever  posted  on  the  walls  of  Coleraine  I  know  not, 
but  it  possesses  sufficient  peculiarities  of  phrase  to 
be  preserved  in  "  N.  &  Q."  as  a  curiosity.  S. 

«  To  he  Let, 
To  an  Oppidan,  a  Ruricolest,  or  a  Cosmopolitan,  and  may 

be  entered  upon  immediatelj'. 
The  House  in  Stone  Row,  lately  possessed  by  Capt. 
SiREE.  To  avoid  Verbosity,  the  Proprietor  with  Com- 
pendiosity  will  give  a  Perfunctory  description  of  the 
Premisses,  in  the  Compagination  of  which  he  has  Sedu- 
lously studied  the  convenience  of  the  Occupant  —  it  is  free 
from  Opacity,  Tenebrosity,  Fumidity,  and  Injucundity, 
and  no  building  can  have  greater  Pelluciditj'  or  Trans- 
lucency  —  in  short  its  Diaphaneity  even  in  the  Crepuscle 
makes  it  like  a  Pharos,  and  without  Laud,  for  its  Agglu- 
timation  and  Amenity,  it  is  a  most  Delectable  Commo- 
rance;  and  whoever  lives  in  it  will  find  that  the  Neigh- 
bours have  none  of  the  Truculence,  the  Immanity,  the 
Torvity,  the  Spinosity,  the  Putidness,  the  Pugnacity  — • 
nor  the  Fugacity  observable  in  other  parts  of  the  town, 
their  Propinquity  and  Consanguinity,  occasions  Jucundity 
and  Pudicity  —  from  which  and  the  Redolence  of  the 
place  (even  in  the  dog-days)  they  are  remarkable  for 
Longevity.  For  terms  and  particulars  apply  to  James 
Hutchison  opposite  the  Market  House." 

«  Colerain,  30th  September,  1790." 

Cat  Worship.  —  The  cat,  which  old  ladies  love 
and  cherish  with  Egyptian  fondness,  but  with  just 
enough  of  romance  in  their  affection  to  acquit 
them  of  idolatry,  was  one  of  the  sacred  animals 
before  which  that  people  bowed  in  worship  to 
their  sidereal  deities.  It  seems  to  have  owed  its 
consecration  and  divine  honours  to  a  peculiar 
physical  attribute,  the  contractibility  and  dilatability 
of  the  pupil  of  the  eye,  exhibiting  so  mysterious 
an  illustration  of,  and  (as  a  matter  of  course) 
relation  to  the  moon's  changes,  as  to  give  rise  to 
the  notion  that  the  animal  shared  in  some  degree 
the  influence  of  that  luminary !  I  do  not  know 
whether  there  was  any  correspondence  in  point  of 
time  in  these  supposed  ocular  demonstrations  of 
the  lunar  phases,  to  give  birth  to  so  monstrous  a 
superstition.  F.  Phillott. 

Pronunciation  of  English  Words  ending  in  -il. 
—  There  are  very  few  words  with  this  termination 
in  English :  five  only  occur  to  my  recollection, 
peril,  civil,  council,  evil,  and  devil.    Of  these  the 

2°<i  S.  NO  29.,  July  19.  '56;i 



three  first,  as  derived  from  French  words  of  the 
same  termination,  are  always  pronounced  as  if 
they  ended  in  -ill. 

But  until  lately  the  two  last  were  always  pro- 
nounced as  they  would  have  been  had  they  been 
written  respectively  evle  and  devle  ;  and  I  believe 
that '  they  were  rightly  so  pronounced,  with  re- 
ference to  their  etymologies.  They  are  neither  of 
them  derived  from  foreign  words  which  have  i  in 
the  last  syllable  ;  evil  is  the  Saxon  yrel,  and  devil 
the  Saxon  beopul,  contracted  beopl,  and  in  the  ad- 
jective form,  beoplio.  So  in  the  German  the  words 
are  teu/el  and  iibel,  both  ending  in  the  same  ob- 
scure sound  which  we  give  to  le  when  those 
letters  follow  another  consonant  as  a  termination. 

Within  a  few  years  a  change  has  taken  place, 
but  I  never  could  hear  any  cause  alleged  for  the 
change,  except  a  desire  to  assimilate  these  two 
words  with  other  English  words  ending  in  the 
same  letters. 

To  make  the  pronunciation,  when  long  and  rea- 
sonably established,  yield  to  the  letters,  seems  to 
me  a  very  unphilological  proceeding.  Our 
American  brothers,  indeed,  pronounce  to  as  if  it 
were  written  toe,  and  the  last  syllable  of  genuine 
as  they  do  the  word  wine,  &c.  But  knowing,  as 
we  do,  how  very  inconsistent  our  orthography  is 
with  our  certain  and  established  pronunciation,  it 
would  surely  be  wiser  (if  we  are  to  make  changes) 
to  accommodate  our  letters  to  our  sounds,  than  to 
pervert  our  sounds  for  the  sake  of  the  letters. 

E.  C.  H. 

"Anfiquites  du  Bosphore  Cimmerien" — Antiqui- 
ties of  the  Cimmerian  Bosphorus,  preserved  in  the 
Museum  of  the  Hermitage  ;  published  by  order  of 
the  Emperor,  St.  Petersburg ;  printed  at  the 
printing  offices  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences,  1854 
seq.,  3  vols.,  fol.  (plates). 

This  splendid  work,  containing  the' representa- 
tions and  description  of  some  Crimean  remnants  of 
the  goldsmith's  art,  &c.,  of  the  best  Greek  period, 
is  intended  as  a  present  for  princely  personages, 
the  public  libraries,  and  art-institutions  of  Europe. 
I  shall  give  a  review  of  it  in  one  of  the  art- 
journals  here.  Dr.  J.  Lotskt,  Panslave. 

15.  Gower  Street,  London. 

Stencilled  Books.  —  A  book  on  vellum  was  given 
to  me  some  time  back,  which  was  described  in  the 
catalogue  as  "  Missce  falienses  ex  domu  Chante- 
loup,  a  beautifully-written  MS.,  1751."  Upon 
looking  carefully  into  the  book,  I  found  it  was 
not  written  but  stencilled,  and  then  carefully 
finished  with  a  pen.  I  never  have  seen  a  sten- 
cilled book  except  this,  and  so  have  made  a  note 
of  it.  There  were  other  copies  of  this  taken,  for  I 
met  with  one  in  a  recent  catalogue.  Can  any  of 
your  correspondents  give  other  instances  of  this 
process,  and  explain  the  title  of  this  book  ? 

J.  C.  J. 

Jews'  J9rea<f.— Dipping  into  the  Plantarium  of 
my  favourite  Cowley,  J  find  it  noted  that  "  in  old 
time  the  seed  of  the  white  poppy,  parched,  was 
served  up  as  a  dessert."  By  this  I  am  reminded, 
that  white  poppy-seeds  are  eaten  to  this  day  upon 
bread  made  exclusively  for  Jews.  The  "twist" 
bread  is  generally  so  prepared,  by  brushing  over 
the  outside  crust  with  egg,  and  sprinkling  upon  it 
the  seed.  John  Times. 

Sloane  Street. 

Clandestine  Opening  of  Letters  in  the  last  Cen- 
tury. —  Goethe,  when  discussing  after  the  general 
peace  of  1815,  some  political  subjects  with  Luden, 
the  historian,  made  to  him  the  following  rather 
uncomplimentary  observation :  "  You  must  not 
suppose  that  any  thing  which  you  have  broached 
to  me  has  not  before  attracted  my  attention." 
That  the  clandestine  opening  of  letters  by  some 
or  other  post  offices  was  then  well  known,  and 
guarded  against,  we  perceive  from  the  following 
letter  written  by  the  great  German  poet,  dated 
Rome,  February  16,  1788  : 

«  Through  the  Prussian  Courier  ( !)  I  received  lately 
a  letter  from  our  Duke,  as  friendly,  loving,  good,  and 
pleasing  as  possible.  As  he  could  write  without  appre- 
hension ( !),  he  described  to  me  the  whole  political  posi- 
tion, his  own,  and  so  on." 

As  the  date  of  Goethe's  letter  refers  to  the  latter 
years  of  the  reign  of  Frederic  II.  of  Prussia  and 
Joseph  II.  of  Austria,  it  is  easy  to  conjecture 
which  of  the  two  powers  then  excited  public  ap- 
prehension. J.  LOTSKT. 

15.  Gower  Street,  London. 



In  the  chancel  of  the  church  of  Gawsworth,  co. 
Chester,  there  is  a  monument  with  the  recum- 
bent effigy  of  Francis  Fitton,  Esq.,  and  round  the 
edges  of  the  tomb  the  following  inscription  : 

"Here  lyeth  Fraunces  Fitton,  Esquire,  who  married 
Katherine  contes  doager  of  Northumberlond,  and  third 
brother  of  Sir  Edward  Fitton,  deceased,  of  Gawsworth, 
kt.,  lord  president  of  Conough  "  (i.  e.  Connaught). 

On  the  arches  supporting  the  tomb  are  shields 
of  arms,  and  underneath  them  a  headless  skeleton 
lying  in  a  robe.  Can  any  of  your  learned  readers 
inform  me  whether  any  thing  is  known  concern- 
ing this  Francis  Fitton  ?  Does  the  headless 
skeleton  indicate  his  having  met  with  a  violent 
death  in  some  conflict  in  Ireland  in  those  lawless 
days  ? 

There  is  also  a  full  length  portrait  of  this  Fran- 
cis Fitton  in  the  hall  at  Gawsworth,  with  this  in- 
scription round  the  frame  : 

"  Francis  Fyton,  married  w'  Katherine  countes  of  Nor- 
thu'b'.,  dowger,  a"  1588,  eldest  of  the  doughters  and  co- 



[2«<J  S.  N"  29.,  July  19.  '56, 

heires  of  Joh'  Neville,  kt,  Lord  Latymer,  being  tbyrd 
sone  of  Edw.  Fyton  of  Gawsworth,  kt.  (who  marled  Mary 
ye  younger  doughter  and  coheir  of  Sir  Vigitt  Harbutell, 
in  'Northu'br.,  kn.,  and  Elenor,  her  elder  sister,  maried 
■w*  S'  Tho.  Percy,  kn.,  afterward  ataynted,  being  father  by 
her  to  'i'ho.  and  Henry  Percy,  knts.,  and  both  in  their 
tymes  earles  of  Northu'br.  and  restored  by  Q.  Mary), 
brother  to  Edward  Fyton,  kn.,  lord  president  of  Conaghte 
and  thresorer  of  Ireland,  and  sone  and  heyre  to  th'  afore- 
said Edward,  which  thresorer  and  his  wife  decessed  in 
Irlonde,  and  lye  both  buried  in  St.  Patric's  church  in 

Ormerod,  in  bis  History  of  Cheshire,  suggests 
that  the  skeleton  has  probably  reference  to  the 
attainder  of  Sir  Thomas  Percy,  but  why  ?  Per- 
haps after  all  it  is  but  an  emblem  of  mortality. 
Local  tradition  asserts  that  Francis  Fitton  fell  in 
battle,  and  only  his  body,  from  which  the  head  had 
been  severed,  could  be  found.  This  ancient  family 
became  extinct  in  the  direct  line  by  the  death  of 
Sir  Edward  Fitton  in  1643.  Oxoniensis. 


1.  What  is  the  import  or  etymology  of  the  name 
Gamage  ?  Is  it  of  Saxon  or  of  JNorman  origin,  or 
of  neither? 

2.  What  is  the  coat  of  arms  of  the  family  of 
Gamage,  and  whence  its  origin  ? 

3.  Can  any  traces  of  the  family,  the  disposition 
of  the  family  estates,  titles,  its  origin,  &c.,  be  dis- 
covered ?     If  so,  from  what  sources  ? 

4.  Is  it  possible  from  any  records  of  emigration, 
shipping  and  naval  lists,  to  ascertain  what  branch 
of  the  Gamage  family  emigrated  to  New  England 
about  1700,  or  previously?  and  from  what  port 
they  sailed,  and  where  was  their  place  of  residence 
in  England  previous  to  their  emigration  ?  We 
find  from  a  parish  record  in  Cambridge,  Massa- 
chusetts, that  one  Joshua  Gamage  was  there  in 
1710,  the  date  of  his  marriage  to  a  Deborah 
Wyeth ;  but  when  he  came  from  England  does 
not  appear. 

5.  Can  anything  be  obtained,  by  way  of  family 
history,  from  monumental  inscriptions,  parish, 
church,  and  county,  national  and  heraldic  records, 
and  records  of  knighthood,  grants  of  land,  and 
conveyances  of  estate,  wills,  &c.,  and  where  can 
these  be  found  ? 

6.  Is  there  any  place  named  Royiode,  or  any- 
thing similar,  in  co.  Hertford  (or  Hertfordshire), 
England  ?  and  if  so,  could  not  some  traces  be 
found  of  the  Gamage  family,  provided  their  re- 
sidence was  there ;  or  any  part  of  the  coat  armour 
derived  from  that  place  ?  Royinde  may  not  be 
the  whole  name  of  the  place,  but  the  last  half  of 
it.  The  old  Saxon  word  royd,  meaning  clearing, 
is  a  frequent  termination  of  the  names  of  towns, 
and  was  somet  mes  used  in  connection  with  the 
name  of  a  proprietor,  as  Monkroyd,  Martinrode, 
and  also  Okenrode,  Acroyd,  HoUinsrode,  &c. 

7.  Where  is  Clerhenshalls  in  Scotland,  and  what 
possible  connection  can  that  place  have  with  the 
Gamage  family  or  their  coat  armour  ?  When  was 
Sir  Thomas  Gamage  knighted ;  by  whom,  and 
what  was  the  order  of  his  knighthood  ? 

The  result  of  any  investigations  in  relation  to 
the  Gamage  family  will  oblige  the  inquirer. 


"il  daring  Pilot  in  Adversity ." ^^"From  what 
author  is  the  following  quotation  (made  in  the 
last  page  of  vol.  i.  of  Sir  Robert  Peel's  Memoirs) 
taken : 

" .    .    .    .    When  waves  run  high 
A  daring  pilot  in  adversity  ?  " 

D.  G. 

Aristotle's  Proverbs.  —  The  Rev.  Thomas  Wil- 
son, in  a  lecture  on  the  "Philosophy  of  Proverbs," 
in  the  Popular  Lecturer,  states  that  "  Aristotle 
made  a  collection  of  them."  Is  this  collection  still 
existing  ?     I  never  heard  of  it.  W.  S.  D. 

Ode  by  Lord  Byron.  —  In  an  excellent  collec- 
tion of  fugitive  poetry  of  the  nineteenth  century, 
entitled  The  Laurel,  published  by  Tilt  in  1841,  Is 
an  ode  ascribed  to  Lord  Byron.  It  consists  of 
nine  stanzas,  is  characterised  by  considerable 
merit,  and  is  a  vehement  invective  against  the 
French  people  for  their  desertion  and  neglect  of 
Napoleon  when  fortune  no  longer  attended  his 
arms.     The  first  stanza  is  as  follows  : 

"  Ob,  shame  to  thee,  land  of  the  Gaul ! 

Oh,  shame  to  thj'  children  and  thee! 
Unwise  in  thy  glory,  and  base  in  thy  fall, 

How  wretched  thy  portion  shall  be ! 
Derision  shall  strike  thee  forlorn, 

A  mockery  that  never  shall  die ; 
The  curses  of  hate,  and  the  hisses  of  scorn, 

Shall  burthen  the  winds  of  thy  sky ; 
And  proud  o'er  thy  ruin,  for  ever  be  hurled 
The  laughter  of  triumph,  the  jeers  of  the  world." 

I  should  be  glad  to  know  by  what  authority  thia 
energetic  ode  is  attributed  to  Lord  Byron ;  or  to 
whom  it  may  with  greater  truth  be  ascribed. 

William  Bates. 


Prestp.r  John.  —  More  infonnation  respecting 
this  myth  (if  myth  he  is)  is  required  than  is  to  be 
found  in  1»'  S.  vii.  502. ;  x.  186.  Why  do  writers 
cite  the  length  of  his  foot,  rather  than  any  other 
characteristic  he  may  possess  ?  Anom. 

Mr.  Bathursis  Disappearance.  —  Was  anything 
certain  ascertained  relative  to  the  fate  ot  Mr. 
Bathurst,  who  disappeared  mysteriously  during  a 
mission  abroad  in  the  course  of  our  great  war 
against  Bonaparte  ?  I  found,  at  an  old  book- 
seller's in  Paris,  some  years  ago,  the  MS.  journal 
of  Mrs.  Bathurst,  who  was  a  sister  of  Sir  G.  P. 

2«*  S.  No  29.,  July  19.  '56.] 



Call,  Bart.,  and  banker.  It  is  very  curious  and 
interesting.  I  believe  one  of  her  daupjhters  was 
drowned  in  the  Tiber.     Is  the  other  still  livlnn;  P 

A  Bookworm. 

'■'•  Jokehy''  —  Can  you  tell  me  who  is  the  author 
of  Joheby,  a  bui'lesque  imitation  of  Rokeby,  pub- 
lished in  or  about  1812  ?  The  same  author  pub- 
lished, shortly  afterwards,  a  volume  called  The 
Accepted  Addresses.  R.  J. 

Fellow  of  Trinity.  —  There  is  a  letter  from  the 
Earl  of  Sandwich  to  Garrick  (in  the  2nd  volume 
of  the  Garrick  Correspondeiice,  p.  329.)  regarding 
a  play  written  by  a  gentleman  of  Cambridge.  In 
the  earl's  letter,  which  is  dated  Jan.  8,  1779,  he 
says  regarding  the  author  : 

"  I  believe  he  has  lost  some  emolument  he  had  in 
Trinity  College,  of  which  he  is  a  Fellow,  on  account  of 
his  attachment  to  me,  which  led  him  to  oppose  the 
Master  upon  some  points  in  which  I  interfered,"  &c. 

Could  any  of  your  readers  inform  me  who  was 
the  Fellow  of  Trinity  College  here  alluded  to  ? 

R.  J. 

Was  Addison  a  Plagiarist?  —  I  read  the  other 
day,  that  the  well-known  paraphrase  of  Psalm  xix., 

"  The  spacious  firmament  on  high, 
With  all  the  blue  ethereal  sky,"  &c. 

SO  generally  ascribed  to  Addison,  was  composed 
by  Andrew  Marvel;  and  that  Dr.  Johnson  re- 
peated it  as  his. 

I  know  it  has  been  a  fashion  to  lay  other  men's 
productions  at  Andrew's  door  ;  but  the  object  of 
my  Query  is  to  ascertain  if  there  is  any  well-sup- 
ported charge  of  plagiarism  against  Addison  on 
record.  John  J.  Pbnstone. 


Meaning  of  Hayne.  — What  is  the  explanation 
of  the  word  hayne,  which  forms  the  termination  of 
the  names  of  a  great  many  places,  chiefly  farms, 
in  my  neighbourhood,  such  as  WoodAa^ne,  Cown- 
hayne,  WiUhayne,  and  at  least  a  dozen  others. 

J.  E. 

Temple  at  Baalbec.  —  Who  is  supposed  to  have 
founded  the  Temple  of  the  Sun  at  Baalbec,  in 
Syria  ?  What  ancient  historians  notice  its  origin 
or  existence  ?  And  what  modern  books  are  tliere 
on  the  subject  ?  Hawadji. 

Fossil  Human  Skeleton. — Is  it  true  that  &  fossil 
human  skeleton  was  very  lately  found  in  a  free- 
stone quarry  near  Fondel,  in  Scotland  ? 

W.  Elfe  Tatlek. 

"  The  Philistines."  —  Who  is  the  author  of  The 
Philistines,  or  The  Scotch  Tocsin  sounded,  a  political 
drama,  published  in  1793  ?  R.  J. 

Weldons  of  Swanscomhe,  co.  Kent.  —  I  am  de- 
sirous of  obtaining   all  the  information  possible 

regarding  the  family  of  Weldon,  especially  that 
branch  of  it  which  settled  in  the  county  of  Kent. 
From  Hasted's  History  I  learn  that  the  manor  of 
Swanscombe  was  possessed  by  the  Weldons  from 
the  thirty- sixth  year  of  Henry  VIII.  down  to 
1731.  In  that  year  died  Walter  Weldon,  whose 
heirs  conveyed  their  estate  by  sale  to  Thomas 
IJleehynden,  Esq. 

Can  any  of  your  readers  supply  me  with  the 
further  history  of  the  Swanscombe  Weldons,  and 
bring  down  their  line  to  the  present  day  ?  One 
Colonel  Weldon,  said  to  be  "of  Swanscombe," 
was  living  in  the  year  1827,  and  bore  the  arms  of 
the  family,  which  are  "Argent,  a  cinquefoil  (or 
mullet)  gules  ;  on  a  chief  of  the  second,  a  demi- 
lion  rampant,  issuant  of  the  field,  armed  and 
langued  azure."  H.  E.  W. 


Fdwai'd  Stanley,  B.A.  —  Could  any  of  your 
readers  give  me  information  regarding  Edward 
Stanley,  B.A.,  who  is  author  of  Elmira,  a  dra- 
matic poem,  printed  at  Norwich  in  1790  ?     R.  J. 

Punishment  for  Striking  in  the  King's  Court. 

"  The  Serjeant  of  the  King's  Wood-yard  brings  to  the 
place  of  execution  a  square  block,  a  beetle,  staple,  and 
cords  to  fasten  the  hands  thereto;  the  j-eoman  of  the 
scullery  provides  a  great  fire  of  coals  by  the  block,  where 
the  searing-irons,  brought  by  the  chief  farrier,  are  to  be 
ready  for  the  chief  surgeon  to  use ;  vinegar  and  cold 
water,  brought  by  the  groom  of  the  saucery;  the  chief 
officers  also  of  the  cellar  and  pantry  are  to  be  ready,  one 
with  a  cup  of  red  wine,  and  the  other  with  a  manchet,  to 
offer  the  criminal.  The  serjeant  of  the  ewry  is  to  bring 
linen  to  wind  about  and  wrap  the  arm ;  the  j'eoman  of 
the  poultry  a  cock  to  lay  to  it;  the  yeoman  of  the  chan- 
dlery seared  cloths ;  the  master-cook  a  sharp  dresser- 
knife,  which  at  the  place  of  execution  is  to  be  held 
upright  by  the  serjeant  of  the  larder,  till  execution  be 
performed  by  an  officer  appointed  thereunto.  After  all, 
the  criminal  shall  be  imprisoned  during  life,  and  fined 
and  ransomed  at  the  king's  will." 

So  far  Chamberlain,  in  his  Present  State  of  Great 
Britain,  1741.  Is  there  any  case  on  record  where 
such  a  sentence  has  been  carried  into  execution 
with  all  its  extraordinary  formalities  ?  WX. 

Minatrost. — A  Correspondent  begs  to  know 
the  meaning  of  the  word  minatrost,  which  is  men- 
tioned in  Charles  Auchester,  vol.  i.  p.  42.  (a  novel). 

Minor  ^uetiei  tait^  ^niixtet^, 

"  The  Little  Whig."  —  Speaking  of  the  theatre 
erected  by  Sir  John  Vanbrugh  on  the  site  of  the 
present  opera-h<iuse  in  the  Haymarket,  called  the 
Queen's  in  honour  of  Queen  Anne,  and  which  has 
always  retained  the  royal  prefix,  Cibber  says  : 

"  Of  this  theatre  I  saw  the  first  stone  laid,  on  which  was 
inscribed  '  The  Little  Whig,'  in  honour  to  a  lady  of  ex- 



[2nds.  No29.,  JuLYlD. '56, 

traordinary  beauty,  then  the  celebrated  toast  and  pride  of 
that  party."  —  Apology,  ed.  1750,  pp.  257,  258. 

Who  was  the  lady  referred  to  ? 

Charles  Wylie. 

[The  "  Little  Whig  "  was  Anne,  Countess  of  Sunder- 
land, second  daughter  of  the  great  Duke  of  Marlborough. 
This  lady,  who  was  raX'hQT  petite  in  person,  did  not  disdain 
the  cognomen  conferred  upon  her,  at  a  time  when  every- 
thing bore  the  ensigns  of  party  of  one  kind  or  other.  Her 
death  on  April  15,  1716,  is  thus  noticed  in  The  Political 
State  of  that  date  :  "  On  April  15,  about  two  of  the  clock, 
Anne,  Countess  of  Sunderland,  daughter  of  John,  Duke  of 
IMarlborough,  died  of  a  pleuritick  fever ;  a  ladj-,  who  by 
her  personal  accomplishments  outshined  all  the  British 
court,  being  the  general  toast  by  the  name  of  The  Little 
Whig;  who,  for  her  excellent  endowments  of  mind,  good- 
nature, and  affability,  was  justly  lamented  by  all  that 
knew  her;  and  whose  irreparable  loss,  in  a  particular 
manner,  affected  both  her  illustrious  father  and  consort." 
A'uong  the  verses  of  the  Earl  of  Halifax,  given  in 
Tonson's  3Iiscellany,  edited  by  Dryden,  are  the  following 
lines  on  the  Countess  of  Sunderland,  ins(;ribed  on  the 
toasting-glasses  of  the  Kit-Cat  Club  : 

"  All  Nature's  charms  in  Sunderland  appear. 
Bright  as  her  eyes,  and  as  her  reason  clear ; 
Yet  still  their  force,  to  men  not  safely  known, 
Seems  undiscovered  to  herself  alone." 

Dr.  Arbuthnot  in  the  following  epigram  seems  to  de- 
rive the  name  of  this  celebrated  club  from  the  custom  of 
toasting  ladies  after  dinner,  rather  than  from  the  name 
of  the  renowned  pastry-cook,  Christopher  Cat : 

"  Whence  deathless  Kit  Cat  took  its  name 

Few  critics  can  unriddle. 
Some  say  from  Pastry-cook  it  came, 

And  some  from  Cat  and  Fiddle. 
From  no  ti-im  beaux  its  name  it  boasts, 

Grey  statesmen  or  green  wits; 
But  from  its  pell-mell  pack  of  toasts 

Of  old  Cats  and  young  Kits'."'\ 

Marston  Moreton,  co.  BucJis  [JBerf*.?]. —  Sarah, 
Duchess  of  Marlborough,  widow  of  the  great 
duke,  devised  the  manor  and  estate  of  Marston 
Moreton  to  the  Hon.  John  Spencer,  her  grandson. 
Query,  did  he  not  subsequently  change  his  name? 
On  what  account  ?  Whom  did  he  marry  ?  And 
of  his  descendants  ?  James  Knowles. 

[ Marston -Moretaine  is  in  Bedfordshire,  and  according 
to  L3-sons  {Beds,  vol.  i.  p.  114.)  the  Duchess  of  Marlbo- 
rough bequeathed  this  manor,  with  the  rest  of  her  Bed- 
fordshire estates,  to  her  grandson,  the  Hon.  John  Spencer, 
who  also  became  possessor  of  the  manor  of  Dunton  in 
Bucks  by  the  will  of  the  Duchess.  The  Hon.  John 
Spencer,  of  Altborp,  was  the  fourth  and  youngest  son  of 
Charles,  third  Earl  of  Sunderland,  by  Lady  Anne 
Churchill,  the  "little  Whig,"  noticed  in  the  preceding 
article,  and  was  born  Mav  13,  1708 ;  M.P.  for  Wood- 
stock, 1731-2;  Bedford,  1734,  1741,  and  1744;  Hanger 
and  Keeper  of  Windsor  Green  Park.  Obit,  at  Wimbledon, 
June  20,  1746.  He  married  Georgiana  Caroline  Carteret, 
third  daughter  of  the  first  Earl  Granville.  Their  son 
John  was  created,  in  1761,  Viscount  and  Baron  Spencer 
of  Altborp,  and  in  1766,  Earl  Spencer  and  Viscount  Al- 
thorp.  See  any  Peerage,  as  well  as  Lipscomb's  Bucks,  iii. 
342.,  for  the  pedigree  of  the  Spencer  familj'.] 

Port  Jackson. — Fordyce,  in  his  Histoj'y  of 
Durham,  sub  verb.  "Greatham,"  writing  of  Mr. 

Ralph  Ward  Jackson,  the  founder  of  West  Hartle- 
pool, says : 

"  In  honour  of  Mr.  Jackson,  the  last  ship  launched  by 
Mr.  John  Pile  at  Sunderland  was  christened  the  '  Port 
Jackson.'  It  may  be  here  stated  that  Captain  Cook,  the 
great  circumnavigator,  in  order  to  perpetuate  his  grati- 
tude and  friendship  for  Sir  George  Jackson,  Bart,  one  of 
his  earliest  benefactors,"  gave  the  name  of  '  Port  Jackson  ' 
to  the  noble  harbour  he  discovered  near  Botany  Bay,  in 
New  South  Wales,  on  the  6th  May,  1770." 

In  the  Gazetteer  of  the  Woi-ld,  edited  by  a 
Member  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society,  sub 
verb.  "  Jackson  "  (Port),  it  is  said : 

"This  harbour,  perhaps  the  finest  in  the  world,  pre- 
senting fifteen  miles  of  deep  water,  completely  protected, 
was  overlooked  by  Cook,  who  laid  it  down  in  his  chart  as  a 
mere  boat-liaven.  Captain  Philip  first  explored  it  in  Ja- 
nuary, 1788,  and  bestowed  on  it  the  name  of  the  man  who 
was  on  the  look-out  when  it  was  discovered." 

As  both  accounts  carmot  be  correct,  will  the 
Editor  of  " N.  &  Q,"  or  a  contributor,  say  which 
is  f  R.  W.  Dixon. 

Seaton  Carew,  co.  Durham. 

[After  reading  these  different  accounts  we  are  re- 
minded of  Merrick's  chameleon,  for  "both  are  right,  and 
both  are  wrong,"  in  some  particulars.  The  facts,  we  be- 
lieve, are  as  follow :  Captain  Arthur  Philip,  on  being  ap- 
pointed Governor  of  Botany  Bay,  proceeded  with  three 
boats  and  some  of  his  oflScers  to  examine  what  Captain 
Cook  had  termed  Broken  Bay,  where  the  Hawkesbury 
disembogues ;  but  while  proceeding  thither,  he  resolved 
to  examine  an  inlet,  which,  in  Cook's  chart,  was  marked 
as  a  boat  harbour,  but  apparently  so  small  as  not  to  be 
worth  investigating.  Cook  had  therefore  passed  to  the 
northward,  and  given  the  inlet  the  name  of  Port  Jackson, 
which  was  that  of  the  seaman  at  the  mast-head,  who  first 
descried  it  while  on  the  look-out.  Capt.  Philip  entered 
between  the  lofty  headlands  to  examine  this  "boat  har- 
bour," and  his  astonishment  may  be  more  easily  con- 
ceived than  described,  when  he  found,  not  a  boat  creek, 
but  one  of  the  safest  havens  in  the  world,  where  the 
whole  of  the  British  navy  might  securely  ride  at  anchor. 
—  Consult  R.  Montgomery  Martin's  Colonial  Library, 
vol.  ii.  p.  24.] 

Navigation  by  Steam. — 

"  Earl  Stanhope's  experiments  for  navigating  vessels  by 
the  steam-engine,  without  masts  or  sails,  have  succeeded 
so  much  to  his  satisfaction  on  a  small  scale,  that  a  vessel 
of  200  tons  burden,  on  this  principle,  is  now  building 
under  his  direction.  The  expence  of  this  vessel  is  to  be 
paid  by  the  Navy  Board  in  the  first  instance,  on  condition 
that,  if  she  do  not  answer  after  a  fair  trial,  she  shall  be 
returned  to  Earl  Stanhope,  and  all  the  expence  made 
good  bv  him."  —  Historical  Chronicle  of  the  '■'■Bee"  for 
1792,  p"  23. 

Is  there  any  farther  account  of  the  result  of  the 
experiments  and  of  the  plans  of  this  patriotic  no- 
bleman ?  G.  N. 

[A  similar  account  of  the  earl's  steam-vessel  appeared 
in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  for  October,  1792  (p.  956.), 
where  it  is  stated  that  it  was  then  being  built  under  his 
direction  by  Mr.  Stalkart;  but  we  hear  nothing  more  of 
it.  About  this  time,  Robert  Fulton,  an  American,  then 
living  at  Torbay  in  Devonshire,  held  some  correspondence 
with  Earl  Stanhope  on  the  subject  of  moving  ships  by  a 

2°-»  S.  No  29.,  July  19.  '56.] 



steam-engine.  In  1795,  the  Earl  revived  the  project  of 
Gencvois,  the  pastor  of  Berne,  to  impel  boats  with  duck- 
feet  oars,  but  he  coakl  not  cause  his  vessel  to  move  at  a 
higher  rate  than  three  miles  an  hour.] 


(2"''  S.  ii.  5.) 

The  following  account  of  the  Duke  of  Rich- 
mond's reconversion  to  the  English  Church  is  pre- 
served in  Bishop  Kennett's  Collections,  vol.  liv. 
p.  216.  (Lansdown  MS.  988.),  and  is  entitled  : 

"  The  Declaration  of  the  Duke  of  Richmond,  when  he 
was  restored  to  the  Communion  of  the  Church  of  England 
in  Lambeth  Palace,  May  15th,  being  Whit-Sunday,  1692." 

"  Do  you  sincerely,  in  the  presence  of  Almighty  God, 
the  Searcher  of  all  hearts,  and  before  this  assembly,  de- 
clare j'our  hearty  contrition  and  repentance  for  having 
publicly  renounced  and  abjured  the  Reformed  Religion 
professed  in  the  Church  of  England,  in  which  you  were 
baptized  and  bred?  And  that  you  are  truly  sensible 
that  in  so  doing  j-ou  have  grievously  offended  Almighty 
God,  and  given  just  cause  of  scandal  to  others,  for  which 
you  beg  forgiveness  of  God  and  men  ? 

"  Answer.  All  this  I  do  declare  from  my  heart. 

"  Do  you  solemnl}'  retract  the  said  abjuration,  and  now 
sincerely  renounce  all  the  errors  and  corruptions  of  the 
Church  of  Rome;  being  convinced  in  your  conscience, 
that  in  many  of  their  doctrines  and  practices  they  have 
departed  from  the  primitive  Christianity:  particularly, 
do  you  renounce  all  the  new  articles  which  Pope  Pius  IV. 
hath  added  to  the  Apostles'  Creed,  and  which  were  esta- 
blished in  the  Council  of  Trent? 

"  Ans.  I  do  sincerely,  as  in  the  presence  of  God. 

"  Do  you  solemnly  promise  before  God  and  this  con- 
gregation, that  you  will,  by  God's  grace,  continue  sted- 
fast  in  the  profession  you  have  made  to  the  end  of  your 

"  Ans.  I  promise,  by  the  grace  of  God,  so  to  do. 

"  Do  you  desire  to  be  admitted  to  Confirmation  accord- 
ing to  the  Order  of  the  Church  of  England,  to  the  Com- 
munion whereof  you  are  now  restored  ? 

"  Ans.  It  is  my  desire. 

"  The  Duke  of  Richmond's  Declaration,  subscribed  with  his 
hand,  May  15,  1692. 

"  I,  Charles  Duke  of  Richmond  and  Lenox,  do  sincerely 
in  the  presence  of  Almighty  God,  the  Searcher  of  all 
hearts,  and  before  this  Assembly,  declare  my  hearty  con- 
trition and  repentance  for  having  publicly  renounced  and 
abjured  the  Reformed  Religion  professed  in  the  Church  of 
England,  in  which  I  was  baptized  and  bred.  And  am 
truly  sensible,  that  in  so  doing  I  have  grievously  offended 
Almighty  God,  and  given  just  cause  of  scandal  to  others : 
for  which  I  beg  forgiveness  of  God  and  men.  And  I  do 
solemnly  retract  the  said  abjuration,  and  do  nov/  sin- 
cerely renounce  all  the  errors  and  corruptions  of  the 
Church  of  Rome,  being  convinced  in  my  conscience  that 
in  many  of  their  doctrines  and  practices  they  have  de- 
parted from  the  primitive  Christianity.  Particularly,  I 
do  renounce  all  the  new  articles  which  Pope  Pius  IV. 
hath  added  to  the  Apostles'  Creed,  and  which  were  esta- 
blished in  the  Council  of  Trent.  And  I  do  solemnly 
promise  before  God  and  this  congregation,  that  I  will  by 
God's  grace  continue  stedfast  in  the  profession  I  have  now 

made  to  the  end  of  ray  life.  And  in  testimony  of  this 
my  unfeigned  repentance  and  resolutions,  I  do  hereunto 
subscribe  my  name,  the  15th  day  of  May  1692. 

"  Chaules  Richmond. 

"  In  the  presence  of  Step.  Fox,  James  Chadwick,  Geo. 
Royse,  Ra.  Barker,  A.  Hill,  Ralph  Snow." 

J.  Yeowell. 

ROYAL   regiment   OF   ARTILLERY. 

(2"'»  S.  i.  278.) 

The  following  notice  of  the  distinct  formation 
of  the  Royal  Fusileers  and  Royal  Regiment  of 
Artillery,  will  set  the  question  of  the  identity  of 
these  corps  at  rest.  I  have  inserted  a  quotation 
from  Mr.  Cannon's  Records  of  the  British  Army, 
which  may  be  interesting  to  your  readers. 

R.  R.  A.  will  find  a  history  of  his  regiment  at 
Mr.  J.  W.  Parker's  establishment  in  the  Strand ; 
also  in  Kane's  History  of  the  Royal  Artillery,  in 
the  garrison  library  at  Woolwich  :  — 

"  In  1664  King  Charles  II.  raised  a  corps  for  sea- 
service,  styled  the  Admiral's  regiment.  In  1678  each 
company  of  100  men  usually  consisted  of  30  pikemen, 
60  musketeers,  and  10  men  armed  with  light  firelocks. 
In  this  year  the  King  added  a  company  of  men  armed 
with  hand-grenades  to  each  of  the  old  British  regiments, 
which  was  designated  the  'grenadier  companj'.'  Daggers 
were  so  contrived  as  to  fit  in  the  muzzles  of  the  muskets, 
and  bayonets,  similar  to  those  at  pi'esent  in  use,  were 
adopted'  about  twenty  j-ears  afterwards. 

"  An  Ordnance  regiment  was  raised  in  1685,  by  order 
of  King  James  II.,  to  guard  the  artillerj^,  and  was  desig- 
nated the  Royal  Fusiliers  (now  7th  Foot).  This  corps, 
and  the  companies  of  grenadiers,  did  not  carry  pikes. 

"  Queen  Anne  succeeded  to  the  throne  of  England, 
March  8,  1702  ;  and  during  her  reign,  the  pikes  hitherto 
in  use  were  laid  aside,  and  every  infantry  soldier  was 
armed  with  a  musket,  baj'onet,  and  sword ;  the  grenadiers 
ceased,  about  the  same  period,  to  carry  hand  grenades: 
the  corps  of  Royal  Artillery  was  first  added  to  the  army 
in  this  reign." 

The  first  Colonel-commandant  of  the  Royal 
Artillery  was  Albert  Borgard,  who  was  appointed 
April  14,  1705  ;  and  died  in  1750,  on  March  8  of 
which  year  he  was  succeeded  by  Colonel  William 

The  occasion  of  raising  the  corps  now  known 
as  the  7th  Regiment,  or  Royal  Fusileers,  was  as 
follows.  The  invention  of  gunpowder,  in  1320, 
was  followed  in  1338  by  the  introduction  of  can- 
non ;  but  many  years  elapsed  before  a  corps  of 
artillery  was  added  to  the  army.  The  guns  were 
fired  by  men  hired  for  the  purpose :  non-com- 
missioned officers,  and  soldiers  were  frequently 
employed  as  gunners,  and  the  care  and  protection 
of  the  guns  were  confided  to  particular  corps. 

On  the  augmentation  of  the  army  during  the 
rebellion  of  James  Duke  of  Monmouth,  in  June 
1685,  King  James  II.  resolved  that  the  first  of 
the  newly-raised  infantry  corps  should  be  an 
ordnance  regiment  for  the  care  and  protection  of 
the  cannon,  of  which  corps  his  majesty  appointed 



[2n'iS.  No29.,JuLrl9. '56. 

iGeorge  Lord  Darfmouth  (then  Maeter-jreneral  of 
the  Ordnance)  to  be  colonel,  by  commission  dated 
June  11,  1G85.  At  this  period  the  regular  regi- 
ments were  composed  of  musketeers,  armed  with 
muskets  and  swords ;  of  pikemen,  armed  with 
long  pikes  and  swords ;  and  of  grenadiers,  armed 
with  hand-grenades,  muskets,  bayonets,  swords, 
and  small  hatchets ;  but  in  the  ordnance  regiment 
every  man  carried  a  long  musket  called  a  fusil, 
with  a  sword  and  bayonet  —  from  which  pecu- 
liarity the  regiment  obtained  the  name  of  the 
Royal  Fusileers.  Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  the 
Royal  Fusileers  existed,  as  a  regiment  of  the  Line, 
twenty  years  previous  to  the  formation  of  the 
Royal  Regiment  of  Artillery,  which  never  be- 
longed to  the  Line,  but  was  always  a  separate 
branch  of  the  army.  G.  L.  S. 


(2»'i  S.  i.  433.) 

There  are  two  distinct  and  apparently  opposite 
processes  going  on  in  the  plant: — L  The  decom- 
position of  carbonic  acid  —  the  fixation  of  the  car- 
bon for  the  purpose  of  building  up  its  own  tissues 
- —  and  the  liberation  of  the  oxygen.  This  con- 
stitutes vegetable  nutrition  :  —  11.  The  exhaling 
carbonic  acid,  the  result  of  the  union  of  the  oxygen 
of  the  atmosphere  with  the  carbon  of  the  vegetable 
tissues.  This  is  analogous  to  respiration.  The 
first  of  these  processes  is  not  only  beneficial  to 
animal  life,  but  absolutely  essential  to  its  existence, 
for  as  the  animal  inhales  oxygen  and  exhales  car- 
bonic acid  in  the  process  of  respiration,  if  some 
agency  did  not  work  out  the  reverse  change,  the 
whole  of  the  oxygen  in  the  atmosphere  would  be 
used  up  in  a  certain  length  of  time  (800,000  years 
according  to  Professor  Dumas),  and  animal  life 
consequently  disappear.  But  as  it  is,  animals  and 
plants  are  thus  mutually  dependent  upon  each 
other;  and  this  is  the  case,  not  merely  with  regard 
to  carbonic  acid,  but  also  some  other  compounds, 
such  as  ammonia,  water,  &c.,  which  are  formed  in 
animals  and  decomposed  in  plants.  So  far,  then,  it 
is  healthy  to  have  plants  in  rooms.  But  there  is 
the  second  process  —  a  kind  of  decay,  or  by  some 
looked  upon  as  true  respiration ;  and  as  this  is 
precisely  what  occurs  in  animals,  it  must  of  course 
add  to  the  carbonic  acid  of  the  atmosphere,  and 
thus  produce  an  efiect  prejudicial  to  animal  life. 
If  both  these  processes  were  carried  on  to  the 
same  extent,  the  one  would,  as  a  matter  of  course, 
counteract  the  other,  and  neither  would  pro- 
duce either  good  or  evil  as  to  its  effects  upon  the 
atmosphere.  But  as  the  former,  under  general 
circumstances,  preponderates  excessively  over  the 
latter,  it  is  on  the  whole  healthy  to  live  amongst 
plants.  There  are  circumstances,  however,  in 
which  the  respiratory  process  is  active,  and  the 

nutritive  at  a  stand-still,  and  here  the  influence  of 
the  vegetable  upon  the  atmosphere  will  be  in- 
jurious to  animal  life.  One  of  these  circumstances 
is  the  absence  of  sunshine,  or  daylight  (as  these 
stimuli  are  necessary  to  the  carrying  on  the  process 
of  nutrition  in  the  plant).  It  is  therefore  in- 
jurious, more  or  less,  to  sleep  in  a  room  in  which 
there  are  plants.  Geo.  Sexton,  M.D.,  F.R.G.S. 
Kennington  Cross. 

In  reply  to  C.  T.  B.  I  copy  the  following  passage 
from  The  Handbook  of  Gardening,  by  Edward 
Kemp,  p.  12. : 

"  Plants  convert  tlie  oxygen  and  carbon  which  they 
receive  from  the  soil  and  air  into  carbonic  acid,  which 
they  exhale  at  night.  This  being  a  deadh'  and  dangerous, 
gas  to  human  beings,  plants  and  flowers  are  not  con- 
sidered healthy  in  a  sitting  or  bed  room  during  the  night. 
In  the  day  they  give  off  oxj'gen,  especially  in  the  morn- 
ing, which  is  reputed  to  render  the  morning  air  so  fresh 
and  exhilarating.  They  are  very  useful  in  absorbing 
from  the  air  the  carbon  which  is  so  injurious  to  animal 
life ;  and  they  purify  stagnant  water  in  the  same  way." 

Are  the  above  statements  correct  ?  Do  plants 
perform  by  day  and  by  night  two  contrary  opera- 
tions ? 

In  The  Flower  Garden,  reprinted  by  Mr.  Mur- 
ray, from  the  Quarterly  Review,  the  fear  of  the 
exhalations  from  flowers  at  night  is  treated  as  a 
popular  error.     See  the  close  of  the  treatise,  p.  8 1. 



(2°'i  S.  i.  479.) 

In  Fleming's  Discourse  on  the  Rise  and  Fall  of 
Papacy  (edit.  1792,  at  p.  43.),  is  the  following 
observable  foot-note  by  the  "  publisher  : " 

"  In  calculating  the  difference  betwixt  the  prophetic 
and  sydereal  year  (see  p.  13.),  our  author  reckons  the 
latter,  according  to  the  gross  computation,  to  be  only 
365  days ;  not  regarding,  as  he  says,  '  the  smaller  mea- 
sures of  time.'  But  the  fact  is  a  complete  annual  revolu- 
tion of  the  sun  exceeds  that  calculation  by  several  hours 
and  minutes,  a  sydereal  j'ear  being  3G5  days,  6  hours, 
and  about  10  minutes.  In  1278  years,  therefore,  there 
will  be  a  difference  of  about  328i  days,  or  nearly  one 
whole  year:  so  that  the  great  event  predicted  by  our 
author  will  fall  out  one  year  sooner  than  by  his  calcula- 
tion, viz.  in  the  year  1793,  which  brings  it  still  nearer  to 
the  present  time." 

To  the  intelligent  readers  of  your  valuable 
periodical,  it  need  not  be  more  than  mentioned 
that  Louis  XVI.  suffered  decapitation  in  the  year 
1793  ;  thus  verifying,  it  may  be  said,  almost  to  a 
day,  the  accuracy  of  the  calculations  of  Fleming, 
as  well  as  in  being  a  literal  description  of  the 
words  of  the  latter  (p.  4.S.)  : 

"  That  whereas  the  present  French  king  (1701)  takes 
the  sun  for  his  emblem,  and  this  for  his  motto.  Nee  plu- 
ribus  impar,  he  may  at  length,  or  rather  his  successors 
and  the  monarchy  itself  (at  least  before  the  year  1794), 

8»*s.No29.,JulyX9.'56.]  NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


be  forced  to  acknowledge  that  in  respect  to  the  neigh- 
bouring potentates  he  is  even  singtdis  impar." 

Fleming,  in  deducing  his  calculations  as  to  the 
Papacy,  says  at  p.  49. : 

"  This  Judgment  {fifth  vial)  will  probably  begin  about 
the  year  1794,  and  expire  about  A  c.  1848 :  so  that  the 
duration  of  it,  upon  this  supposition,  will  be  for  the  space 
of  54  years.  For  I  do  not  suppose  that  seeing  the  Pope 
received  tlie  title  of  Supreme  Bishop  no  sooner  than  Ann. 
606,  he  cannot  be  supposed  to  have  any  vial  poured  upon 
his  Seat  immediately,  so  as  to  ruin  his  authority  so  sig- 
nally as  this  Judgment  must  be  supposed  to  do  until  the 
year  1848,  which  is  the  date  of  1260  years  in  prophetical 
account  when  they  are  reckoned  from' Ann.  606.  But  yet 
we  are  not  to  imagine  that  this  vial  will  totally  destroy 
the  Papacy,  tho'  it  will  exceedingly  weaken  it ;  for  we 
find  this  still  in  being  and  alive  when  the  next  vial  is 
poured  out." 

Now  it  is  again  not  a  little  remarkable,  that 
from  1848  to  1850  took  place  the  revolution  at 
Rome,  the  flight  of  the  Pope  to  Gaeta,  his  resi- 
dence there,  and  his  having  been  brought  back  to 
Rome  only  through  the  power  of  France.  It 
cannot  be  said  that  the  Pope's  authority  and  the 
Papacy  were  "destroyed"  by  this  revolution, 
though  they  were  certainly  at  that  time  on  the 
very  brink  of  perdition  ;  but  that  they  have  been 
since  "  exceedingly  weakened"  by  it,  no  one  can 
doubt,  seeing  the  troubles  which  are  presently 
occurring  from  the  disturbed  and  unsatisfactory 
position  of  Italian  affairs  both  in  Church  and 
State.  The  events  which  likewise  happened  in 
the  abdication  of  Louis  Philippe,  and  the  new  suc- 
cession to  the  French  throne  (all  of  which  cannot 
be  dilated  on)  ;  as  also  the  humbled  condition  of 
the  Pope  when  made  prisoner  by  Napoleon  Bona- 
parte during  the  period  of  the  currency  of  the 
above-mentioned  fifty-four  years  prior  to  1848, 
and  the  inauguration  of  the  emperor's  son  as  King 
of  Rome,  with  otlier  historical  points  that  might 
be  stated,  may  in  whole  be  regarded  as  proofs  of 
the  singular  shrewdness  of  Fleming  in  scanning 
those  mysterious  books,  in  the  study  of  which  he 
had  been  successful  beyond  every  commentator 
who  had  handled  them. 

It  appears  to  be  the  opinion  of  Fleming  (p.  49.) 
that  the  ^'^  sixth  vial  will  be  poured  out  on  the 
Mahometan  Anti-Christ,"  and  that  the  "  seventh 
viaV  more  particularly  relates  to  "  Rome  or  mys- 
tical Babylon;"  "these  two  vials  as  it  were  one 
continued,  the  first  running  into  the  second,  and 
the  second  completeing  the  first" — "  only  you  may 
observe  (p.  50.)  that  the  first  of  these  will  proba- 
bly take  up  most  of  the  time  between  the  year 
1848  and  the  year  2000."  —  "Supposing,  then, 
that  the  Turkish  monarchy  should  be  totally  de- 
stroyed (p.  51.)  between  184-8  and  1900,  we  may 
justly  assign  70  or  80  years  longer  to  the  end  of 
the  6th  seal,  and  about  20  or  30  at  most  to  the 
last."  _  Lately,  the  "sick  man"  only  escaped  de- 
struction from  the  paws  of  the  Bear ;  and  though 

the  invalid  may  have  had  a  turn  in  his  complaint, 
and  be  again  looking  better,  it  cannot  be  doubted 
that  he  carries  within  himself  the  seeds  of  his  early 

The  author's  reasonings  on  these  topics  are  too 
long  to  be  here  followed  out ;  but  if  his  discrimi- 
nation in  arguing  from  the  past  be  taken  into 
account,  it  is  probable  he  may  yet  be  found  one 
of  the  most  judicious  interpreters  of  the  future. 
At  the  expiry  of  the  "  seventh  vial,"  he  considers 
that  "  the  blessed  millennium  of  Christ's  spiritual 
reign  on  earth  will  begin"  —  say,  year  2000. 
Other  students  of  prophecy,  posterior  to  Fleming, 
have  placed  the  commencement  of  this  event  re- 
spectively in  1866,  1947,2300.  If  will  be  for 
those  then  alive  carefully  to  watch  these  epochs 
and  the  signs  of  the  times.  Under  the  dominion 
of  peace  —  the  diffusion  of  education,  secular  and 
religious,  along  with  the  rapid  improvements 
making  in  art  and  science  —  who  can  say  what 
mighty  things  may  not  be  effected  to  usher  in  this 
happy  day  for  the  human  race  ?  G.  N. 


(2°'»  S.  i.  472.) 

Joseph  Trapp,  D.D.  Born  in  1679 ;  in  1695 
he  was  entered  a  commoner  of  Wadhara  College, 
and,  in  1696,  was  admitted  a  scholar  of  the  same 
house.  He  proceeded  B.A.  1699;  M.A.  1702; 
D.D.  by  diploma,  1727.  In  1704,  he  was  chosen 
a  Fellow;  in  1708,  he  was  appointed  the  first 
professor  of  poetry  ;  and  in  1711,  chaplain  to  Sir 
Constantine  Phipps,  Lord  Chancellor  of  Ireland. 
He  died  Nov.  22, 1747.  A  list  of  his  publications, 
forty-eight  in  number,  will  be  found  in  Chalmers's 
Biographical  Dictionary. 

Philip  Bisse,  of  New  College,  Oxford ;  B.A. 
1690;  M.A.  1693;  B.  and  D.D.  1705;  conse- 
crated Bishop  of  8t.  David's,  Nov.  19,  1710; 
translated  to  Hereford,  Feb.  16,  1713.  He  died 
at  Westminster,  Sept.  6,  1724.  He  published  A 
Sermon  at  the  Anniversary  of  the  Sons  of  the 
Clergy,  Dec.  2,  1708  ;  and  A  Fast  Sermon  preached 
before  the  House  of  Commons,  London,  1710. 

Thomas  Gore,  born  at  Alderton,  Wilts,  1631, 
became  a  commoner  of  Magdalen  College,  Oxford, 
in  May  1647.  After  he  had  continued  there  more 
than  three  years,  and  had  performed  his  exercise 
for  the  degree  of  B.A.,  he  retired  to  Lincoln's  Inn, 
and  afterwards  to  his  patrimony  at  Alderton ; 
where  he  died  March  31,  1684.  His  publications 
were :  — 

1.  A  Table  shewing  how  to  Blazon  a  Coat  ten  several 
Ways,  1655  ;  a  single  sheet,  copied  from  Feme. 

2.  Series  Alphabetica,  Latino- Anglica,  Nominum  Gen- 
tilitiorum,  sive  Cognominum  plurimarum  Familianim, 
qu£e  multos  per  annos  in  Anglia  floruere,  Oxon.,  1667,  8vo. 

3.  Catalogus  in  certa  Capita,  seu  Classes,  plerorumque 



[2'xi  S.  No  29.,  July  19.  '56. 

omnium  Authorum  qui  de  re  heraldica  scripserunt,  Oxon. 
16G8.     Reprinted,  with  enlargements,  1674. 

4.  Nomenclator  Geographicus,  etc.,  Oxon.,  1667,  8vo. 

5.  Loyalty  Displayed,  and  Falsehood  Unmasked ;  or  a 
Just  Vindication  of  Thos.  Gore,  Esq.,  High  Sheriff  of 
Wilts.    London:  1681.    4to. 

For  the  above  information,  I  am  principally 
indebted  to  Chalmers's  Biographical  Dictionary ; 
Wood's  Athence  Oxon. ;  and  Nichols's  Literary 
Anecdotes.  'AKievs. 


TTios.  Gore.  —  He  was  born  at  Alder  ton,  or 
Aldrington,  in  Wiltshire  ;  in  1631,  commoner  of 
Magdalen  Coll. ;  and  afterwards  a  member  of  the 
Society  of  Lincoln's  Inn.  He  died  at  Alderton 
in  March  1684,  and  was  buried  there. 

In  1655,  he  published  A  Table  shewing  how  to 
Blazon  a  Coat  ten  several  Ways.     In  1667  : 

"  Series  Alphabetica  Latino- Anglica.Nominum  Gentili- 
tiorum  sive  Cognominum  plurimarum  Familiarum,  quae 
multos  per  annos  in  Anglia  floruere  :  e  libris  qua  manu- 
scriptis  qua  typis  excusis,  aliisque  antiquioris  sevi  monu- 
mentis  Latinis  coUecta." 

In  1668  : 

"  Catalogus  in  certa  Capita,  seu  Classes,  alphabetico 
ordine  concinnatus,  plerorumque  omnium  authorum  (tam 
antiquorum  quam  recentiorum)  qui  de  re  Heraldica,  La- 
tiue,  Gallice,  etc.,  scripserunt." 

This  work  was  republished  in  1674,  with  addi- 
tions. He  was  also  the  author  o?  Nomenclator  Geo- 
graphicus, published  1667  ;  also  of  a  MS.  written 
in  1662,  entitled  "  Spicilegia  Heraldica,"  and  of 
Loyalty  displayed  and  Falsehood  unmasked,  1681. 
He  was  sheriff  of  Wilts,  1680. 

Joseph  Trapp.  —  Alfred  T.  Lee  will  find  a 
full  account  of  Joseph  Trapp  in  Biographia  Bri- 
tannica,  N  ichols's  5ow?/er,  QhdXmex^' &  Biographical 
Dictionary,  and  Penny  Cyclopcedia. 

Philip  Bisse. — Philip  Bisse  was  of  New  Col- 
lege ;  was  M.A.  Jan.  15,  1693,  and  B.  and  D.D. 
Jan.  29,  1705.  He  was  mad?  Bishop  of  Hereford 
1712,  and  died  there  Sept.  6,  1721.  He  and  his 
wife  Bridget  were  buried  in  Hereford  Cathedral. 

T.  P. 


Gregory  de  Karwent.  —  In  the  Index  of  Abp. 
Peckham's  register,  a.d.  1279  to  1292,  in  Harl. 
MS.  6062-3.,  by  Dr.  Ducarel,  it  is  stated  at  vol.  ii. 
p.  604.,  that  Tetbury  Church  was  vacant  in  1279 
by  the  death  of  Gregory  de  Karwent,  and  that  a 
successor  must  wait  the  approbation  of  the  Pope. 
Tetbury  at  this  period  was  in  the  diocese  of 
AVorcester.  ^, 

[In  the  British  Museum,  among  the  Additional  Char- 
ters, Nos.  5274 — 5279.,  will  be  found  some  charters  re- 
lating to  Tetbury  vicarage,  2  Edw.  II.  —  Ed.] 

(2"'J  S.  i.  354.) 

I  cannot  believe  this  fact  to  be  correctly  stated. 
A  vessel  from  Tunis  is  said  to  have  put  into  a 
port  in  the  county  of  Antrim,  in  the  north  of  Ire- 
land, through  stress  of  weather,  and  the  sailors 
walking  through  the  country  entered  into  con- 
versation with  the  Irish  peasants  at  work  in  the 
fields,  speaking  the  one  the  language  used  at 
Tunis,  and  the  other  Irish.  What  is  this  but  to 
prove  that  the  Phcenician  still  spoken  at  Tunis  at 
the  date  assigned,  the  end  of  last  century,  and  the 
Irish  were  the  same  tongue.  The  Phoenicians  and 
Celts  are  now  allowed  to  be  different  races,  speak- 
ing different  languages ;  and  a  corrupt  Arabic  has 
been  for  a  long  time  spoken  at  Tunis,  to  the  ex- 
clusion of  the  languages  used  before  the  Arab 
conquest.  A  scene  in  The  Pcenulus  of  the  Roman 
comic  writer  Plautus,  in  the  Punic  tongue,  was 
attempted  to  be  explained  by  General  Vallancey 
through  the  Irish,  but  the  attempt  has  been  pro- 
nounced chimerical.  This  leads  me  to  another 
subject,  which  I  have  found  of  great  interest. 
The  Carthaginians  were  a  colony  of  Tyre,  a  Phoe- 
nician people,  a  part  of  the  same  people  called 
Canaanites.  The  names  of  Canaanite  and  Phoe- 
nician are  applied  to  the  same  race,  the  one  name 
derived  from  Chua,  or  Canaan,  a  son  of  Ham,  and 
the  other  taken  from  the  reddish  brown  colour  of 
the  people,  signified  by  the  Greek  word  ^oiut^,  as 
a  darker  shade  is  denoted  by  Ai9io\p  for  the  Ethio- 
pian, supposed  to  belong  to  a  dark  people  in  the 
south  of  Phoenicia  as  well  as  in  Africa.  I  see  it 
noticed  that  the  Greek  Septuagint  frequently 
renders  Canaan  and  Canaanite  in  the  Hebrew  by 
Phoenicia  and  Phoenician.  One  of  our  Saviour's 
miracles  was  the  casting  a  devil  out  of  the  child 
of  a  woman  called  by  St,  Matthew,  xv.  22.,  a 
woman  of  Canaan,  and  by  St.  Mark,  vii.  26.,  a 
Tyro-Phoenician  woman  ;  and  a  coin  of  Laodicea, 
in  Phoenicia,  of  the  age  of  Antiochus  Epiphanes, 
has  the  inscription,  "  Laodicea,  mother  of  Canaan." 
St.  Augustin,  an  African  by  birth,  the  Bishop  of 
Hippo  Regius,  a  little  to  the  west  of  Carthage, 
who  flourished  in  the  fourth  and  fifth  centuries 
after  Christ,  says,  Ep.  ad  Rom. :  — 

"  Interrogati  rustici  nostri  quid  sint  Punice  respon- 
dentes  Chanani  corrupta  ?  Scilicet  voce  sicut  in  talibus 
solet  quod  aliud  respondent  quam  Chanansei."  —  Quoted 
Kenrick's  PAosnicJa,  p.  42.,  and  Palestine,  VUnivers  Fit- 
toresque,  p.  81. 

The  Carthaginians  were  called  by  Virgil  "  Tyrios 
Bilingues,"  from  their  being  obliged,  in  addition 
to  the  Punic,  to  make  use  of  another  language, 
supposed  by  Prichard  to  be  of  the  African  abo- 
rigines, Berbers,  whose  tongue,  different  from  the 
Hebrew,  has  still  relations  to  it ;  and  the  people 
themselves  belong  to  the  Himyaritic,  a  more 
southern  Arabian  race,  along  with  the  Abyssinians, 

2"dS.  No  29.,  July  19, '66.] 



to  whose  old  Gyz  tongues  the  Berber  language 
approaches  more  nearly.  I  should  have  expected 
the  African  peasantry  to  have  retained  rather 
their  old  tongue,  the  Berber,  than  the  Punic ;  but 
in  the  time  of  Leo  Atricanus,  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury, all  the  cities  on  the  African  coast  spoke 
Arabic,  and  the  use  of  this  language  has  since  ex- 
tended in  the  north  of  Africa.  1  say  nothing  of 
the  inscription  on  the  columns  at  the  pillars  of 
Hercules,  mentioned  by  the  Greek  historian  of  the 
Vandal  war,  Procopius,  and  doubted  by  Gibbon, 
as  its  authenticity  is  not  believed.*  The  Hebrew, 
or  a  dialect  of  it,  is  said  to  have  been  the  lan- 
guage of  the  Jews,  Phoenicians,  and  Philistines, 
and  the  Punic  scene  In  Plautus's  comedy  is  trans- 
lated or  explained  by  Hebrew,  as  is  a  Carthaginian 
inscription  of  prices  of  victims  for  sacrifice,  on  a 
tablet  found  in  1845  at  Marseilles,  near  the  site  of 
the  Temple  of  Diana  of  Ephesus,  the  tutelar  deity 
of  the  ancient  Massilia ;  and  there  are  other  in- 
scriptions at  Athens,  and  in  the  Mediterranean 
Islands,  all  of  which  lead  to  the  same  conclusion, 
the  identity  of  the  Phoenician  and  Hebrew  lan- 
guages. Had  Hannibal  (whose  name  contains  the 
Canaanite  Baal)  prevailed  over  the  Eomans,  the 
world  might  have  been  Canaanite,  as  it  might 
afterwards  have  been  Arabian,  had  not  Charles 
Martel  vanquished  the  Moors  at  the  great  battle 
contested  so  long  and  so  obstinately  between  the 
Christian  Franks  and  the  Mahometan  Moors, 
fought  in  A.D.  732,  in  the  plains  between  Tours 
and  Poictiers,  in  the  south  of  France.  This  pecu- 
liarity is  remarked,  that  the  Canaanites  descended 
of  Ham  spoke  a  language  of  the  people  descended 
of  the  elder  brother  Shem,  the  ancestor  of  the 
Asiatic  nations.  The  Jews  springing  from  the 
Chaldini  or  Chaldeans  derive  their  origin  from  a 
Shemite  source ;  while  the  Philistines,  in  the  south 
of  Phoenicia,  are  said  to  be  from  Crete,  or  from 
the  north  of  Arabia,  and  to  be  descended  also 
from  Ham,  but  differing  from  the  northern  Phoe- 
nicians, who  along  with  the  Jews  and  Egyptians 
practised  circumcision,  in  not  using  that  rite. 

I  would  wish  to  find  the  Celts  in  Asia.  Pri- 
chard  has  published  a  volume  supplementary  to  his 
great  work  of  Researches  into  the  Physical  History 
of  Mankind,  to  trace  their  Eastern  Origin  by  com- 
parison of  the  Celtic  Dialects  with  tJie  Sanscrit, 
Greek,  Latin,  and  Teutonic  Languages ;  but  I  do 
not  know  of  any  historical  evidence,  or  of  any 

*  The  inscription  is,  "  We  are  those  who  fled  from  the 
face  of  the  robber  Joshua,  the  son  of  Nun."  {Phoenicia, 
p.  67.)  M.  Munk,  in  Palestine,  p.  81.,  remarks  in  a  note, 
that  the  expression  of  the  original  Greek  Englished  from 
the  face  is  Hebrew,  but  not  Greek,  and  thence  inferred 
that  Procopius,  a  Pagan,  did  not  forge  the  inscription,  but 
in  his  narration  translated  a  Phoenician  expression.  The 
existence  of  this  fabulous  tradition  may  also  show  a  belief 
.in  the  identity  of  the  Phoenicians  and  Canaanites  to  have 
been  entertained  when  Procopius  wrote  in  the  sixth  cen- 

archseological  antiquities  out  of  Europe,  that  can 
be  said  to  be  exclusively  Celtic.  There  are  circles 
of  stones  In  India,  and  other  remains  in  Asia.  De 
Saulay  mentions  a  heap  of  stoned  at  Hebron,  and 
another  monument  at  a  place  near  the  north  end 
of  the  Dead  Sea,  both  which  appeared  to  re- 
semble Celtic  remains,  but  he  gives  no  drawing  of 
either,  and  does  not  speak  certainly.  (Voyage 
autour  de  la  Mer  Morte,  torn.  ii.  pp.  92.  168.) 
The  European  circles  and  underground  buildings 
are  not  established  to  belong  exclusively  to  the 
Celts,  but  are  seen  in  the  mist  of  a  remote  an- 
tiquity. Amedee  Thierry,  In  his  History  of  the 
Gauls  from  the  earliest  Period  till  their  ultimate  and 
entire  Subjugation  by  the  Romans,  a.d.  79,  during 
the  Reign  of  the  Emperor  Vespasian,  assigned 
them  previous  to  their  final  subjection  a  seat  and 
nation  in  Gaul  of  1700  years,  which  would  place 
them  in  their  European  residence  at  a  date  about 
600  years  only  from  the  confusion  of  languages  at 
the  building  of  the  Tower  of  Babel,  2247  years 
before  Christ  according  to  received  chronology. 
I  am  aware  that  Mr.  Kenrick,  in  which  he  is  fol- 
lowed by  Prichard,  objects  to  the  chronology  of 
the  early  ages,  as  not  allowing  sufficient  time  for 
the  origin  and  development  of  races  and  nations. 
The  Irish  Celts  I  have  understood  to  be  Gallic  of 
the  earliest  wave  of  the  race,  perhaps  the  most 
ancient  Celts  of  tlie  British  Empire,  and  their  an- 
tiquity may  reasonably  be  supposed  to  be  akin  to 
that  of  the  Gallic  Celts  in  Gaul.  Their  connection 
with  the  Phoenicians  or  Berbers,  or  I  may  add,  the 
Euskaldunes,  the  Basques,  is  not  so  readily  to  be 
conjectured  or  entertained.  W.  H.  F. 



(2°i  S.  i.  516.) 

I  am  induced  to  make  a  few  remarks  on  the 
article  in  your  pages  entitled  "  Notes  on  Regi- 
ments," In  order  that  certain  inaccuracies  and 
misstatements  therein  mentioned  may  not  pass 

In  those  Notes  the  80th  regiment  are  called  the 
"  Connaught  Rangers."  The  80th  are  the  "  Staf- 
fordshire Volunteers."  Any  Army  List  would 
show  that  the  above  appellation  applies  alone  to 
the  gallant  88th,  on  whom  it  was  conferred  when 
they  were  first  raised  in  that  part  of  Ireland  in 
1795,  by  Lord  Clanricarde. 

The  56th  are  called  Pompadours,  not  from 
their  present  (purple)  facings,  but  from  the  fol- 
lowing circumstance,  as  related  to  me  by  an  old 
officer  of  the  regiment  nearly  thirty  years  ago. 
In  1756,  when  this  regiment  was  first  raised,  its 
facings  were  a  crimson  or  puce  colour,  called  in 
those  days  "Pompadour,"  from  the  celebrated  lady 



[2nds.  N<>29.,  Jcly19.*56. 

■who  patronised  It ;  and  hence  the  name  as  applied 
to  the  regiment  v/bose  facings  it  formed. 

I  may  incidentally  mention  that  on  visiting  a 
cotton  mill  near  Oldham  in  Lancashire,  in  1827, 
I  was  surprised  to  find  the  word  "  Pompadour  " 
on  a  crimson  cotton  print,  and  on  seeking  for  an 
explanation,  I  was  told  it  was  applied  to  that  par- 
ticular shade  of  crimson. 

Like  the  gosling  green  facings  as  formerly  WOrn 
by  the  66th  regiment,  it  was  found  too  delicate  a 
colour  for  such  a  purpose,  and  too  apt  to  fade  and 
change  by  exposure  to  the  sun,  and  consequently 
was  ordered  to  be  done  away  with.  The  then 
colonel  of  the  regiment  wished  it  to  be  made 
royal,  and  substitute  blue  for  the  facings ;  but 
not  being  able  to  effect  this,  he  resorted  to  purple 
as  the  nearest  approach  to  blue. 

The  4th  regiment  have  no  such  motto  as  "  Quis 
separabit."  The  4th  Royal  Irish  Dragoon  Guards 
have  it,  in  conjunction  with  the  badge  of  the 
Order  of  St.  Patrick,  of  which  it  is  the  motto. 
It  was  given  as  a  national  distinction  to  this,  as 
also  to  two  other  Irish  regiments,  the  86th  county 
Down,  and  88th  Connaught  Rangers. 

For  the  same  reason  (that  of  national  distinc- 
tion) the  badge  of  the  Order  of  the  Thistle,  and 
its  accompanying  motto,  "Nemo  me  impune  la- 
cessit,"  has  been  permitted  to  be  worn  by  the  fol- 
lowing Scotch  regiments  :  the  Scots  Greys,  the 
21st  North  British  Fusileers,  and  42nd  Royal 

The  42nd  Royal  Highlanders  were  originally 
formed  from  six  independent  companies  of  High- 
landers that  had  been  raised  in  1730  for  the  pro- 
tection of  Edinburgh,  and  for  police  and  other 
local  purposes,  and  from  being  dressed  in  black, 
blue,  and  green  tartans,  presented  a  very  sombre 
appearance,  which  procured  for  them  the  name  of 
"Freieudan  Dhu,"  or  Black  Watch.  These  inde- 
pendent companies  were,  in  1739,  amalgamated 
into  a  regular  regiment,  under  the  title  of  the 
Highland  Regiment,  and  in  1751  was  numbered 
as  the  42nd. 

Should  this  communication  meet  with  approval, 
I  shall  have  great  pleasure  in  again  reverting  to 
the  subject.  Miles. 


Photographic  Exhibition  at  Brussels.  —  We  last  week 
received  a  letter  from  our  excellent  contemporary,  the 
Editor  of  La  Lumiere,  to  which,  from  circumstances,  we 
were  unavoidably  prevented  callinpr  attention  in  last 
Saturda3''3  "  N.  &  Q."  Tlie  purport  of  M.  Lagan's  com- 
munication was  to  announce  that,  at  the  public  Ex- 
j  hibition  at  Brussels,  which  is  about  to  take  place  under 
the  superintendence  and  management  of  the  Association 
for  the  Encouragement  of  the  Industrial  Arts  in  Belgium, 
Photography  will  be  one  of  the  leading  features.  The 
French  photographers  will  contribute  largely ;  and  as 
the  Exhibition  will  not  be  considered  complete  unless 
the  English  Photographers  are  fairly  represented,  it  is 

hoped  that  they  will  entrust  specimens  of  their  produc- 
tions to  the  manager  of  the  present  Exhibition.  Com- 
munications on  the  subject  are  to  be  addressed  to  M.  E. 
Romberg,  58.  Rue  Royale  a  Bruxelles;  and  Photographs, 
Photographic  Instruments,  &c.,  (which  will  be  received 
until  the  1st  of  August,)  are  to  be  sent  to  M.  le  President 
de  I' Association  pour  l' Encouragement  des  Arts  industriels 
en  Belgique,  a  ['Entrepot  de  Bruxelles,  Though  the  notice 
is  short,  we  hope  our  photographic  friends  will  avail 
themselves  of  this  opportunity  of  showing  the  Belgian 
Photographers  what  England  can  produce  in  this  new, 
but  most  important,  branch  of  Art. 

3aejiIi0iS  t0  Miliar  eaucrte^. 

The  Hoe  (2"'»  S.  i.  471.)  — Mr.  3ons  Boasb, 
Penzance,  says,  "  This  is  a  Note,  not  a  Query." 
But  he,  at  the  same  time,  re-makes  it  a  Query  by 
writing  "  Elbe  Hohe,"  "  Alster  Hohe."  We  write 
Hohe,  or  Hoehe,  which  is  then  pronounced  as  a 
diphthong,  the  A  aspirated.  The  origin  of  Hoe 
may  be  German  (Saxon),  but  it  is  one  of  those 
words  which  have  suffered  many  metamorphoses 
in  sound  during  the  lapse  of  time.  Dr.  J.  L. 

15.  Gower  Street. 

Holly,  the  only  indigenous  English  Evergreen 
(2"''  S.  i.  399.  443.  502.)  — I  have  only  been  able 
to  see  the  Gentleman  s  Magazine  for  1787,  though 
I  have  applied  at  two  libraries  to  which  I  sub- 

Hooker  and  Arnott  (^British  Flora,  edit.  1850, 
pp.  369.  408.)  omit  the  asterisk  (*)  with  which, 
at  p.  xii.,  they  explain  that  they  have  branded 
"the  many"  plants  "that  have  been  or  ax'e  daily 
becoming  naturalised  among  us." 

The  editor  of  the  Gardeners'  Chronicle  (Dr. 
Lindley),  G.  C.  1856,  p.  440.  c,  writes,  "The  yew 
is  certainly  indigenous ;  and  we  never  heard  the 
box-tree  suspected  of  being  a  foreigner." 

Selby  (British  Forest  Trees,  1842,  p.  363.) 
writes,  "The  yew  is  indigenous  to  Britain."  I 
maintain,  therefore,  that  Algernon  Holt  Whitb 
was  wrong  "  in  calling  the  holly  our  only  indigen- 
ous evergreen,  to  the  exclusion  especially  of  the 
yew  and  box;"  and  there  are  with  me,  on  the 
trial  of  this  issue,  Hooker,  Arnott,  Lindley,  and 
Selby.  Geo.  E.  Frbrb. 

Royden  Hall,  Diss. 

Will  Mr.  White  consider  the  opinions  of  Ge- 
rard, Parkinson,  Phillips,  Loudon,  and  Withering 
as  of  some  value  in  deciding  the  question,  whether 
the  yew-tree  and  box  are  indigenous  evergreens  ? 
Phillips,  in  his  Sylvia  Florifera,  remarks,  "  The 
box  was  formerly  much  more  plentiful  in  England 
than  now,  and  gave  names  to  several  places,  such 
as  Boxhill  and  Boxley,  &c."  Evelyn  also  speaks 
of  it  as  growing  wild,  and  forming  "  rare  natural 
bowers."  The  other  authorities  speak  with  the 
same  certainty,  with  the  exception  of  Loudon, 
who  throws  a  doubt  over  box  being  indigenous,  be- 

2nd  g.  ifo  29.,  July  19.  '66.  J 



cause  it  is  not  often  found  wild  at  the  present  day  ; 
but  there  is  no  doubt  with  any  of  these  writers 
respecting  the  yew,  which  grows  wild  in  lanes  in 
Staffordshire,  in  many  of  the  dales  in  Derbyshire, 
being  particularly  luxuriant  in  Dovedale,  in  many 
parts  of  Wales,  on  the  hills  round  Windermere, 
on  rocks  in  Borrowdale,  and  indeed  generally 
throughout  the  English  Lake  district.  I  do  not 
take  authority  for  this,  having  had  the  satisfaction 
of  seeing  it  in  the  places  mentioned.  H.  J. 


Hohson's  Choice  (2°''  S.  i.  472.)  — The  usual 
explanation  of  this  saying  held  good  in  Steele's 
time,  for  he  gives  it  in  No.  509.  of  the  Spectator, 
thus  prefaced  : 

"  I  shall  conclude  this  discourse  with  an  explanation 
of  a  proverb,  which  by  vulgar  error  is  taken  and  used 
when  a  man  is  reduced  to  an  extremity,  whereas  the  pro- 
priety of  the  maxim  is  to  use  it  when  you  would  say  there 
is  plenty,  but  you  must  make  such  a  choice  as  not  to  hurt 
another  who  is  to  come  after  you." 

In  the  same  paper  it  is  said  : 

"  This  memorable  man  stands  drawn  in  fresco  at  an  inn 
(which  he  used)  in  Bishopsgate  Street,  with  an  hundred- 
pound  bag  under  his  arm,  with  this  inscription  upon  the 
said  bag : 

'  The  fruitful  mother  of  a  hundred  more.' " 

What  inn  is  here  referred  to,  and  is  the  portrait 
still  in  existence  ? 

The  inscription  reminds  me  of  a  Hampshire 
farmer's  definition  of  a  clever  man  : 

"  I  calls  he  a  clever  chap  as  can  rub  one  fi-pun  note 
agen  another  and  make  another  on  nn." 

R.  W.  Hackwood. 

•'  Magdalen  College,  Oxford  (2"'^  S.  i.  334.)  — 
The  "  trusty  and  well-beloved  "  John  Huddleston, 
the  first  person  mentioned  in  King  James's  war- 
rant to  the  president,  to  be  admitted  a  demy  of 
the  said  college,  was  probably  the  Roman  Catholic 
priest  who  administered  the  sacrament  to  King 
Charles  II.  on  his  death-bed.  W.  H.  W.  T. 

Somerset  House. 

Horsetalk  (2"'^  S.  i.  335.)— In  Italy  and  the 
South  of  France,  a  driver  cries  "  ee  "  to  his  horse, 
when  he  wants  him  to  go  on.  This  Is  doubtless 
"  I,"  the  Imperative  of  eo,  pronounced  in  the  con- 
tinental fashion  ;  and  has  probably  descended  un- 
changed from  the  time  of  Romulus.         Stylites. 

Song  by  Old  Doctor  Wilde  — "  Hallow  my 
Fancie  (2»^  S.  i.  511.)  — S.  S.  S.  Inquires  whe- 
ther there  is,  "  In  reality,  such  an  old  song "  as 
that  quoted  by  the  author  of  "  Bond  and  JFree," 
In  a  late  number  of  Household  Words  ?  There  is 
such  a  song,  and  it  may  be  found  in  a  very  com- 
mon source  of  information,  Chambers's  Cyclopcsdia 
of  English  Literature,  vol.  i.  p.  395.,  where  the 
editor  states  it  to  be  taken  "  from  a  collection  of 

poems  entitled  Iter  Boreale,  by  R.  Wild,  D.D., 
1668."  S.  S.  S.  will  find  this  song  of  Dr.  Wild's 
preceded  by  "  Hallo  my  Fancy,"  which  Mr, 
Chambers  assigns  to  that  prolific  author  Mr, 
"  Anonymous."  Cdthbeet  Bede,  B,A. 

Felo-de-se  (2''^  S.  i,  313.)  —  Queen  Elizabeth, 
by  a  charter  in  the  forty-first  year  of  her  reign, 
granted  (inter  alia)  to  the  corporation  of  the 
borough  of  Andover,  Hants  (to  whom  the  manor 
of  Andover  had  belonged  for  centuries),  the 
goods  and  chattels  of  felons,  fugitives,  and  out- 
laws, and  of  persons  put  in  exigent,  and  oi  felons 
of  themselves,  and  goods,  chattels,  waived  estrays, 
deodands,  found  or  forfeited,  arising  within  the 
manor  or  borough  of  Andover  aforesaid. 

The  rights  have  been  exercised  by  the  corpo- 
ration when  occasions  have  occurred. 

W,  H.  W.  T. 

Somerset  House. 

Comic  Song  on  the  Income  Tax  (2°^  S.  i,  472.) 
—  In  looking  over  some  songs  amongst  which  I 
thought  I  had  a  copy  of  the  one  sought  for  by 
E.  H.  D.  D.,  I  found  the  following,  which  as  it 
bears  on  the  same  subject  he  may  perhaps  like  to 
possess  a  copy  of. 

I  need  hardly  say  that  the  parody  Is  on  Moore's 
song  —  "  Those  Evening  Bells  :  " 

"  That  Income  Tax !  that  Income  Tax, 
How  every  clause  my  poor  brain  racks, 
How  dear  was  that  sweet  time  to  me, 
Ere  first  I  heard  of  Schedule  B. 

"Those  untaxed  joys  are  passed  away, 
And  many  a  heart  that  then  was  gay 
Is  sleeping  'neath  the  turf  in  packs, 
And  cares  not  for  the  Income  Tax. 

"And  so  'twill  be  when  I  am  gone, 
That '  Candid '  Peel  will  still  tax  on, 
And  other  bards  shall  sadly  ax 
*  Why  not  repeal  the  Income  Tax  ?  ' " 

R.  W.  Hackwood. 

Blood  which  will  not  wash  out  (2°'*  S.  i.  461.)  — 
Your  valuable  correspondent  Mr.  Peacock  says  : 
"  I  have  been  informed  that  the  blood  of  the 
priests  who  were  martyred  at  the  Convent  of  the 
Carmes  at  Paris  during  the  French  Revolution  is 
yet  visible  on  the  pavement.  This  is  a  fact  that 
some  of  your  correspondents  can  no  doubt  verify." 
While  at  Paiis,  last  October,  I  went  to  the  Carmes, 
and  there  saw  on  the  walls  and  floor  of  the  chapel 
those  spots  of  blood  about  which  Mr.  PEAcoc"k 
speaks.  They  look  quite  fresh  in  places,  and  there 
are  many  of  them. 

Though  the  chapel  is  private,  and  used  only,  I 
believe,  by  the  inmates  of  that  now  educational 
establishment,  sure  am  I  that  the  abbe  Cruice, 
who  so  ably  presides  over  it,  will,  with  his  usual 
courtesy,  allow  any  English  traveller  to  see  that 
oratory  and  its  walls  stained  with  the  blood  of 
more  than  eighty  churchmen,  whose  only  imputed 



[2na  s.  No  29.,  July  19.  '56. 

crime  was  their  priesthood,  and  among  whom,  if  I 
remember  well,  there  was  one  bishop.     D.  Rock. 
Newick,  Uckfield. 

Sir  Edward  Coke  (2""  S.  ii.  19.)  — The  great 
lawyer's  autograph  will,  I  presume,  be  deemed  a 
better  authority  for  the  correct  mode  of  spelling 
his  name  than  the  "  Epistle  Dedicatorie  "  cited  by 
your  correspondent  G.  N.  I  have  in  my  posses- 
sion a  case  for  counsel's  opinion  referred  to  Sir 
Edward,  who  subscribes  it  thus  : 

"  I  am  of  opinion  the 
retorne  is  good. 

Edw.  Coke." 

This  surely  is  decisive  on  the  question  at  issue. 

L.  B.  L. 

Martin  the  French  Peasant- Prophet,  8fc.  (2°"^  S. 
i.  490.)  —  The  most  authentic  and  complete  ac- 
count of  the  extraordinary  mission  of  Thomas 
Martin  to  the  French  King  Louis  XVIII.,  is  con- 
tained in  a  work,  entitled  Le  Passe  et  VAvenir, 
published  at  Paris  in  1832,  and  containing  a 
Declaration  signed  by  Martin,  that  the  events  are 
faithfully  related  in  this  book,  and  that  it  contains 
the  only  correct  account.  In  relating  Martin's 
interview  with  the  king,  the  following  is  the  ac- 
count given  of  the  point  on  which  W.  H.  particu- 
larly requests  information.     Martin  says  : 

"  Apres  cela,  je  lui  dis :  Prenez  garde  de  vous  faire 
sacrer ;  car  si  vous  le  tentiez,  vous  seriez  frappe  de  mort 
dans  la  ceremonie  du  sacre." 

Upon  this  the  editor  makes  the  following  note  : 

*•  Toutes  les  personnes  attach^es  alors  a  la  cour,  tant 
soit  peu,  au  courant  des  choses  peuvent  attester  comme 
un  fait  notoire  que  Ton  avait  dejk  fait,  par  ordre  du  roi,  de 
grands  preparatifs  pour  son  sacre,  avant  son  entrevue 
avec  Martin,  et  qu'aprfes  cette  entrevue,  le  roi  contre- 
manda  tous  ses  (ces)  preparatifs." 

This  work  not  only  gives  the  fullest  details  of 
the  extraordinary  mission  of  Martin ;  but  enters 
calmly*  into  the  proofs  of  its  supernatural  cha- 
I'acter;  and  afterwards  devotes  a  chapter  to  an- 
swering objections  against  it.  It  was  published  in 
1832 ;  and  continues  the  history  of  Martin,  and 
his  subsequent  revelations,  to  the  year  before  the 
publication.  One  very  curious  prophecy  con- 
tained in  a  note  deserves  attention  at  the  present 
time.  The  note  does  not  refer  to  Martin,  but  to 
certain  predictions  of  several  religious  persons 
wTiose  names  are  given,  and  who  all  [agreed  upon 
the  two  following  points:  1st,  That  France  was 
threatened  with  great  calamities  ;  and  2ndly,  the 
unexpected  appearance  of  a  great  monarch  who 
should  restore  order,  and  under  whose  reign  Reli- 
gion and  France  should  again  see  days  of  pros- 
perity. I  copy  this  from  a  work  which  I  have 
had  in  my  own  possession  since  1833.  Certainly 
the  present  state  of  France  verifies  this  prediction 
to  the  letter.  F.  C.  H. 

Oermination  of  Seeds  long  buried  (2"*^  S.  ii.  10.) 

—  As  one  instance,  where  plants  have  been  no- 
ticed to  grow  from  seeds  that  had  been  long 
buried,  I  may  mention,  for  the  information  of 
your  correspondent  E.  M.,  Oxford,  that  some 
years  ago  I  observed  upon  the  slopes  of  a  deep 
embankment  of  the  Ulster  Railway,  near  Lambeg, 
within  a  mile  of  the  town  of  Lisburn,  a  large 
number  of  turnip  plants  that  had  sprung  from 
seed  that  had  long  been  buried  in  a  bank  of  gravel, 
sand,  and  boulder  stones,  which  had  been  removed 
to  fill  up  a  deep  hollow  in  the  ground,  and  which 
formed  the  embankment  referred  to.  I  was 
present  when  the  navvies  were  removing  the 
gravel  bank,  and  next  year  I  saw  the  plants  grow- 
ing on  the  slopes  of  the  embankment  as  described ; 
and  again,  on  revisiting  the  place  last  year  (1855), 
I  still  observed  a  number  of  turnip  plants  growing 
at  the  same  place.  The  plants  were  of  the  true 
turnip,  having  large  expanded  leaves,  covered  on 
their  upper  surface  with  minute  speculas.  The 
roots  were  long  and  strong,  but  exhibited  no  ten- 
dency to  enlarge  into  bulb,  like  the  cultivated 
turnip.  The  turnip  being  a  rare  plant  in  that 
part  of  the  country  at  that  time,  its  appearance 
under  the  circumstances  was  regarded  by  the 
work-people  as  a  remarkable  phenomenon. 

Henry  Stephens. 

Morgan  O'Doherty  (1"  S.  x.  96.)  —  Since  none 
of  your  correspondents  have  fixed  the  identity  of 
Morgan  O'Doherty,  I  presume  I  may  still  say,  as 
I  said  before,  that  it  was  Captain  Hamilton.  No 
doubt  he  received  assistance  from  Maginn  and 
others,  as  mentioned  by  R.  P.  (P*  S.  x.  150.),  but 
that  he  was  the  originator  of  the  character  there 
can  be  no  doubt,  and  he  must  have  been  its  con- 
tinuator  also,  since  he  lived  years  after  the  with- 
drawal of  Morgan's  name  from  the  pages  of  Maga. 
North  received  assistance  in  his  Noctes  from  Lock- 
hart  and  others,  but  it  is  a  curious  thing  that 
Hogg,  the  Ettrick  Shepherd,  himself  could  never 
write  a  Noctes  that  was  acceptable  or  was  ac- 
cepted. S. 

Person  referred  to  by  Pascal  (2"^  S.  i.  412.  500.) 

—  However  ingenious  the  interpretation  of  C.  H. 
S.,  I  cannot  help  thinking  but  that  Pascal  had 
some  definite  person  in  his  view  when  he  brought 
forward  the  instance  in  question.  His  words  in 
the  original  — 

"  Qui  aurait  eu  I'amiti^  du  Roi  d'Angleterre,  du  Roi  de 
Pologne,  et  de  la  Reine  de  Sufede,  aurait-il  cru  pouvoir 
manquer  de  retraite  et  d'asile  au  monde  ? " 

may  be  well  enough  translated  of  some  person  who 
might  have  had  the  friendship  of  the  three  kingly 
powers,  but  to  his  disappointment  found  himself 
so  far  reduced  as  to  be  unable  to  obtain  evea 
common  shelter.  The  circumstances  of  the  con- 
temporary sovereigns  mentioned  were  certainly 

2nd  s.  No  29.,  July  19.  '66.] 



disastrous,  yet  it  is  difficult  to  see  what  object 
Pascal  could  have  had  in  illustrating  his  case  in 
the  enigmatical  form  alluded  to.  In  my  opinion 
the  Edinburgh  English  translator  of  1751  took 
the  plain  common  sense  view  of  the  passage,  and 
that  we  have  yet  the  historical  personage  to  dis- 
cover whom  Pascal  had  in  his  eye.  G.  N. 

PoniatowsU  Gems  (2°'i  S.  i.  471.;  ii.  19.)  — 
The  Explanatory  Catalogue  of  the  Proof-Impres- 
sions of  the  Antique  Gems  possessed  by  the  late 
Prince  Poniatowski,  and  afterwards  in  the  possession 
of  John  Tyrrell,  Esq.,  was  published,  in  4to.,  by 
Graves  and  Co.,  Pall  Mall,  in  1841.  The  volume 
is  dedicated  by  Mr.  Tyrrell  to  Prince  Albert,  and 
is  "  accompanied  with  Descriptions  and  Poetical 
Illustrations  of  the  subjects,  and  preceded  by  an 
Essay  on  Ancient  Gems  and  Gem  Engraving,  by 
James  Prendeville,  A.B.,  editor  of  Livy,  Paradise 
Lost,  &c."  There  is  also  Catalogue  des  Pierres 
Gravies  Antiques  de  S.  A,  le  Prince  Stanislas  Po- 
niatowski,  privately  printed  by  the  Prince,  at  Flo- 
rence, in  4to.,  and  upon  this  the  English  catalogue 
was  founded.  My  copy  of  the  French  catalogue 
has  no  date. 

Further  information  may  be  obtained  from  a 
pamphlet  entitled  Remarks  exposing  the  unwoi'thy 
Motives  and  fallacious  Opinions  of  the  Writer  of 
the  Critiques  on  the  Poniatowski  Collection  of  Gems, 
contained  in  "  The  British  and  Foreign  Review  " 
and  "  The  Spectator,'''  published  by  Graves  &  Co., 
and  Smith,  Elder,  &  Co.,  1842.  S.  W.  Ilix. 


Posies  on  simple  heavy  Gold  Rings  (1"  S.  xii. 
113.,  &c.)  — 

"  God  did  decree,  this  unitie." 

"  Where  hearts  agree,  there  God  will  be." 

"  I  have  obtained,  whom  God  ordained." 

Copied  from  originals.  S.  R.  P. 

Sleep  the  Friend  of  Woe  (2"-^  S.  ii.  11.).— The 
lines  which  Ertca  asks  for  are  from  Southey's 
Curse  of  Kehama,  canto  xv.,  the  city  of  Baly, 
stanza  11.     It  begins,  — 

"  Be  of  good  heart,  and  let  thj'  sleep  be  sweet." 
Laduvlad  said,  — 

"  Alas !  that  cannot  be,"  &c.  &c. 

And  then  comes 

"  Thou  hast  been  called,  0  Sleep,  the  friend  of  woe ; 
But  'tis  the  happy  who  have  called  thee  so." 

J.  C.  J.* 

Medal  of  Charles  I.  (2°^  S.  ii.  28.)  —  There  are 
several  medals  of  various  sizes  which  have  the 
head  of  Charles  I.  on  one  side,  and  that  of  his 
queen   on   the   other.     They   were   all   probably 

[*  We  are  also  indebted  to  Mr.  De  la  Pryme  and 
.  other  correspondents  for  similar  replies.] 

worn  as  badges  of  loyalty  by  his  friends  and  par- 
tisans, but  I  am  not  aware  of  any  one  of  the  va- 
rieties said  to  have  been  made  out  of  the  plate 
melted  up  for  the  king's  service.  It  is  probable 
that  none  were  made  of  such  materials,  as  melted 
plate  would  be  applied  to  money  of  necessity,  not 
to  medals  of  comparative  luxury.  Rings,  or 
rather  holes,  are  at  the  sides  and  ends  of  many  of 
these  medals,  from  whence  to  suspend  small  orna- 
ments. It  would  not  be  convenient  to  sew  upon 
a  coat  or  hat  a  medal  having  a  device  on  both 
sides ;  these  medals  were  suspended  from  a  ribbon 
or  chain.  I  have  one  with  the  silver  chain  still 
attached  to  it.  Edw.  Hawkins. 

Major- General  {?)  Thomas  Stanwix  (2"''  S.  i. 
511.)  —  This  officer  died  March  14,  1725,  Colonel 
of  the  present  12th  regiment  of  infantry.  He 
never  attained  the  rank  of  major-general,  and  was 
appointed  colonel  of  the  12th  regiment,  August  25, 
1717,  about  the  time  of  the  royal  visit  to  Cam- 
bridge. He  was  appointed  coh)nel  of  the  30th 
regiment,  previously  Willis's  Marines,  July  17, 
1737,  but  was  transferred  to  the  12th  regiment  in 
the  following  month,  as  above  stated.         G.  L.  S. 

Conservative  Club. 

"  Tantum  Ergo"  the  Eucharistic  Hymn  (2"'^  S. 
ii.  13.)  —  Will  you  kindly  allow  me  to  give  a 
somewhat  fuller  answer  to  your  correspondent 
Ein  Frager  than  you  have  done  ?  "  Tantum 
ergo  "  is  not  a  psalm  at  all,  and  could  not  have 
been  chanted  as  such  at  Rathmines.  It  is  a  hymn 
of  the  Holy  Roman  Church,  and  is  appointed  to  be 
sung  after  the  mass  on  Maundy  Thursday,  and  is 
ordinarily  used  at  Benediction  of  the  Most  Holy 
Sacrament,  and  also  in  Processions  of  the  Most 
Holy.  As  I  think  accuracy  most  important  in  all 
matters  of  this  nature,  I  trust  you  will  give  in- 
sertion to  this  communication.  Catholicus. 

Kennington,  near  Oxford. 

Bottles  filled,  8fc.  (2"<^  S.  i.  493.)— I  have 
several  times  seen  this  experiment  tried,  and,  if 
my  memory  serve  me  right,  invariably  with  the 
same  results. 

The  bottle  being  tightly  corked,  a  strong  piece 
of  sail-cloth  was  placed  as  a  cap  over  the  cork, 
and  this  was  firmly  secured  by  a  lashing  round 
the  neck.  I  do  not  remember  the  depth  to  which 
it  was  sunk,  but  on  being  drawn  up  the  bottle  was 
always  filled,  and  still  corked  ;  the  cork,  however, 
was  reversed,  the  small  end  being  uppermost. 

A.  C.  M. 


Leverets  with  a  White  Star  (P'  S.  xi.  41.  111.) 
—  I  have  always  understood  tliat  the  white  star 
in  the  forehead  indicated  the  male  sex,  the  buck 
of  the  leveret,  and  that  it  disappears  in  the  course 
of  the  first  j; ear.  Henky  Stkpheks. 



L2nd  s.  No  29.,  July  19.  '56. 

Passports  (2°*  S.  ii.  29.)  — Your  correspondent 
Scoxus's  inquiry  relatin<^  to  passports  induces  me 
to  forward  to  you  the  copy  of  a  passport  for 
Doctor  Pates,  when  sent  ambassador  to  the 
Emperor  from  Henry  VIII.  in  1540. 

It  is  preserved  in  the  Cottonian  Manuscript, 
Cali};.  B  X.  fol.  108.  b.,  and  is  entirely  in  the  hand- 
writing of  Lord  Cromwell  himself: 

"After  my  riglit  hertj'  commendacons  Thise  shalbe 
tadvertise  you  that  whereas  the  Kings  Mat'«  hath  ap- 
poineted  his  Trusty  conseiller  Mr.  Doctor  Pates  archedea- 
con  of  Lincoln  to  he  his  Grac's  ambassader  resident  with 
Themperur,  His  Highnes  sending  him  over  for  that  pur- 
pose witii  diligence  so  that  be  shall  leave  a  grete  part  of 
his  trahyn  behynd.  hath  willed  me  to  signifie  vnto  you 
his  graciouse  pleasur  and  coniaundement  that  ye  shal 
permitte  and  suffre  the  said  Doctor  Pates  to  departe  oute 
of  this  his  Grac's  Realm,  towne  and  Marches  of  Calais, 
and  to  passe  in  the  parties  of  beyond  the  see  with  his  ser- 
vaunts  money  baggs  baggages  utensils  and  necessaries  at 
his  liberie  withoute  any  maner  your  let,  serche,  trouble, 
or  interruption  to  the  contrarye.  And  further  that  ye 
shal  see  him  with  all  diligence  and  celerite  furnished  with 
convenient  passage  and  all  other  necessaries  accordingly. 
Thus  ffare  ye  right  hertely  well.  From  London  this  ix*'* 
of  Aprill  the  xxxj"»  yere  of  his  Graces  most  noble  Regne, 
"  Your  louyng  fFreend, 

"  Thoms  Crumwell." 
H.  E. 

"  The  cow  and  the  smiffers  "  (2'"^  S.  ii.  20.)  — 
The  song  in  which  allusion  is  made  to  this  sign, 
was  introduced  in  the  farce  of  The  Irishman  in 
London,  or  the  Happy  African.  The  farce  was  an 
adaptation  of  an  old  piece,  by  the  present  Mr. 
Macready's  father.  It  was  first  produced  for 
Jack  Johnstone's  benefit  at  Covent  Garden,  on 
•April  21,  1792  ;  the  elder  Macready  playing  Col- 
loony,  and  Johnstone  Murtoch  Delany.  Macready 
was  a  great  hand  at  changing  old  pieces  into  new. 
As  he  made  this  mutation  of  the  Intriguing  Foot- 
man into  the  Irishman  in  London,  so  again,  to  serve 
Johnstone,  in  May  1795,  he  adapted  Taverner's 
Artful  Husband,  and  made  of  it  a  poor  comedy 
called  The  Bank  Note.  The  adapter  played  Selby, 
and  Johnstone  Killeavy.  J.  Doean. 



Particulars  of  Price,  &c.  of  the  following  Boo'ks  to  be  sent  direct  to 
the  gentlemen  by  whom  they  are  required,  and  whose  names  and  ad- 
dresses are  given  for  that  purpose  : 

The  Art  Journal.    First  Series,  to  1818  inclusive. 

Wanted  by  WiUiam  Blood,  9.  William  Street,  Dublin. 

Tennent's  Christianity  in  Ceylon. 

Rambles  in  Cevlon.    Le  Butts. 

Hopfmeis'er's  Cevlon  and  C  intinhntal  India. 

Marshall's  Cevlon.    I  Vol.    12mo. 

Campbell's  ExcoasiONS  in  Cevlon.    2  Vols.    8V0. 

J.  Russell's  Ckvi.on  and  India.    1  Vol.     12mo. 

Forbes'  Kleven  Years  in  Cevlon.    2  Vols. 

Percival'^  Ce>lon. 

Selkirk's  Recollections  op  Ceylon. 

TJpham's  Sacred  and  Historical  Books  of  Ceylon.     3  Vols.    8vo. 

Hsbeh's  Journal. 

Wanted  by  W.  4-  B.,  9.  Ironmonger  Lane,  London. 

Small  4to.    John 

Bernard  (Richard),  Translation    op   Terence. 
Legate,  Cambridge.    l.^S. 

LiPE  op  William  Parsons.    (17no_1730  ?) 

Dean  (John).    A  Letter  from  Moscow  to  Marquis  Carhajithen. 

VoYAOE  "p  the  Nottingham  Galley.    8vo.    Lond.,  1711. 

A  Falsification  op  the  Vovaoe. 

JoHMsoN    (.Richard).    Cobsds   Eqoestris  Nottinghamiensis.      Lond.. 

Johnson  (Richard).    Additions  and   Emendations  to  the  Grammati- 
cal Commentaries.    8vo.    17S8. 

Johnson  (Richard).    Noctes  NoTTiNOHAMicffl.    8vo.    1718. 

Clay  (J.)    The  Psalm -sinofrs'  Dhliohtpul  Companion.    1720. 

Seasonable  Cons'derations  on  the  Corn  Trade.    8vo.     1754. 

HAMMo^D  (Samuel).    Yoono  English  Scholar's  Guide.    Lond.,  (1750 

Upton  (Mrs.  Catherine).    Misckllaneods  Pieces.    Loud.,  1781.    4to. 

Byron,  Hours  of  Idleness.    Ridge. 

Wanted  by  S.  F.  Creawell,  St.  Jolm's  College,  Cambridge. 

Valpy's  Delphin  Classics.    Complete. 

Collinson's  Somerset.    3  Vols. 

Savage's  Carhampton. 

Catena  AuREA.    By  Thomas  Aquinas.    8  Vols. 

Baronial  Halls.     Edited  by  S.  C.  Hall.    An  early  copy. 

Richardson's  Old    English  Mansions.    An  early  copy. 

Wanted  by  3fr.  Simms,  Bookseller,  Batli. 

fiatltei  to  €'arrtifiaiHjenti. 

We  are  compelled  to  postpone  until  next  week  many  articles  of  r/reat 
interest,  amongst  which  we  may  mention  some  Inedited  Papers  resiiecting 
the  Earl  of  Essex,  and  also  ottr  usual  Notes  on  Books. 

Paper  Mark.  In  the  article  thus  headed  in  our  last  N'o.  p.  37.  col.  i., 
is  a  most  curious  and  annoying  misprint,  by  which  the  word  "  not  "  ia 
substituted  for  "most,"  and  Chabtophylax  is  represented  as  having 
"  not "  coi-rectly  fixed  the  date  of  this  paper  mark;  whereas  X  wrote  that 
he  had  dune  so  "  most "  correctly. 

A.  A.  D.  who  asks  respecting  the  origin  of  the  air  cf  God  Save  the 
King  is  informed  that  in  the  first  edition  of  Mr.  Chappell's  vahiable  Col- 
lection of  National  Airs,  pp.  83.,  4rc-.  and  193.  he  ascribes  the  words  and 
music  without  hesitation  to  Henry  Carey,  ajid  we  have  no  reason  to  be- 
lieve that  Fubsequent  researches  have  induced  him  to  change  his  vieios  of 
their  authorship. 

Queen  Elizabeth's  Letter  to  Edmund  Plowdfn.  The  Query  on 
this  subject  forwarded  by  F.J. "B.  has  already  appeared.    Sec  2nd  S.  1.  12. 

Phosbe  Arden.  What  is  the  object  of  this  communication  f  Are  the 
MSS.  referred  to  for  sale? 

M.  The  inscription  on  the  Venetian  coin  (2nd  S.  i.  513.)  is  not  correctly 
given.  It  sliould  read  "  Vio  Premiera  La  Costanza,"  God  loill  reward 
the  Constant. 

J.  H.  M.  a  copy  of  the  alphabet  in  the  old  black  letter,  of  different 
sizes,  maybe  obtained  from  the  specimen  books  i^^sued  by  the  various  type- 
founders, and  which  may  be  found  in  Vie  counting-houses  of  any  respect-' 
able  printer. 

J.  L.  P.  Newspapers  of  a  much  older  date  than  those  possessed  by  our 
correspondent  may  be  had  ia  the  metropolis  for  a  very  trifling  sum. 

R.  W.  The  subject  of  "  Beech-trees  struck  with  lightning"  has  been 
discussed  in  our  1st  S.  vi.  129.  231.  ;  vii.  25. ;  x.  513. 

C.  W.  B.  The  celebrated  Letter  to  a  Dissenter,  noticed  in  the  second 
vol.  ofMacaulay's  History  is  reprinted  in  Somers's  Tracts,  by  Scntt.  vol. 
ix.  p.  51.,  where  it  makes  seven  closely  printed  quarto  pages,  which,  we 
fear,  wimld  be  too  long  a  document  for  our  "  Illustrations.''^  It  teas  writ- 
ten by  George  Savile,  Marquis  of  Halifax. 

3.  O.  Prison  Amusements,  by  Paul  Positive,  1797,  is  by  James  Mont- 
gomery,  ami  is  noticed  by  his  biographers  in  his  Memoirs,  vol.  i.  p.  283. 

Erratum.  —  2nd  S.  i.  491.  col.  1. 1.  43.,/or  "  Palmer  "  read  "  Martin." 

The  Index  to  First  Volume  op  Second  Series,  which  we  publish 
this  day,  has  in  compliance  with  the  wishes  of  several  su'scribers  been 
printed  m  the  same  type  as  the  General  Index  to  thb.  Twelve  Volumes. 

Index  to  the  First  Series.  As  this  is  now  publishi-d,  and  the  im- 
pression is  a  limited  one.  such  of  our  readers  as  desire  copies  woidd  do 
■well  to  intimate  their  wish  to  their  respective  booksellers  iiithout  delay. 
Our  publi-hers,  Messrs.  Bell  &  Daldv,  will  forward  copies  by  post  on 
receipt  qfa  Post  Office  Older  for  Five  Shillings. 

"Notes  and  (Queries"  is  published  at  Twon  on  Friday,  so  that  the 
Country  Booksellers  may  receive  Copies  in  that  night's  parcels,  and 
deliver  them  to  their  Subscribers  on  the  Saturday. 

"  Notes  and  Queries  "  is  also  issued  in  Monthly  Parte, /or  the  con- 
venience of  those  who  may  either  have  a  difficulty  in  procuring  the  un- 
stamped weekly  Numbers,  or  prefer  receiving  it  monthly.  While  parties 
resident  in  the  country  or  abi-oaa,  who  maybe  desirous  of  receiving  the 
weekly  Numbers,  may  have  stamted  copies  forwarded  direct  from  the 
Publisher.  The  subscription  for  the  stamped  edition  of  "  Not>s  and 
Queries  "  (including  a  very  copious  Index)  is  eleven  shillings  and  four- 
pence  for  six  months,  which  may  be  paid  by  Post  Office  Order,  drauni  m 
favour  qfthe  Publisher,  Mr.  George  Bell,  No.  186.  Fleet  Street. 

2'>'»  S.  No  30.,  Jm.r  26.  '56.  "| 



LONDON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  26,  1850. 

THE    EAHIi    OP   ESSEX   IN    1599. 

The  affectionate  interest  felt  by  the  people  of 
London  in  the  welfare  of  Robert,  Earl  of  Essex, 
was  exhibited  in  several  ways  which  were  not  at 
all  agreeable  to  Queen  Elizabeth.  Amongst  them 
it  is  known  that,  on  the  occasion  of  his  serious 
illness  iu  December  1599,  he  was  prayed  for  in 
several  of  the  city  churches,  and  that  a  concourse 
of  ministers  watched  round  what  was  believed  to 
be  his  dying  bed.  It  has  not  been  noticed,  that 
those  ministers  were  called  before  the  council  to 
answer  for  their  conduct  on  this  occasion,  nor  has 
it  been  explained  in  what  way  tlieir  public  prayers 
were  introduced  into  the  service  of  the  church. 
The  first  and  second  of  the  following  papers 
(which  have  been  kindly  placed  in  our  hands 
for  publication  by  the  gentleman  to  whom  they 
belong)  give  information  upon  these  subjects. 
They  contain  the  explanations  given  by  three  of 
these  ministers  to  the  council.  They  were  all  the 
earl's  chaplains.  Two  of  them  contented  them- 
selves with  praying  simply  for  the  earl  in  his  con- 
dition of  a  sick  man ;  the  third  added  a  prayer  for 
his  restoration  to  the  favour  of  his  sovereign. 
The  two  former  probably  escaped  censure ;  of  the 
last  it  is  shortly  recorded,  "  he  is  committed." 
Facts  like  these  tend  to  explain,  on  the  one  hand, 
how  Essex  was  led  to  commit  the  wretched  folly 
which  conducted  him  to  the  scaffold ;  and,  on  the 
other,  how  the  government  of  Elizabeth  came  to 
the  conclusion  that  nothing  but  his  blood  could 
satisfactorily  atone  for  his  wild  and  singular  es- 

The  third  paper  relates  to  the  same  earl,  but  to 
an  earlier  period  of  his  stormy  career.  It  is 
chiefly  remarkable  as  exhibiting  the  odd  position 
in  which  he  was  placed  by  the  queen's  thriftiness 
and  the  shrewdness  of  the  auditors  of  the  United 
Provinces.  Between  them,  the  earl  seems  to  have 
run  considerable  risk  of  losing  his  allowance  as 
general  of  the  queen's  forces  in  the  Low  Coun- 

30  Decemb.,  1599. 
The  forme  of  prayer  conceived  by  George  Downe- 
man,  in  the  behalfe  of  the  Earle  of  Essex,  being 
visited  w"'  sicknes,  whose  chaplen  although  the 
said  party  be,  yet  he  hath  refrayned  to  mention 
him  in  his  prayer  untill  about  a  fourtnight  since 
he  understoode  that  he  was  daungerously  sicke, 
and  then,  w^'out  mentioning  either  of  his  other 
troubles  or  his  cause,  or  w"'out  having  or  being 
at  any  extraordinary  assembly,  he  prayed  thus, 
having  in  generall  commended  the  destressed 
estate  of  the  afflicted  : 

"  And  more  specially  we  commende  unto  [thee] 
the  destressed  estate  of  the  Earle  of  Essex,  whom 
it  hath  pleased  thee  to  visit  w""  sicknesse,  beseach- 
ing  thee  to  looke  downe  upon  him  in  pity  and 
compassion,  and  in  thy  good  time  ^o  release  him 
from  his  greefe  eyther  by  restoring  him  to  his 
health  (w"**  mercy  we  doe  crave  at  thy  handes,  if 
it  may  stande  w*^  thy  glory  and  his  good  —. — ),* 
or  otherwese  by  receiving  him  to  thy  mercy,  and 
in  the  meane  season  we  beseech  thee  to  support 
and  strengthen  him  by  the  comfortable  assistance 
of  thy  gracious  Spirit,  that  he  may  meekely  and 
thankfully  beare  thy  holy  hande,  and  by  the  same 
Spirit  worke  in  him,  we  pray  thee,  thyne  owne 
good  worke  of  grace  and  sanctification,  that  when- 
soever he  shalbe  translated  out  of  this  life,  he  may 
be  received  into  thyne  everlasting  tabernacles  and 
crowned  w*""  immortality." 

By  me,  George  Downeman,  "j 
parson  of  St.  Margarets  |- Decemb,  30, 1599. 
in  Lothbury,  J 

The  Vicar  of  St.  Brides,  after  his  prayer  for 
y^  Q.  Ma*'",  giving  her  her  stile,  and  for  y*"  no- 
belity,  remembers  allso  his  honourable  Lord  j* 
Erie  of  Essex,  praying  for  his  good  health,  for  y* 
he  was  his  chaplen  this  3  or  4  yeres  past :  and 
otherwise  during  this  restraint  hath  not  inter- 
medled  w*''  any  other  publique  prayers  or  assem- 
blies in  any  chui'ch  for  him, 

[Signed,  in  the  same  hand  as  the  above.] 

Henry  Holland,  Vicar  of  St.  Brides. 


30  Decemb^  1599, 
The  answers   of  M'"  Downham,  parson  of  S' 

Margarets,  Lothberye ;  and  M''  Holland,  Vicar  of 

S*  Brids,  towching  theyr  prayers  for  the  Earle  of 


Ult'  Decemb"-,  1599. 

T,  David  Eobertes,  Bacheler  of  Dyvinitie,  in  my 
praier  for  the  churche,  her  Majestic,  and  the 
state,  used  allso  theise  or  the  like  wordes  in 
effecte  for  the  Earle  of  Essex  my  ho.  good 
Lorde  and  master,  upon  Christmas  daye  laste  f , 
in  my  pishe  churche  of  Sainct  Androes  in  the 
Wardrobe,  London : 

"  And  as  my  particuler  duetie  more  speciallie 
bindethe  me,  I  humblie  beseeche  thee,  deere 
ffather,  to  looke  mercifuUie  w*''  thy  gracious  fa- 
voure  uppon  that  noble  Barake  thy  servaunte 
the  Earle  of  Essex,  strengtheninge  him  in  the 
inwarde  man  againste  all  his  enemies.  O  Lorde, 
make  his  bedde  in  this  his  sickenes  that  soe  thy 
gracious  corrections  nowe  uppon  him  raaie  be 
easie  and  comfortable  unto  him  as  thy  fatherlie 

*  The  paragraph  is  not  completed  in  the  original, 
t  The  last  four  words  suMituted  for  others  erased. 



[2»'»  S.  N»  30.,  July  26.  '56. 

Instruccoiis,  and  in  tliy  good  tynie  restore  hiin 
unto  his  former  healthe  and  gracious  favoure  of 
his  and  our  most  dreade  Soveraigne,  to  thy  glory, 
the  good  of  this  churche  and  kingedome,  and  the 
greeffe  and  discouragemente  of  all  wicked  Edom- 
jTES  that  beare  evill  will  to  Sign,  and  sale  to  the 
v/alles  of  JjiRUSALEM,  '  There,  there,  downe  with 
it ;  downe  with  it  to  the  grounde.'  " 

(Signed)    David  Robebtes. 

[In  another  hand] 
He  is  comitted. 


29  Decemb.,  1599. 
Mr.  Roberts,  parson  of  St.  Andrewes  Wardrope, 
his  prayers  in  his  sermons  for  y*"  Earle  of  Essex. 


The  Erie  had  authoritye  by  commission,  undre 
y*  great  scale  of  Englande,  to  dispose  of  y^  trea- 
sour  secundum  sanam  discretionem  suam. 

His  discretion  was  for  his  own  enterteignment 
of  generall  of  her  Ma""  forces,  to  take  y"  same 
allowaunce  that  y*  Erie  of  Pembroke,  Generall  of 
Q.  Mai-yes  forces  at  St.  Quinctynes  had :  viz.  for 
him  selfe  and  sondry  oflicers,  about  10*  14'  by 
daye,  that  Erie  being  of  no  greater  qualitye  than 
he,  nor  his  army  of  more  numbers ;  and  y'  by 
advise  of  M"^  Secretary  Walsingham,  who  gave 
him  a  draught  of  y"  Erie  of  Pembrokes  allowaunce 
for  president. 

According  to  this  president  and  rate  he  was 
allwayes  paide ;  the  Q.  TVeasouro"",  Musterm"^  and 
Audito"^  of  y"  campe  never  fynding  fault  whyles 
he  lyved. 

The  Q.  Ma"®,  after  5  or  6  monethes  (as  I  take 
it)  of  his  being  there,  being  desirous  to  be  en- 
formed  of  y''  estate  of  her  expences,  was  accord- 
ingly advertised  by  her  officers,  and  amongest  the 
rest,  of  this  allowance  and  rate,  and  there  was  not 
then  any  fault  fownde  w"'  it. 

Mr.  Huddlestone,  her  Ma""  Treasouro"",  after 
the  leaving  of  his  office  and  before  his  deathe, 
joyning  w*"*  M"^  Audito"^  Hut,  Audito""  of  y"  campe, 
did  make  up  w*"*  y*  Erles  officers  a  perfect  reacon- 
ing  and  accompt  for  all  Lowe  Country  matters  of 
accompt  betwene  them,  and  therein  did  passe  this 
allowance  and  rate  w"'out  contradiction. 

The  same  M'  Huddlestone  passed  his  accompt 
of  Treasouro'  w"'  Audito"  appointed  by  y"  Court 
of  Excheaq"'^  of  Englande,  and  therein  passed  this 
allowance  and  rate  w"'out  scruple  and  w"'  their 
allowaunce,  and  not  as  a  matter  of  petition  but 

S"^  Tho.  Sherley  succeading  M''  Huddlestone  in 
y""  office  of  her  Ma"'''  Treasouro'',  payde  allwayes 
according  to  this  rate  and  none  other  w'^out  any 
doubt  made  thereof,  and  at  the  last  retourn  of  y'' 
Erie  to  y'^  Lowe  Countryes  finished  bis  accompt 
w*"  the  Erles  pfficers  acQordingly. 

The  estates  of  y^  Lowe  Countryes,  being  to  re- 
paye  her  Ma""'  expenses  to  her  Ma"",  desired  an 
accompt  of  y''  whole  after  one  year.  Mr.  Huddle- 
stoii,  then  Treasouro""  to  her  Ma"",  by  order  from 
Englande,  gave  them  an  accompt  of  y"  whole,  and 
therein  namely  of  this  allowance  and  rate.  They, 
in  their  censures  and  apostelles  upon  y*  accompt, 
mislyking  many  other  pointes,  allow  this  by 
speciall  wordes,  and  do  make  allowance  of  it  to 
her  Ma"%  so  her  Ma""  loseth  nothing  by  it. 

The  same  Estates  allowing  to  the  Erie  for  his 
enterteignment  of  Gouverno'  Generall  (not  of  her 
Ma""'  forces,  but)  of  their  Countryes,  10000'  by 
yeare,  saving  so  mutche  to  be  cut  of  as  her  Ma"'' 
alloweth  him  for  his  office  of  Generall  of  her 
forces  :  when  they  came  to  accompt  w"'  y"  Erie, 
did  cut  him  of  10'  14'  by  daye  after  this  rate,  be- 
cause they  sawe  her  Ma""  had  allowed  him  so 
muche.  Nowe  yf  her  Ma""  revoke  this  allowaunce 
from  y*  Erie  and  have  taken  according  to  it  of  y® 
Estates,  her  Ma""  for  y'  parte  nowe  to  be  des- 
allowed,  shalbe  double  gayner,  and  y"  Erie  shall 
lose  it  utterly ;  whereas  her  Ma""  disallowing  it 
at  y"  firste,  he  mought  have  had  it  of  y"  Estates, 
w"''  nowe,  y"  accompt  beinge  passed,  he  can  not. 

Concerning  the  Earl  of  Essex,  temp.  Qu.  FA'iz. 


In  Ulachwood's  Magazine  for  the  present  month 
TMay),  the  writer  of  an  article  entitled  "  The  Scot 
A^broad,"  quotes  Sir  Thomas  Urquhart  for  the  re- 
markable fact  that  a  gigantic  Scottish  colonel,  by 
name  Thomas  Game,  in  the  service  of  the  Mus- 
covites about  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury, had  been  formally  invited  to  occupy  the 
throne  of  Bucharia.  The  circumstance  of  itself 
is  sufficiently  singular;  but  the  Avhole  story  be- 
comes doubly  curious  and  interesting  when 
coupled  with  the  old  Cromartie  Baronet's  de- 
scription of  the  physical  and  mental  endowments 
of  this  model  man  of  war,  and  I  make  no  apology 
for  presenting  it  to  your  readers  in  extenso.  In 
enumerating  the  principal  officers  in  General 
Leslie's  Scottish  legion  in  the  Russian  service, 
there  was.  Sir  Thomas  tells  us : 

"Colonel  Thomas  Game,  who  for  the  height  and 
grosseness  of  his  person,  being  in  his  stature  taller,  and 
greater  in  his  compass  of  body,  then  any  within  six 
Icingdomes  about  him,  was  elected  King  of  Bucharia,  the 

*  This  name  furnishes  another  example  of  the  "  uncer- 
tainty of  spelling  names ; "  it  is  evidently  the  modern 
Garden,  and  older  Gardyne,  colloquially  Game,  Gairn, 
&c.  In  Burke's  Landed  Gentry,  allusion  is  made  to 
"  Colonel  Gardyne  of  the  Russian  service,"  who  was,  un- 
doubtedly, the  hero  of  Sir  Thomas's  eulogy,  and  the  ob- 
ject of  the  BucUamns' affection, 

2»<is,  No30.,  July26. '66.] 



inliabitants  of  that  country  being  more  inclined  to  tender 
tlieir  obedience  to  a  man  of  a  burly  pitch  like  him,  whose 
magnitude  being  every  way  proportionable  in  all  its  di- 
mensions, and  consisting  rather  in  bones  than  flesh,  was 
no  load  to  the  niinde,  nor  hindrance  to  the  activity  of  his 
body,  then  to  a  lower  sized  man,  because  they  would 
shun  equalitj-,  as  near  as  they  could,  with  him  of  whom 
they  should  make  choice  to  be  their  sovreigu ;  they  es- 
teeming nothing  more  disgraceful,  nor  of  greater  dispa- 
ragement to  the  reputation  of  that  state,  than  that  their 
king  should  through  disadvantage  of  stature  be  looked 
down  upon  by  any  whose  affaires  of  concernment  perhaps 
for  the  weal  of  the  crown,  might  occasion  a  mutual  con- 
ference face  to  face.  lie  had  ambassadors  sent  to  him  to 
receive  the  croA\  n,  sceptre,  sword,  and  all  the  other  roj'al 
cognizances  belonging  to  the  supreme  majesty  of  that 
nation ;  but  I  heard  him  say,  that  the  only  reason  he  re- 
fused their  splendid  offers,  and  would  not  undergo  the 
charge  of  that  regal  dignity,  Avas  because  he  had  no  sto- 
mach to  be  circumcised:  however,  this  uncircumsised 
Game,  agname  the  Sclavpnian,  and  upright  Gentile,  for 
that  he  loves  good  fellowship,  and  is  of  a  very  gentile 
conversation,  served  as  a  colonel  together  with  the  fore- 
named  live,  and  other  unmentioned  colonels  of  the  Scot- 
tish nation  in  that  service,  against  the  Crim  Tartar,  under 
the  command  of  both  his  and  their  compatriot,  Sir  Alex. 
Leslie*,  generalissimo  of  all  the  forces  of  the  whole  Em- 
pire of  Russia ;  which  charge,  the  wars  against  the  Tar- 
tarian beginning  afresh,  he  hath  re-obtained,  and  is  in 
the  plenary  enjoyment  thereof,  as  I  believe,  at  the  same 
instant  time,  and  that  with  such  approbation  for  fidelity 
and  valour  that  never  any  hath  been  more  faithfuU  in 
the  discharge  of  his  duty,  nor  of  a  better  conduct  in 
the  infinite  dangers  through  which  he  hath  past."  — 
EK2KYBAAAYP0N :  or  the  Discovert/  of  a  most  Exquisite 
Jewel,  8fc.  §'c.,  serving  in  this  Place  to  frontal  a  Vindication 
of  the  Honour  of  Scotland,  kc.  8fc.  London :  Cottrell, 
1652.— Reprinted  in  T/ie  Works  of  Sir  T.  U.,  Maitland 
Club,  4to.,  Edin.  1834. 

J.  o. 

THE    cavalier's   COMPLAINT. 

To  the  Tune  of  "  Tic  tell  thee,  Dick,"  Sfc. 

Come  Jack,  let's  drink  a  pot  of  Ale 
And  I  shall  tell  thee  such  a  Tale, 

Will  make  thine  eares  to  ring  : 
My  Coyne  is  spent,  my  time  is  lost 
And  I  this  only  fruit  can  boast 

That  once  I  saw  my  King. 

But  this  doth  most  afflict  my  mind  ; 
I  went  to  Court  in  hope  to  find, 

Some  of  my  friends  in  place  : 
And  walking  there  I  had  a  sight, 
Of  all  the  Crew,  but  by  this  light 

I  hardly  knew  one  face. 

S'  life  of  so  many  Noble  Sparkes, 
Who  on  their  Bodies  beare  the  markes 
Of  their  Integrity : 

*  This  old  general  seems  to  have  become  a  Muscovite : 
for  we  find  him  living  at  Smolensko  in  his  ninety-ninth 
year.  —  Present  State  of  Russia,  1671. 

And  suffrcd  ruine  of  Estate, 
It  was  my  base  unhappy  Fate 
That  1  not  one  could  see. 

Not  one  upon  my  life  among 
My  old  acquaintance  all  along. 

At  Truro  and  before  : 
And  I  suppose  the  place  can  shew, 
As  few  of  those  whom  thou  didst  know, 

At  Yorke  or  Marston  Moore. 

But  truly  there  are  swarmes  of  those, 
AVhosc  Chins  are  beardlesse,  yet  their  Hose 

And  backsides  still  weare  Muffes  : 
Whilst  the  old  rusty  Cavaliers 
Retires  or  dares  not  once  appeare, 

For  want  of  Coyn  and  Cufles. 

When  none  of  those  I  could  descry, 
Who  better  farre  deserv'd  then  I, 

I  calmely  did  reflect : 
Old  Servants  by  rule  of  State, 
Like  Almanacks  grow  out  of  date, 

What  then  can  I  expect  ? 

Troth  in  contempt  of  Fortunes  frowne 
rie  get  me  fairely  out  of  Towne, 

And  in  a  Cloyster  pray  : 
That  since  the  Starres  are  yet  unkind 
To  Royalists,  the  King  may  find 

More  faithfuU  Friends  then  they. 


I  marvaile  Dick,  that  having  beene 
So  long  abroad,  and  having  scene 

The  World  as  thou  hast  done  : 
Thou  shouldst  acquaint  me  with  a  Tale 
As  old  as  Nestor,  and  as  stale, 

As  that  of  Priest  and  Nunne. 

Arc  we  to  learne  what  is  a  Court  ? 
A  Pageant  made  for  Fortunes  sport,' 

Where  merits  scarce  appeare  : 
For  bashfull  merits  only  dwels 
In  Camps,  in  Villages,  and  Cels, 

Alas  it  comes  not  there. 

Desert  is  nice  in  its  addresse, 
And  merit  oft  times  doth  oppresse, 

Beyond  what  guilt  would  doe  : 
But  they  are  sure  of  their  Demands,' 
That  come  to  Court  with  Golden  hands. 

And  brazen  faces  too. 

The  King  indeed  doth  still  professe. 
To  give  his  Party  soone  Redresse, 

And  cherish  Honesty : 
But  his  good  wishes  prove  in  vaine 
Whose  service  with  his  Servants  gaine 

Not  alwayes  doth  agree. 

All  Princes  be  they  ne're  so  wise 
Are  faine  to  see  with  other  eyes, 



[2"<i  S.  No  30.,  July  26.  '66. 

But  seldome  heare  at  all : 
And  Courtiers  find  their  Interest 
In  time  to  feather  well  their  Nest, 

Providing  for  their  Fall. 

Our  comfort  doth  on  time  depend, 
Things  when  they  are  at  worst  will  mend, 

And  let  us  but  reflect 
On  our  condition  t'other  day. 
When  none  but  Tyrants  bore  the  sway, 

What  did  we  then  expect  ? 

Meanwhile  a  calme  retreat  is  best 
But  discontent  if  not  supprest. 

Will  breed  Disloyalty : 
This  is  the  constant  note  I'le  sing, 
I  have  been  faithfull  to  the  King 

And  so  shall  live  and  dye. 

No.  2641.  of  the  Collection  of  Proclamations, 
&c.,  presented  to  the  Chetham  Library,  Man- 
chester, by  James  O.  Halliwell,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 


Prince  of  Orang-e  (2"'^  S.  i.  370. ;  ii.  6.)  —  Be- 
fore writing  my  note  on  the  De  Witts,  I  had  exa- 
mined the  pamphlet  to  which  P.  H.  refers.  It  is 
not  the  sentence  of  a  real  court,  but  a  "  pasquil " 
made  up  of  the  charges  in  circulation  against  the 
brothers,  put  in  the  form  of  a  judgment.  The 
attesting  witnesses  are,  "  De  Borgery  van  de  7 
Provincien,  en  alle  Liefhebbers  en  voorstanders 
van  Gods  Kerck  en  het  lieve  Vaterlandt." 

I  do  not  think  that  any  sentence  was  passed  on 
John  De  Witt.  H.  B.  C. 

U.  U.  Club. 


"  To  be  dissected  and  anatomized." — Sentence  on  Murderers. 

"  Poor  brother  Tom  had  an  accident  this  time  twelve- 
month, and  so  clever  made  a  fellow  he  was,  that  I  could 
hot  save  him  from  those  flaying  rascals  the  surgeons,  and 
now,  poor  man,  he  is  among  the  'otomies  at  Surgeons' 
Hall."  —  Mat  of  the  Mint,  Beggar's  Opera. 

I  am  rather  at  a  loss  to  account  for  the  change 
in  the  law  which  took  place  a  few  years  ago,  by 
which  the  murderer  was  relieved  of  that  part  of 
his  sentence  which  devoted  bis  body  to  dissection, 
for  the  improvement  of  science.  I  have  been  the 
more  inclined  to  doubt  the  policy  of  this  measure 
from  the  perusal  of  several  of  the  older  volumes  of 
the  Annual  Register,  from  which  it  appears,  in  a 
great  many  instances,  that  nothing  has  been  so 
terrible,  or  made  the  most  hardened  culprit  shud- 
der, as  the  judge  pronouncing  this  part  of  the 
sentence.  Not  to  trespass  too  much  on  your  co- 
lumns, I  will  only  quote  two  cases. 

Lord  Ferrers  on  April  18,  1760,  had  sen- 
tence passed  upon  him,  by  which  he  was  to  be 
hanged  by  the  neck  till  he  was  dead,  after  which 

his  body  was  to  be  delivered  to  Surgeons'  Hall  to 
be  dissected  and  anatomized :  at  this  part  of  the 
sentence  his  lordship  cried  out,  "  God  forbid ! " 
{Annual  Register,  1760,  pp.  38.  93.) 

Dumas  the  highwayman  declared  that  he  valued 
not  death,  but  only  the  thoughts  of  being  anato- 
mized. He  was  the  favourite  of  the  ladies,  and 
while  in  prison  was  frequently  visited  by  them, 
which  gave  rise  to  the  song,  — 

"  Certain  Belles  to  Dumas. 

"  Joy  to  thee,  lovely  thief!  that  thou 
Hast  'scap'd  the  fatal  string ; 
Let  gallows  groan  with  ugly  rogues, 
Dumas  must  never  swing,"  &c. 

This  was  made  upon  one  of  his  acquittals.  {An- 
nual Register,  1761,  pp.  51.  88.) 

I  am  not  for  showing  leniency  to  murderers,  and 
would  ask  why  the  former  sentence  should  not  be 
re-enacted  ?  a. 


(P'  S.  xii.  424.) 

I  transmit  the  following  epitaph  for  insertion 
in  "N.  &  Q.,"  where  I  wonder  that  it  has  not 
hitherto  appeared.  I  copied  it  from  an  inscription 
on  a  tombstone  in  the  churchyard  of  Winchester 
Cathedral,  and  a  military  friend  then  quartered 
there  informed  me  that  a  statement  once  appeared 
in  Frasers  Magazine  to  the  effect  that  the  qua- 
train commencing  "  Here  sleeps  in  peace,"  was 
written  by  Dr.  Benjamin  Hoadley,  sometime 
Bishop  of  Winchester.  Now,  as  Bishop  Hoadley 
died  April  17,  1761,  it  is  plain  that  he  could  not 
have  written  an  epitaph  on  a  person  who  survived 
him  more  than  three  years. 

I  have  divided  the  lines  exactly  as  they  appear 
on  the  tombstone,  and  beg  to  direct  your  attention 
to  the  ambiguity  of  "  when  hot,"  "which  might 
apply  to  the  "  beer  "  or  to  its  victim  ;  also  to  the 
disembodiment  of  the  North  Hants  Militia  iu 
April,  1802,  being  assignable  (owing  to  the  ob- 
scure language)  to  the  destruction  of  the  "  ori- 
ginal stone,"  and  not  to  the  peace  of  Amiens, 
which  was  ratified  in  March,  1802.  The  inference 
drawn  by  the  poet  that  the  grenadier  was  killed 
by  the  smallness  of  the  beer,  and  not  by  its  want 
of  caloric,  is  as  original  as  it  is,  doubtless,  correct. 

"  In  memory  of 
a  Grenadier  in  the  North  Regiment 
of  Hants  Militia,  who  died  of  a 
violent  fever  contracted  by  drinking 
small  beer  when  hot  the  12th  of  May, 

1764,  aged  26  years. 
In  grateful  remembrance  of  whose  universal 
good-will  towards  his  Comrades  this  Stone 
is  placed  here  at  their  expense  as  a  small 
testimony  of  their  regard  and  concern. 

2'>d  S.  No  30.,  July  26,  '56.] 



Here  sleeps  in  peace  a  Hampshire  Grenadier, 
Wlio  caught  his  death  by  drinking  cold  small  beer. 
Soldiers,  be  wise  from  his  untimely  fall, 
And,  when  ye  're  hot,  drink  strong,  or  none  at  all. 

This  Memorial  being  decayed  was  restor'd 
by  the  Officers  of  the  Garrison,  a.d.  1781. 
An  honest  soldier  never  is  forgot, 
Whether  he  die  by  musket  or  by  pot. 
This  Stone  ivas  placed  by  the  North  Hants 
Militia  when  disembodied  at  Winchester 
on  2Qth  April,  1802,  in  consequence  of 
the  original  Stone  being  destroyed." 

I  also  send  a  transcript  of  an  epitaph  in  the 
aisle  of  the  cathedral.  It  is  engraved  on  a  black- 
ened piece  of  copper,  and  is  affixed  to  one  of  the 
pillars  in  the  vicinity  of  Bishop  Iloadley's  tomb. 
The  lines  in  this  epitaph  are  divided,  and  the 
capital  letters  allotted  exactly  as  in  the  original 
inscription,  to  the  spelling  of  which  I  have  care- 
fully adhered. 


For  the  renowned  Martialist  Richard  Boles  of  y" 
Right  Worshypfull  family  of  the  Bollcs,  in 
Linckhorne  Sheire :  Colonell  of  a  Ridgment  of  Foot 
of  1300.  who  for  his  Gratious  King  Charles  y"  First 
did  Wounders  at  the  Battell  of  Edge  Hill,  his  last 
Action ;  to  omit  all  Others  was  att  Alton  in  the 
County  of  Southampton,  was  surprised  by  five  or 
Six  Thousand  of  the  Rebells,  who  caught  him  there 
Quartered  to  liy  to  the  Church,  with  neare  fourescore 
of  his  men  who  there  fought  them  six  or  seven 
Houers,  and  then  the  Rebells  breaking  in  upon  them 
he  Slew  with  his  Sword  six  or  seven  of  them  and 
then  was  Slayne  himselfe,  with  sixty  of  his  men  aboute 

His  Gratious  Sovereign  hearing  of  his  death,  gave 
him  his  high  Coriiendation  in  y  pationate  expression. 
Bring  me  a  Moorning  Scarfie,  i  have  Lost 
one  of  the  best  Commanders  in  this  Kingdome. 
Alton  will  tell  you  of  that  famous  tight 
which  y»  man  made  and  bade  the  World  good  Night 
His  verteous  Life  fear'd  not  mortality 
His  body  must  ms  Vertues  cannot  Die. 
Because  his  Bloud  was  there  so  nobly  spent, 
This  is  his  Tomb,  that  Church  his  Monument. 

Ricardus  Boles  in  Art.  Mag. 

Composuit,  Posuitque,  Dolens. 
An.  Dm.  1689." 

This  Richard  Boles  is  plainly  identical  with  the 
"Ri.  Boles,  M'  Art,  1689,"  mentioned  in  "N.  & 
Q.,"  2'"'  S.  i.  429.,  who  died  Rector  of  Whitnash 
Church,  Warwickshire,  subsequently  to  1689,  in 
which  year  he  completed  his  eighty-fourth  year. 

G.  L.  S. 

Conservative  Club. 

'■'■  Blaimi-sheres.'^  —  This   singular  specimen   of 
orthography  is  given  by  Mr.  Froude  :  — 

"  They  found  the  Great  Quadrant "  (of  New  College, 
Oxford)  "  full  of  the  leaves  of  Duns  (Scotus),  the  wind 

blowing  them  into  every  corner ;  and  one  Mr.  Greastfield, 
a  gentleman  of  Bucks,  gathering  up  part  of  the  same 
book  leaves,  as  he  said,  to  make  him  sewers  or  blawn- 
sheres,  to  keep  the  deer  within  his  wood,  thereby  to  have 
the  better  cry  of  his  hounds."  —  From  a  Letter  to  Crom- 
well contained  in  "The  Suppression  of  Monasteries" 
(p.  71.),  Froude's  History  of  England,  vol.  ii.  p.  418, 

It  should  have  been  written  blaunsh-eres ;  as  the 
word  is  no  other  than  the  blanchers,  or  blenchars, 
of  Sidney  and  Elyot,  "  to  keep  off  deer,  to  feare 
birds,"  quoted  in  Richardson's  Dictioriary,  sub. 
vv.,  Blanch  and  Blench.    But  what  are  sewers  f 



Haddon  Hall,  SfC.  —  In  Thornbury's  Shak- 
speare's  England  occur  the  following  errors.  In 
the  first  volume,  p.  73,,  he  says  : 

"Amongst  other  noble  Tudor  erections  we  may  also 
mention,  for  the  very  names  call  up  a  thousand  associa- 
tions, Haddon  Hall,  Derbyshire  (in  ruins).  .  .  South 
Wingfield,  Derb5''shire,  dilapidated." 

And  at  p,  81, : 

"  The  following  are  a  few  of  the  palatial  houses  finished 
before  1600,  .  .  .  Hardwicke,  Derby,  Countess  of 
Shrewsbury's,  in  ruins." 

Haddon  Hall  is  nearly  unfurnished,  but  is  not  in 
ruins.  It  was  built  at  different  periods,  which  are 
traced  back  to  the  time  of  Stephen,  if  not  to  that 
of  the  Conqueror.  Part  of  it,  the  long  gallery, 
was  added  about  the  time  of  Elizabeth.  South 
Wingfield  Manor  is  a  complete  an^  very  beautiful 

Hardwick  Hall,  which  was  built  by  "  Bess  of 
Hardwick,"  is  in  a  perfectly  habitable  state,  and 
contains  a  great  number  of  pictures  of  celebrated 
members  of  the  family. 

The  old  hall  in  which  the  countess  was  born  is 
a  complete  ruin,  very  near  to  the  present  building. 



John  Till  AllingJiam,  the  dramatic  writer,  is 
allowed  a  niche  in  Mr.  Charles  Knight's  Cyclo- 
pcedia  of  Biography  now  issuing.  But  the  editor 
says  he  is  unacquainted  with  the  time  and  place 
of  his  death.  Mr.  Cromwell,  in  his  Walks  through 
Islington,  says  he  died  at  his  father's  house,  Cole- 
brooke  Terrace,  February  28,  1812;  while  The 
Examiner  newspaper,  and  another  periodical  I 
have  referred  to,  give  the  date  as  March  8,  1812. 
He  was  buried  at  Bunhill  Fields. 

Many  of  these  notices  are  founded  on  those  in 
the  Penny  Cyclopcedia,  the  errors  of  omission  and 
commission  of  which  I  hope  will  be  rectified. 
Books  of  fact  and  reference  never  can  be  too 
exact,  and  I  have  found  several  errors  of  date  and 
place  therein.  For  instance,  the  date  of  Wolfe's 
birth  is  wrong ;  and  Lord  Wellesley  died  at 
Kingston  House,  Knightsbridge,  not  the  Kingston 
House  there  stated.  H.  G.  D. 



i2nd  s.  N»  30.,  July  26.  '6^. 

Parish  Registers. — The  necessity  of  having  all 
the  parish  registers  transcribed  and  jirinted  is 
univei'sally  admitted,  and  several  communications 
have  been  made  to  you  on  the  subject ;  but  lat- 
terly the  matter  appears  to  have  dropped.  Many 
clergymen  would  doubtless  assist  all  in  their 
power,  but  I  think  it  would  be  an  undertaking 
too  gigantic  for  private  enterprise  ;  and  from  its 
national  importance,  should  be  done  at  government 

If  some  of  your  readers  were  to  bring  the  mat- 
ter before  Parliament,  there  is  no  doubt  it  would 
be  sanctioned  at  once.  The  affair  must  not  again 
be  allowed  to  sleep ;  as  from  the  state  of  many  of 
the  registers,  every  week  is  of  importance. 

I  will  not  presume  to  sketch  any  plan  for  car- 
rying this  into  effect,  as  many  of  your  correspon- 
dents are  far  better  versed  in  such  matters  than  I 
am.  I  only  wish  to  urge  the  immediate  necessity 
of  having  it  done  in  some  way.  W. 


"  The  Pale"  North  Malvern. — Near  to  Cowley 
Park,  on  the  road  to  Leigh  Sinton,  there  is 
a  picturesque  gabled  house,  bearing  the  date 
"mdcxxxi."  This  house  is  called  "The  Pale," 
and  is  so  marked  in  the  Ordnance  Map ;  but  I  do 
not  find  any  mention  of  it  in  the  county  or  local 
histories.  Future  writers,  however,  may  be  in- 
duced to  notice  it,  and  may  possibly  be  led  into 
error  in  explaining  its  etymology.  I  have  acci- 
dentally been  put  into  possession  of  the  correct 
origin  of  the  word,  and  I  will  therefore  here  make 
a  Note  of  it.  The  house  was  built  in  1631  by  one 
who  had  acquired  a  large  fortune  as  a  baker.  He 
was  not  ashamed  of  the  trade,  by  the  profits  of 
which  he  had  become  a  "  prosperous  gentleman," 
and  he  therefore  resolved  to  call  his  newly-built 
residence  by  a  name  that  should  remind  him  and 
others  of  his  former  occupation.  The  name  he 
selected  was  "  The  Pale,"  which  is  the  title  given 
to  the  long  wooden  shovel  on  which  the  bread  Is 
placed  in  order  to  be  pushed  into  the  oven. 


Curious  Epigram.  —  Referring  to  Wm.  M. 
W.'s  inquiry  after  the  author  of  the  epigram, 
"  Blessed  be  the  Sabbath"  ("  N.  &  Q,.,"  P'  S.  vi. 
507.),  I  beg  to  send  you  the  following  quotation 
from  a  singular  book.  Small's  Roman  Antiquities, 
Edinburgh,  1823,  App.  p.  5.,  verbatim,  in  the 
author's  slovenly  style : 

"  Another  curious  anecdote  is  told  of  Ci'omwell  when 
lying  about  Perth,  when  one  of  the  principal  contractors 
for  his  army,  of  the  name  of  Monday  or  Mundy,  by  his 
affairs  becoming  embarrassed,  had  committed  the  rash 
act  of  suicide  by  hanging  himself.  Cromwell,  it  seems, 
had  offered  a  premium  to  any  one  that  would  make  the 
most  appropriate  lines  of  poetry  on  the  occasion,  however 
short  or  sententious.  Many  elaborate  poetical  essays,  it 
is  said,  were  given  in  by  the  various  competitors  on  the 
subject;  but,  amongst  others,  u  tailor,  who  lived  at  Kin- 

fauns,  is  said  to  have  started  as  a  competitor;  but  unfor- 
tunately, his  wife,  when  she  understood  that  he  was  one, 
and  learned  also  that  he  was  about  to  set  out  for  the 
trial,  thought  it  so  ridiculous  in  him  to  appear,  that  she 
locked  up  his  clothes,  and  would  not  allow  him  a  clean 
shirt  to  appear  decent  in.  However,  it  seems  the  tailor 
had  either  found  means  to  procure  a  clean  shirt,  or  had 
gone  wanting  one,  and  delivered  in  his  essay  with  the 
rest,  consisting  only  of  four  simple  lines,  but  which  is  said 
to  have  carried  oft"  the  prize. 

" '  Bless'd  be  the  Sunday, 
Cursed  be  worldly  "pelf ; 
Tuesday  now  begins  the  week, 
Tor  Monday  has  hang'd  himself.' 

This  shows  that  Oliver,  with  all  his  apparent  morosity, 
had  not  been  insensible  to  humour." 


"  Pence  a  piece"  for  a  penny  a  piece.  —  Query, 
as  to  the  antiquity  and  locality  of  this  mode  of 
expression.  Has  any  notice  of  it  appeared  in 
"  N.  &  Q."  ?  As  a  market-phrase  it  was  formerly 
employed  in  Herefordshire,  but  seems  falling  into 
disuse.  An  anecdote  may  serve  to  illustrate  its 

In  the  parish  of  Llangarron,  near  Ross,  in  the 
above  county,  some  years  ago,  a  farmer's  wife  re- 
sided whose  name  was  Wood.  She  had,  upon  one 
occasion,  a  flock  of  six  geese  and  a  gander,  the 
former  in  very  good  order.  One  morning  the 
geese  were  observed  to  be  missing  ;  and  the  soli* 
tary  gander  made  his  appearance,  with  a  label 
tied  round  his  neck  containing  a  sixpence,  and  the 
following  lines  :  — 

"  Mrs.  Wood,  your  geese  are  good, 
And  we,  your  neighbours  j'onder, 
Have  bought  these  geese  at  pence  a  piece, 
And  sent  it  by  the  gander." 

The  word  yonder,  pronounced,  as  it  commonly 
is  in  the  country,  yander,  produces  the  legitimate 
rhyme.  W.  (1.) 



I  purpose,  in  the  ensuing  autumn  (Nov.  1.) 
to  commence  the  publication,  in  eight  monthly 
volumes,  of  a  new  and  revised  edition  of  the 
Letters  of  Horace  Walpole,  of  which  Mr.  Peter 
Cunningham  has  accepted  the  editorship  —  a 
guarantee  that  the  edition  will  be  carefully  edited. 
I  am  the  proprietor  of  all  the  published  letters  of 
Walpole,  and  shall  be  able  to  give  additional  value 
to  this  new  edition  from  my  own  unpublished  col- 
lection, as  well  as  the  contributions  of  friends. 
But,  being  extremely  desirous  to  render  the  edi- 
tion as  complete  as  possible,  I  venture  to  hope  for 
the  aid  of  those  who  may  possess  unpublished  let- 
ters or  papers  of  Walpole  :  for  the  use  of  which 
contributions,  due  acknowledgment  will  be  made. 
The  work  will  be  published  in  8vo.,  with  very 

2n'J  S.  No  30.,  July  20.  '50.] 



numerous  portraits  and  other  illustrations,  and 
printed  with  elegance.  IIiciiaud  Bentlev. 

8,  New  Burlington  Street,  July  18. 


In  his  Friendly  Debate  (part  ii.  p.  227.,  ed.  6. 
8vo.,  London  1684)  Bishop  Patrick  makes  use  of 
the  following  statement : 

"  I  remember  in  the  beginning  of  the  late  wars  the 
Scottish  Forms  of  Prayer  were  printed.  And  so  were  the 
French,  and  those  of  Geneva,  and  Guernsea,  and  the 
Dutch,  to  name  no  more ;  all  translated  into  English." 

I  beg  to  solicit  the  assistance  of  those  readers  of 
"  N.  &  Q."  who  have  made  the  obscure  subject  of 
foreign  liturgical  formularies  their  special  study, 
towards  verifying  the  accuracy  of  his  remarks. 

1.  There  is  no  difficulty  in  identifying  the 
"  Scottish  Forms  "  first  referred  to  with  the  fol- 
lowing publication  : 

"  The  Service,  Discipline,  and  Forme  of  the  Common 
Prayers,  and  Administration  of  the  Sacraments,  used  in 
the  English  Church  of  Geneva ;  as  it  was  approved  by 
that  most  reverend  Divine,  M.  John  Calvin,  and  the 
Church  of  Scotland.  Humbly  presented  to  the  most  High 
Court  of  Parliament,  this  present  yeare,  1641.  London : 
printed  for  William  Cooke,  at  Furnefalls,  June,  1641." 

The  same  compilation  was  reprinted,  with  a 
slightly  different  title,  in  1643  ;  and  a  third  time 
in  The  Phceuix,  vol.  ii,  pp.  204—259. 

It  is  mainly  identical  with  the  form  generally 
known  as  the  book  of  Common  Order  adapted  by 
Knox,  Whittingham,  Parry,  and  Lever,  from  the 
Genevan  model  of  Calvin,  with  the  addition  of 
"  some  part  taken  forth  of  the  English  book 
(Church  of  England  Book  of  Common  Prayer), 
and  other  things  put  in  as  the  state  of  the  church 
required."  (Troubles  at  Frankfort,  in  The  Phoe- 
nix,  vol.  ii.  p.  71.)  It  was  printed  at  Geneva, 
with  a  preface  dated  Feb.  10,  1556,  and  seems  to 
have  been  carried  back  by  Knox  to  Scotland, 
where  an  act  of  the  General  Assembly  ordered  it 
to  be  universally  adopted,  in  December,  1562. 

2.  I  cannot,  however,  meet  with  an  English 
translation  of  the  French  ritual  within  thirty  years 
after  the  date  of  Patrick's  work.  In  the  Lambeth 
I.<ibrary  is  a  small  octavo  volume,  printed  in 
London  in  1699,  entitled  Forms  of  Prayer  used  in 
the  Reformed  Churches  in  France  before  their  Per- 
secution and  Destruction^  translated  into  English 
by  J.  T.  It  is  true  that  the  Booh  of  Discipline  of 
the  Jteformed  Cliurches  of  France  was  put  forth  in 
English  in  1642  ;  but  this  includes  only  certain 
special  offices,  viz.  those  for  baptism,  burial,  and 
excommunication.  Is  any  translation  of  the  whole 
liturgy  extant  prior  to  that  I  have  referred  to  ? 

3.  An  ICnglish  version  of  Calvin's  Genevan 
Order  was  in  existence  as  early  as  the  year  1554. 
(Troubles,  ^-c,  p.  63. ;  M'^Crie's  Life  of  Knox, 
p.  425.)     Another  was   printed    in   London  by 

AValdegrave  in  1584,  which  being  prohibited  by 
order  of  the  Star  Chamber  in  June,  1G85,  was  re- 
printed by  Ptichard  Schilders  at  Middleburgh  in 
Zealand,  in  1586.  A  third  edition  was  issued  in 
1587,  and  a  fourth  in  1602.  This  book  was  pre- 
sented by  the  Puritan  party  to  Parliament  in  1584, 
with  the  view  of  securing  that  legal  confirmation 
for  it  in  England  which  Knox's  Liturgy  (almost 
identical  with  it)  had  already  obtained  in  Scot- 
land. The  variations  of  these  several  editions  are 
clearly  exhibited  in  vols.  i.  and  iii.  of  Reliquice  Li- 
tm-giccE,  by  the  Rev.  Peter  Hall,  M.A.,  and  I  have 
no  further  inquiry  to  institute  under  this  head. 

4.  With  respect  to  the  forms  used  by  the  re- 
formed congregations  of  Guernsey,  I  am  at  a  loss 
to  supply  the  author's  reference,  unless  he  may  be 
held  to  allude  to  — 

"  The  Order  for  Ecclesiastical  Discipline,  according  to 
that  Avhich  hath  been  practised  since  the  Reformation-  of 
the  Church  in  His  Majesty's  Dominions  of  the  Isles  of 
Garnsey,  Gersey,  Spark,  and  Alderney ;  confirmed  b}'  the 
authoritie  of  the  Synode  of  the  aforesaid  lies," 

which  was  drawn  up  in  a  conclave  of  the  ministers 
and  elders  of  the  several  reformed  churches  of  the 
Channel  Islands,  held  at  the  town  of  St.  Peter's 
Port  in  Guernsey,  June  28,  1576.  A  later  im- 
pression of  the  same  book  appeared  in  1642,  the 
precise  date  to  which  Patrick's  remarks  are  calcu- 
lated to  apply.  I  am  at  the  same  time  anxious  to 
have  the  query  resolved,  whether  any  specific  pub- 
lication of  the  Liturgy,  properly  so  called,  in  an 
English  dress  has  ever  taken  place.  The  Book  of 
Discipline  does  not  itself  comprise  the  entire 
ritual,  but  merely  the  special  forms  of  service  for 
the  ordination  of  elders  and  deacons. 

4.  Has  any  English  version  of  the  Dutch  Li- 
turgy ever  appeared  ?  The  form  drawn  up,  ori- 
ginally in  Latin,  by  Alasco  for  the  use  of  the 
Dutch  church  in  Austin  Friars,  was  translated 
into  Dutch  by  Martin  Mikronius  in  1550,  and  re- 
printed in  1560  into  German  by  J.  Mayer,  8vo. 
Heid.  1565,  and  into  French  by  Giles  Clematius, 
8vo.,  1556,  n.p.  But  I  have  not  succeeded  in 
finding  any  trace  of  an  English  translation.* 

Any  information  calculated  to  elucidate  these 
questions,  as  well  as  the  further  point,  what  other 
foreign  Forms  of  Prayer  the  author  may  be  sup- 
posed to  indicate,  will  be  most  acceptable  to  the 
present  querist.  A.  Taylor,  M.A- 

"  Antiq^iity,  a  Farce."  —  Can  you  inform  me 
who  is  tlie  author  of  Antiquity,  a  farce,  in  two 
acts,  1808.  It  is  said  to  have  been  written  by  a 
gentleman  of  the  Inner  Temple.  R.  J. 

[*  Two  interesting  articles  on  Alasco's  Liturgy  will  be 
found  in  Tlie  Britisli  Magazine,  vol.  xv.  p.  612. ;  vol.  xvi. 
p.  127.  — Ed.] 



[2nd  s.  No  30.,  July  26.  '56. 

Ancient  British  Saints.  —  In  Sismondi's  Fall  of 
the  Roman  Umpire  (vol.  i.  ch.  vli.,  English  trans.), 
he  says : 

"  So  long  as  tlie  British  heroes,  such  as  Hoel,  Alain, 
Judicael  (to  whom  several  churches  were  dedicated),  re- 
tained the  vigour  of  youth  or  manhood,  they  knew  no 
other  passion  than  that  for  war  ....  but  when  their 
ferocity  was  tamed  by  age,  and  began  to  give  place  to  the 
terrors  of  a  future  judgment,  they  shut  themselves  up  in 
convents,  and  lived  a  life  of  the  severest  penance." 

This  chapter  is  from  a.d.  412  to  453.  Do  any 
of  these  churches  still  exist  ?  or  what  traditions 
are  there  of  churches  dedicated  to  these  ancient 
saints  of  Britain  ?  E.  E.  Byng. 

Masters  of  Arts  ranking  as  Esquires. — Can  any 
of  your  readers  inform  me  of  any  authority  for 
Masters  of  Arts  of  the  Universities  of  Oxford  and 
Cambridge  being  entitled  to  rank  as  esquires  ? 

M.A.  (Oxon). 

Archibald  Steele.  —  Can  you  give  me  any  in- 
formation regarding  Archibald  Steele,  author  of 
The  Shepherd's  Weddings  a  pastoral  comedy,  pub- 
lished in  Scotland  in  1789  ?  R.  J. 

"  The  Vine"  a  Parable. — A  copy  of  the  beauti- 
ful parable  called  "  The  Vine,"  and  commencing 
thus,  "  On  the  day  of  their  creation,  the  trees 
boasted  one  to  another,"  &c.,  is  much  desired. 

It  was  published  in  an  old  number  of  The 
Talisman.  Is  this  monthly  periodical  still  con- 
tinued ?  Anitrebor. 


David  Morrison,  —  There  was  a  volume  of 
poetry,  published  at  Montrose  in  1790,  by  David 
Morrison.  Is  anything  known  regarding  the 
author  ?  R.  J. 

Boxing-Day.  —  The  term  boxing-day  is  used 
both  in  the  theatres  and  in  courts  of  law.  What 
is  the  meaning  of  it  in  each  case  ?  S. 

Sir  John  Cope.  —  Wanted,  particulars  of  the 
family  descent,  marriage,  life,  professional  ser- 
vices, death,  burial-place,  and  descendants  of  Sir 
John  Cope,  who  commanded  the  royal  troops  in 
1745  at  Preston  Pans.  Any  references  to  pub- 
lished or  accessible  unpublished  information  will 
be  acceptable.  James  Knowles. 

"  Hey,  Johnnie  Cope"  Sfc.  —  Who  was  the 
author  of  "  Hey,  Johnnie  Cope  are  ye  wakin  yet  ?  " 
And  whose  music  is  that  quaint  stirring  air  ?  Dr. 
RiMBAULT  could,  uo  doubt,  oblige  me  with  an 
answer  to  the  latter  Query.         James  Knowles. 

Human  Leather.,  &fc.  —  I  have  somewhere  heard 
or  read  of  two  or  three  human  skins  having  been 
prepared  and  tanned  like  leather,  and  of  a  pair  of 
shoes  or  boots  having  been  made  of  such  leather. 
I  think  also  there  was  mention  made  of  another 

dressed  as  parchment.     No  doubt  they  form  part 
of  the  contents  of  some  museum. 

Can  any  of  your  readers  give  me  any  informa- 
tion respecting  them  ?  R.  W.  Hackwood. 

"  The  Dissenters  Dissected."  —  Some  twenty 
years  ago,  a  poem  of  eighteen  stanzas  was  sent  to 
me  by  a  friend,  since  deceased,  called  The  Dis- 
senters Dissected,  by  a  Lay  Dissector,  to  which 
ten  other  stanzas  were  added.  Has  it  ever  been 
printed  ? 

The  first  stanza  is  — 

"  The  noblest  tree  of  forest  growth, 
And  meanest  shrub,  engender  both 

Within  their  vital  juices. 
The  germs  of  that,  which  soon  or  late 
Their  own  decay  accelerate. 

Or  earlier  abuses." 

One  of  the  added  stanzas  (the  26th)  is  — 

"  No  church  rate — that  must  never  be, 
For  all  religion  shall  be  free ; 

And  surely  it  is  hard 
That  we,  who  know  the  letter  way 
To  Heaven,  for  their  church  path  should  pay, 

But  give  us  their  church  yard  ! ! " 

Wm.  Collyns,  M.R.C.S. 
Chudleigh,  Devon. 

Dismissal  of  Non- Communicants, — In  Cleaver's 
edition  of  Bishop  Wilson  On  the  Lord's  Supper 
(London,  1851),  there  is  a  note  on  the  subject  of 
the  dismissal  of  non-communicants.  It  is  there 
stated  that  the  benefits  arising  from  the  opposite 
practice  have  not  escaped  the  notice  of  some  of 
our  most  eminent  divines ;  and  it  is  added,  "  See 
Bp.  Jebb's  Practical  Theology." 

Can  any  of  your  correspondents  supply  the 
passage  alluded  to  in  Bishop  Jebb's  book  ? 

This  edition  of  Bishop  Wilson's  woi'k  was,  I 
believe,  prepared  by  the  late  Rev.  W.  Wright, 
A.M.,  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin;  the  "Notes, 
historical  and  explanatory,"  which  accompany  it 
are  full  of  curious  research,  but  they  occupy  a 
somewhat  disproportionate  space  in  a  devotional 

The  note  which  suggests  my  Query  occurs  at 
p.  169,  There  ai'e  some  more  remarks  on  the 
same  subject  at  p.  255,  A.  A.  D. 

P.S.  What  is  supposed  to  be  the  proper  posture 
for  the  people  during  the  comfortable  words,  the 
Sursum  corda  and  the  Sanctus  ?  I  have  heard 
very  contradictory  opinions  on  the  subject,  and 
indeed  it  is  one  by  no  means  free  from  difficulty, 
owing  to  the  transpositions  which  have  been  made 
in  the  Liturgy. 

Prologues  and  Epilogues  to  the  Westminster 
Plays.  —  Has  there  ever  been  published  a  Collec- 
tion of  the  Prologues  and  Epilogues  to  the  West- 
minster Plays  ?     If  so,  where  ?       C.  J.  Douglas. 

2"*  S.  No  30.,  July  26.  '56.] 



Satellite. — What  is  considered  to  be  the  de- 
rivation of  the  word  satelles,  a  satellite  ?    A.  A.  D, 

Varnishing  Old  Boohs.  —  I  should  feel  greatly 
indebted  to  any  reader  of  "  N.  &  Q."  who  has  had 
practical  experience  on  the  subject,  for  informa- 
tion as  to  the  advantages  and  disadvantages  (if 
any)  of  varnishing  old  books.  That  the  appear- 
ance of  volumes  thus  treated  is  for  a  time  im- 
proved, will  be  generally  admitted ;  but  the  really 
important  question  is,  are  bindings  thereby  pre- 
served, and  is  commencing  decay  arrested  ? 

The  former  series  of  "N.  &  Q."  contains  some 
receipts  for  book  varnishes ;  but  the  questions  I 
have  ventured  to  propose  have  not,  as  far  as  I 
remember,  yet  met  with  consideration  in  your 
pages.  The  subject  is  one  of  daily  increasing 
importance ;  and  if  fully  treated  by  those  com- 
petent to  do  so,  will,  I  am  sure,  prove  valuable 
and  interesting  to  a  large  number  of  your  readers. 
The  rapid  deterioration  of  bindings  iu  some  Lon- 
don libraries  has  been  the  subject  of  frequent 
and  anxious  remark.  And  the  more  general  use 
of  gas  in  dwelling-houses  is  already  committing 
sad  havoc  on  many  private  collections.        W.'  M. 

Finsbury  Place. 

The  Coitntry  Parson's  Honest  Advice.  —  I  should 
be  glad  to  know   the  author  of  the  following 

verses :  — 

"  The  Country  Farsou's  Honest  Advice  to  that  Jicdieious 
Lawyer  and  Worthy  Minister  of  State — My  Lord 

"  Be  wise  as  Somerset,  as  Soiiier's  brave, 
As  Pembroke  aiiy,  and  as  Richmond  grave, 
Humble  as  Oxford  [Orford?]  be,  and  Wharton's  zeal, 
For  Church  and  Loyalty,  would  fitt  thee  well ; 
Like  Sarum  I  would  have  thee  love  the  Church, 
He  Scorns  to  leave  his  Mother  in  the  Lurch. 
For  the  well  governing  your  family. 
Let  pious  Haversham  thy  pattern  be : 
And  if  it  be  thy  fate  again  to  marry, 

And  S—  y r's  daughter  -^ill  thy  year  out  tarry, 

May'st  thou  use  her  as  Mohun  did  his'  tender  wife, 
And  may  she  lead  his  virtuous  Lady's  life. 
To  Summ  up  all :  Devonshire's  chastity, 
Bolton's  meritt,  Godolphin's  probity, 
Halifax  his  modesty,  Essex's  sense, 
Montague's  management,  Culpepper's  pence ; 
Tenison's  learning,  and  Southampton's  wit. 
Will  make  thee  for  an  able  statesman  fit." 

I  want  to  know  the  author  and  the  person  to 
whom  it  is  addressed  ?  *  I  find  it  in  a  MS.  {circa 
1690  or  1700),  containing  an  account  of  the  feasts 
and  fasts  of  the  Church,  history  of  the  black- 
letter  Saints  in  our  Calendar,  and  an  exposition 
of  the  Church  Catechism.  J.  C.  J. 

Hospital  Oui'Patients.  —  The  governors  of  an 
hospital  established  in  a  town  containing  31,000 

[*  We  have  before  us  a  printed  copj'  of  these  lines,  as 
a  small  folio  broadside,  circa  1733-4.  Thej'  are  addressed, 
we  have  not  the  least  doubt,  to  Lord  Chancellor  Talbot, 
who  received  the  Great  Seal  Nov.  29, 1733.— Ed.] 

inhabitants,  and  embracing  a  district,  chiefly  agri- 
cultural, of  104  square  miles,  have  been  called 
upon  to  decide  as  to  the  expediency  of  altering  the 
days  of  attendance  of  the  out-patients  at  the  hos- 
pital. Out-patients  are  at  present  assisted  with 
advice  and  medicine  (but  in  no  other  respect  are 
chargeable  to  the  charity)  on  Mondays,  Thurs?' 
days,  and  Saturdays  at  eleven,  a.  m.  It  is  pro-* 
posed  to  alter  the  days  to  Tuesdays  and  Saturdays; 
thus  requiring  attendance  twice  a-week  instead  of 

It  is  expected  that  the  alteration  will  be  better, 
not  only  for  the  medical  men,  but  also  for  the  out- 

That  a  waste  of  drugs  will  be  prevented,  as  it 
is  alleged  that  the  patients  cannot  possibly  con- 
sume the  medicine  in  the  interval  between  Thurs- 
day and  Saturday. 

And  it  is  asserted  that  no  hospital  in  the  king- 
dom receives  its  out-patients  more  than  twice  a- 

I  shall  be  much  obliged  to  any  of  your  corre- 
spondents who  will  kindly  tell  me  whether  the 
last  assertion  is  correct,  naming  at  the  same  time 
the  town,  or  stating  its  numerical  population, 
from  which  their  experience  is  drawn.  And  also 
whether  their  experience  would  lead  them  to 
hope  for  the  benefits  which  are  said  to  be  ex- 
pected from  the  change.  Remigius. 

Bohert  Sansum  or  Sampson.  —  B.  S.  I.  would 
feel  obliged  for  information  respecting  Robert 
Sansum  (or  Sampson),  Commander  of  the  Reso- 
lution, and  Rear.  Admiral  of  the  White,  who  fell 
at  Lowestoft  on  June  3,  1665. " 

Where  was  he  born  ?  Where  buried  ?  What 
arms  did  he  bear  ?  Was  he  related  to  a  Colonel 
Sainpson,  whose  name  appears  in  the  list  of  pro- 
posed Knights  of  the  Royal  Oak  ? 

Coffer.  —  What  is  the  exact  meianing  of  this 
word  in  the  following  passage  ?  It  occurs  in  the 
deposition  of  a  witness  in  a  suit  in  the  Ecclesias- 
tical Court  of  Durham  about  the  state  of  the 
church  of  Lesbury  in  Northumberland,  in  1630-li 
The  witness  says,  "  He  doth  well  remember  that 
ther  were  divers  coffer  jeastes  of  oak  above  the 
vestrye."  Socios  Dunelm. 

Responsibility  of  Animals  to  Man. — I  met  lately 
an  interesting  account  of  the  process  by  which, 
during  the  Middle  Ages,  animals  and  insects  (flies, 
rats,  and  others),  were  cited  to  appear  in  the 
courts,  and  to  show  cause  why  they  should  not  be 
destroyed  as  a  nuisance  ?  And  on  their  failure  to 
appear,  their  extermination  was  decreed  in  due 
form  of  law.  I  shall  feel  greatly  obliged  to  any 
of  your  correspondents  who  can  refer  me  to  the 
work  (I  think  a  recent  periodical)  in  which  the 
narrative  occurs  ?  J.  E.  T. 



[2"<i  S.  N»  30.,  JuTA-  26.  '66. 

" Marry"  —  What  is  the  exact  meaning  of  the 
adverbial  exclamations  "  Marry,"  "  Marry  trap," 
"  Marry  and  Amen,"  "  Marry,  Heaven  forbid," 
"Marry  come  up,"  so  common  in  these  and  vari- 
ous other  forms  in  our  earlier  writers  ?  In  Twiss's 
valuable  Index  to  Shakspeare  (1805)  I  find  above 
250  instances  of  its  occurrence  in  this  our  great 
dramatist.  With  most  of  the  writers  of  his  age, 
the  "  Great  Lord  Digby  "  too,  in  bis  Elvira,  em- 
ploys this  term  ;  as  thus : 

"  So  one  displeased  to  find  his  crawfishes 
Shrivei'd  within  and  emptj',  said  to  his  cook, 
(who  laid  the  fault  upon  the  wane  o'  th'  moon), 
'  What  has  the  moon  to  do  with  crawfishes  ? ' 
'  Marrj' !  she  has,  'tis  she  that  governs  shellfish.'  " 

So  in  Monsieur  Thomas,  Beaumont  and  Fletcher  : 

"  Marry !  thou  hast  taught  him,  like  an  arrant  rascal. 
First,  to  read  perfectly ;  which,  on  my  blessing, 
I  wam'd  him  from ;  for  1  knew  if  he  read  once. 
He  was  a  lost  man." 

The  more  modern  use  of  "  Marry  come  up  "  is 
found  in  Pericles,  Act  IV.  Sc.  6. ;  Romeo  and  Ju- 
liet, Act  II.  Sc.  5.  Are  these  corruptions  of  St. 
Mary  ?  or  whence  derived  ?  C.  H.  P. 

[Halliwell's  explanation,  "  Marry,"  as  an  interjection 
equivalent  to  "  Indeed,"  has  been  already  noticed  in  our 
1"  S.  viii.  9. ;  but  Nares  is  of  opinion  that  in  many  in- 
stances it  is  a  corruption  of  3Iarie,  as  an  asseveration 
confirmed  by  the  name  of  the  Virgin  Mary.  Thus  Coles 
says,  "  Marry  (oath)  per  Mariam."  Such  is  the  origin  of 
Marry  come  up,  originally  Marry  guep,  gip,  or  gup.  "  I 
suspect,"  says  Nares,  "  that  guep  is  a  corruption  of  go  up, 
which  it  seems  was  contemptuous.  Thus,  the  children 
said  to  Elisha, '  Go  up,  thou  bald-head,  go  up !'  "] 

Ancient  Oaths.  —  If  a  collection  of  the  very 
curious  and  interesting  oaths  that  have  been  in 
use  has  not  been  made  in  the  pages  of  "N.  &  Q.," 
may  I  be  allowed  to  make  a  beginning,  hoping 
that  other  contributors  to  its  pages  will  follow, 
and  build  up  such  a  collection  on  my  foundation  ? 
Old  Chaucer's  "  Host,"  in  the  Cantei^hunj  Tales, 
strengthens  au  assertion  "By  Seinte  Poules  bell." 

Peter  the  apprentice,  in  Henry  VI.,  holds  up 
his  hands,  and  accusing  Horner  says,  — 

"  By  these  ten  bones,  my  Lords,  he  did  speak  them  to 
me,  in  the  garret  one  night,  as  we  were  scouring  my  Lord 
of  York's  armour." — Henry  VI.,  Pt.  II.  Act  1.  Sc.'4. 

T.  H.  P. 

[The  habit  of  profane  swearing  in  former  times  by  the 
English  has  been  noticed  in  our  !«'  S.  iv.  37. ;  vi.  299. 
3G6.  471. ;  but  we  need  scarcely  add,  it  is  only  oaths  that 
are  "curious  and  interesting"  that  should  be  included 
in  the  collection,  as  many  of  them  in  our  earlj'  writers 
are  peculiarly  impious  and  irreverent.  JCven  in  Chaucer 
it  is  advisable  to  make  a  selection,  such  as  the  following ; 

The  Host  swears  —  "  By  my  father's  soul." 

Sir  Thopas  —  "  By  ale  and  bread." 

Arcite —  "  By  my  pan  [head]." 

Theseus  —  "By  mighty  Mars  the  rede." 

The  Carpenter's  wife  —  "  By  Saint  Thomas  of  Kent." 

The  Marchaunt—  «  By  Saint  Thomas  of  Inde." 
The  Cambridge  scholar—" By  my  father's  kinne."] 

Thomas  Knaggs,  of  St.  Giles's  Church,  pub- 
lished a  funeral  sermon  on  Prince  George  of  Den- 
mark, 1708.  Who  was  he?  Did  he  publish 
aught  else  ?  and  was  he  ever  minister  of  Trinity 
Chapel,  Knightsbridge  ?  H.  G.  D. 

[The  Rev.  Thomas  Knaggs  was  lecturer  at  St.  Giles- 
in-the-Fields  for  twenty  years.  He  published  thirty-one 
single  sermons  between  the  years  1691  and  1722.  See  a 
list  of  them  in  Watt's  BibKotheca.  His  successor,  Mr. 
Riddle,  was  elected  lecturer.  May  16.  1724.] 

Cohnan's  '■'•Iron  Chest." —  1  possess  a  copy  of 
this  play,  of  which  the  following  is  the  title-page  : 

"The  Iron  Chest,  a  Play  in  Three  Acts,  written  by 
George  Colman  the  Younger.  With  a  Preface.  First 
represented  at  the  Theatre  Royal  Drury  Lane,  on  Satur- 
day, 12th  March,  1796.  '  The  principal  Characters '  by 
Mr.  Kemble,  &c.  (Drury  Lane  Play-Bill.)  '  I  had  as 
li eve  the  town-crier  had  spoke  my  lines.' — Shakespeare. 
Dublin,  1796." 

This  copy  contains  Colman's  original  preface, 
which  I  believe  to  be  excessively  rare.  Is  this 
preface  worthy  of  being  inserted  in  "  JST.  &  Q."  ? 

[Colman's  Preface  to  the  Iron  Chest  is  certainly  a  racy 
production,  but  Time  has  robbed  it  of  its  interest.  Col- 
man attributes  the  condemnation  of  his  play  to  Mr.  Kem- 
ble, owing  to  the  rehearsal  being  imperfect,  and  from  Mr. 
Kemble  acting  "  Sir  Edward  Mortimer  "  whilst  under  the 
effects  of  opium  pills.  No  doubt  the  Thespian  fraternity 
look  upon  this  Preface  as  a  dramatic  literary  curiosity, 
and  Jones  QBiograph.  Dramaticd)  says  that  30s.  and  even 
40s.  have  been  paid  for  a  copy  of  it.  But  it  makes  twenty 
pages  of  8vo.,  and  would  occupy  ten  in  our  larger,  or 
six  in  the  smaller  type ;  it  is  therefore  obvious  that  we 
have  no  alternative  but  to  decline  Juverna's  kind  offer 
with  many  thanks.] 

Penrith  Castle.  —  Where  is  there  any  account 
of  Penrith  Castle,  now  in  ruins  ?  A. 

[For  descriptive  notices  of  Penrith  Castle,  consult 
Hutchinson's  History  of  Cumberland,  vol.  i.  p.  317 ;  and 
Nicolson  and  Burn's  Cumberland,  vol.  ii.  p.  404.  Views, 
with  short  notices,  of  this  castle,  are  inserted  in  Buck's 
Antiquities,  vol.  i.  pi.  48.,  and  in  Grose's  Antiquities,  vol.  i. 
pi.  30.] 

The  Old  Hundredth  (2"''  S.  ii.  34.)  —  H.  J.  G. 
says  this  tune  has  no  English  name.  He  is  mis- 
taken, as  all,  or  nearly  all  the  tune  books  I  have 
seen  give  it  as  "  Savoy,  or  the  Old  Hundredth." 

H.  G.  D. 

[Savoy  is  not  an  English  name,  and,  being  a  second 
name  applied  to  a  tune  first  known  as  the  134th  Psalm, 
and  then  as  the  100th,  cannot  afford  an  argument  for 
taking  the  time  out  of  the  list  of  the  Old  Psalter  tunes. 
It  was  not  called  Savoy  for  at  least  fifty  j'ears  after  its 
creation.  But  the  application  of  this  name  to  the  tune, 
showing  its  common  use  with  the  Germans  in  the  Savoy 
Church,  may  have  led  to  the  popular  delusion  that  the 
tune  was  made  by  Luther.  ] 

2'"' S.  NrSO.,  Ju  ivV  2G. '56.] 




(2"'^  S.  i.  491.) 

Your  correspondent  Mb.  James  Yates,  whose 
zealous  advocacy  of  the  introduction  into  the  Uni  ted 
Kingdom  of  the  French  system  of  money,  weights, 
and  measures,  is  so  well  known,  has  accompanied 
his  question  as  to  "  who  was  Mercator  ? "  with 
some  observations  intended  to  show  that  Mercator 
was  the  author,  and  published  the  first  idea  of,  the 
pound  and  mil  scheme. 

I  venture  to  submit  to  your  readers  that,  except 
we  are  disposed  to  attach  much  importance  to 
Mercator's  suggestion  that  the  thousandth  part  of  a 
pound  should  be  called  a  mil,  Mr.  Yates's  theory 
that  Mercator  set  up  a  scheme  which  has  bden 
merely  taken  up  by  scientific  men,  by  the  Decimal 
Association  and  by  parliamentary  majorities,  will 
not  hold  good. 

It  appears  to  me  that  the  proposed  decimalisa- 
tion of  the  pound  sterling  into  florin,  cent,  and 
mil,  is  not  only  preferable  in  every  respect  to 
]\Ir.  Yates's  plan  for  the  conversion  of  the  pound 
sterling  into  twenty-five  ten-pences,  or  British 
francs  ;  but  that,  moreover,  it  is  no  new  scheme, 
and  has  been  before  the  European  world  of  science 
as  long  as  decimal  fractions  have  been  known. 

The  illustrious  Simo7i  Stevin,  writing  (or  rather 
publishing)  in  1585,  whilst  advocating  the  deci- 
malisation of  money,  weights,  and  measures,  took 
care  to  dissuade  his  readers  from  abandoning  the 
accustomed  chief  units,  which  are  appropriately 
enough  termed  commencements. 

In  Article  vi.  of  Steviiis  Appendix  to  La 
Disme,  it  is  stated  : 

"  Afin  de  dire  en  brief  et  en  general,  la  somme  et  con- 
tenu  de  cest  article,  faut  scavoir  qu'on  partira  toutes 
niesures,  comme  Longue,  Humide,  Seiche,  Argent,  &c., 
par  la  precedente  dixiesme  progression  et  chasque  fameuse 
espece  d'icelles  se  nommera  commencement ;  comme 
Marc,  commencement  des  pois  par  lesquels  se  poise  I'or  et 
I'argent ;  Livre,  commencement  des  autres  pois  communs ; 
Livre  de  gros  en  Flandres,  Livre  Esterlain  en  Angleterre, 
Ducat  en  Ilispaigne,  &c.,  commencement  de  monnoye." 

It  happens  that  in  England  we  shall  not  be  the 
first  country  which  has  had  to  change  from  a 
vigesimal  and  duodecimal  to  a  decimal  scale  of 

Cuthbert  Tonstall,  when  Bishop  Elect  of  Lon- 
don, printed,  in  1522,  his  learned  and  elegant 
treatise  on  arithmetic,  which  contains  many  such 
suggestions  as  would  lead  to  a  complete  decimal  sys- 
tem, and  he  remarked  upon  the  then  widely  spread 
custom  of  keeping  accounts  in  twenties  and  twelves 
as  subdivisions  of  the  nominal  pound  and  shilling. 
It  will  be  seen,  however,  from  the  following  ex- 
tract, that  the  bishop  saw  a  point  or  two  of  dif- 
ference between  iuternatioh^l  coins  of  account 

and  international  coins  of  circulation,  which  it  will 
be  well  to  observe  even  at  this  time  : 

"  Nunc  ff  tate  nostra  apud  singulas  penfe  nationes  aurei 
pro  regum  aut  principum  arbitrio  varium  habent  pre- 
cium  :  sic  libra;,  sic  solidi,  ut  nunc  sunt  vocabula :  mag- 
nam  pro  regionibus  diversitatem  habent.  Cajterum 
illud  mirum  videtur:  quomodo  in  tanta  librarum  et  soli- 
dorum  £estimationis  ditterentia,  pro  suo  cuiiisque  regionis 
more,  multae  tamen  nationes  consentiunt ;  ut  vulgari 
lingua  solidiim  vocent:  quod  denariolos  duodecim  vul- 
gares  complectitiir,  librani  quod  solidos  viginti."  — 
Page  271  of  edition  of  1529. 

When  Stevin  wrote  upon  the  same  subject  he 
advocated  decimal  subdivision,  but  with  careful 
adherence,  as  far  as  possible,  to  accustomed  unit.^. 

"  —  que  joignant  les  vulgaires  partitions  qu'il  y  a 
maintenant  des  Mesures,  Pois  et  Argent  (demeurant 
chasque  capitale  mesure,  Pois  et  Argent,  en  tons  lieux 
immuable)  Ton  ordonnast  encore  legitimement  par  les 
Superieurs,  la  susdicte  dixiesme  partition,  h  fin  que 
chascun  qui  voudroit  la  pourroit  user. 

"  II  avanceroit  aussi  la  chose  si  les  valeurs  d'argent, 
principalement  de  ce  qui  se  forge  de  nouveau,  fussent 
valuez  siu'  quelques  Primes,  Secondes,  Tierces,  &c.  Mais 
si  tout  cecy  ne  fust  pas  mis  en  oeuvre,  si  tost  comme  nous 
le  pouvrions  souhaiter,  il  nous  conteutera  premierement, 
qu'il  fera  du  bien  h  nos  successenrs,  car  il  est  certain  que 
si  les  liommes  futurs,  sont  de  telle  nature  comme  ont  este 
les  precedens,  qu'ils  ne  seront  pas  tousiours  negligens  en 
leur  si  grand  avantage." 

The  preceding  extract  only  requires  one  ex- 
planation, viz.  that  by  Primes,  Secondes  et  Tierce.^, 
words  in  the  decimal  system  suggested  probably 
by  the  works  of  Purbach  and  Muller,  Stevin  meant 
tenths,  hundredths  and  thousandths ;  and  altering 
these  words  {as  applied  to  coins)  to  florins,  cents, 
and  mils,  we  have  the  system  which  is  in  process 
and  progress  of  introduction  at  the  present  time. 

It  is  particularly  worthy  of  note,  that  pre- 
viously to  the  introduction  of  the  decimal  metrical 
system  into  France,  accounts  were  kept  in  livre.*, 
sols,  and  deniers  :  twenty  sols  making  one  livre 
tournois,  and  twelve  deniers  one  penny.  This 
vigesimal  and  duodecimal  system  had  prevailed 
from  remote  antiquity  in  France,  as  it  had  done 
in  England.  The  two  nations  (as  the  remarks  of 
Bishop  Tonstall  illustrate)  had  the  same  system 
of  account ;  but  then  the  highest  French  unit,  the 
liv7'e  tournois,  was  so  very  much  less  in  value  in 
comparison  with  the  highest  English  unit,  the 
pound  sterling,  that  when  the  livre  tournois,  sol, 
and  deniei',  came  to  be  decimalised,  —  although  the 
French  substantially  retained  their  highest  unit,  as 
we  ought  to  retain  ours,  the  pound  sterling,  —  they 
could  only  coin  into  francs  (nearly  equal  to  the 
livre  tournois),  and  into  primes  and  secondes  (i.  e. 
ten  centimes,  and  one  centime);  whilst  we  can 
coin  our  units,  of  account  and  of  circulation,  into 
livres,  primes,  secondes,  and  tieives  (pounds,  florins, 
cents,  and  mils). 

Surely,  with  these  inherent  advantages  in  our 
system,  we  need  not  be  apprehensive  of  any  in- 
superable difiiculty  in  carrying  out  POw,  what  the 



[2nd  S.  No  30.,  July  26.  '56. 

French  carried  out  two  generations  ago  ;  but  let 
us  not  have  recourse  to  their  little  units  in  pre- 
ference to  our  great  units.  Let  those  who  like  to 
keep  their  accounts  in  ten-pences  do  so  ;  but  the 
pound  sterling,  and  its  decimal  subdivisions,  is  the 
right  thing  in  the  right  place.     Fbed,  Hendbiks. 

NOTES  ON  TREES  AND  FLOWERS  (1'*  S.  i.  173. 

457. ;  xi.  460. ;  xii.  71.  211.)  :  green  rose  (P* 
S.  xii.  143.  234.  371.  481.) 

When  the  Isiac  veil  thrown  over  ancient  re- 
ligion by  genealogies,  fables,  and  etymologies, 
shall  be  withdrawn,  it  will  be  evident  that  the 
spirit  of  Nature  has  been  impressed  on  all  the 
female  deities.  These  personages  are  not  mere 
maids  of  honour,  and  she  only  the  queen,  but 
through  all  the  disguises  under  which  she  is 
masked  she  breaks  forth,  O  Dea  certe,  whether 
represented  by  the  moon  or  by  the  earth,  by  the 
polyonymous  Isis,  or  by  the  myrianthous  Venus  : 

"All  tlie  Graces,"  says  Thryllitius*,  "in  producing  the 
rose  appear  anxiously  to  have  endeavoured  the  utmost 
they  could  effect ;  wherefore  it  is  no  wonder  that  such  a 
multitude  of  fables  was  created  respecting  the  flower  de- 
dicated to  Venus.  Having  diligently  examined,"  con- 
tinues our  author,  "  the  legends  of  Anacreon  and  others, 
I  am  persuaded  that  it  is  so  named  atri  tou  po0ov  to  poSov, 
and  having  considered  the  legends,  according  to  which 
the  rose  originated  either  with  Venus,  or  from  the  blood 
of  Venus,  or  from  the  gore  of  Adonis,  or  from  the  nectar 
spilt  by  Cupid's  negligence,  or  lastly,  frbtii  the  influx  of 
the  star  Venus,  I  could  not  refrain  from  suspecting  some- 
thing of  this  kind.  On  all  sides  is  discovered  an  abun- 
dant flow  of  love,  a  manifest  power  of  nature,  productive 
of  vegetation.  Moreover,  the  leaves  of  the  flower  afford 
a  most  elegant  spectacle,  winding  in  the  nianner  of  little 
waves  around  their  ungues,  and  in  their  first  spontaneous 
budding,  effected  by  the  law  of  the  Almighty  Creator,  all 
plants  appear  to  be  evolved  by  the  same  undulating 
motion  formed  by  an  inherent  force  of  nature,  the  know- 
ledge of  which  antiquity  perhaps  intended  to  preserve  by 
the  name  given  to  this  king  of  flowers.  I  shall  therefore 
be  pleased  to  declare  that  in  all  those  fables  there  is  no- 
thing involved  but  the  general  history  of  the  production 
of  all  plants,  intended  by  the  example  of  the  rose." 

He  then  explains,  according  to  Bayle's  theory, 
the  generation  of  plants,  now  nourished  by  the 
constant  influence  of  dew  and  showers,  from  juices 
adapted  to  them,  and  evolved  by  the  moisture 
prepared  by  Divine  Omnipotence  in  the  bowels  of 
the  earth.  He  shows  that  the  first  founders  of 
these  fables  seem  not  to  have  been  strangers  to 
this  opinion,  and  explains  how  in  the  fable  of 
Cassianus  Bassus  physical  properties  may  be  alle- 
gorized by  Mars,  Adonis,  and  Venus. 

The  same  writer  enumerates  the  varieties  of 
roses,  one  of  which  is  derived  from  the  colour  of 
the  flower,  since  in  some  it  is  found  white,  in 
others  purple,  in  others  flesh  colour,  in  others 

*  Plantarum  Historia  Fabularis,  4to.,  Vitembergae,  X713. 

pale,  in  others  yellow,  in  others  mixed,  in  others 
light  green,  if,  according  to  Costaeus,  it  is  en- 
grafted on  Agrifolii  arluscuh. 


Can  you  find  room  among  the  fresh  leaves  of 
"  N.  &  Q."  for  a  newly  blown  rose  ?  It  was  ob- 
tained from  a  "  cutting  "  which  I  enclose  (from  a 
Chester  newspaper,  June  25),  and  will  be  best 
propagated  by  being  transferred  to  your  columns. 

"  INIr.  W.  H.  Osborne,  of  Perry  Pont  House,  Perry  Bar, 
Staffordshire,  has  a  perfectly  green  rose  in  flower  in  his 
new  rose-house.  The  rose,  called  Rosa  Verdifora,  is  of  a 
full  rich  green.  The  tree  was  procured  from  a  French 

F.  Phillott. 


On  Music ;  and  suggestions  for  improvement  in  its  symbols, 
or  nomenclature  of  sounds  :  to  the  end  that  there  may  be  a 
clearer  demonstration  of  the  ratios  of  sounds,  and,  by  con-  • 
sequence,  a  more  extended  knowledge  of  the  fundus  of  this 
art,  that  is  the  poetrj'  or  measured  relation  of  its  forms. 

The  readers  of  "N.  &  Q."  (2"<>  S.  ii.  14.)  must 
have  been  much  pleased  in  perusing  the  article  on 
"  Musical  Notation,"  by  so  distinguished  a  writer 
as  Professor  de  Morgan.  For  myself,  as  a 
musician,  I  consider  every  exercise  of  the  mathe- 
matician on  the  subject  matter  of  music  as  a  step 
to  that  which  eventually  must  take  place  —  the 
union  of  the  mathematician  with  the  musician  : 
that  which  Professor  de  Morgan  has  made  out 
as  a  case  of  distress  I  have  long  felt  to  be  a  case  of 
necessity.  The  symbols  and  terras  now  used  in 
the  grammar  of  music  render  any  clear  explana- 
tion of  music  as  poetry  most  difficult. 

The  modern  definition  of  music  declares  it  to 
be  "  the  art  of  continuing  tunable  sounds  in  a 
manner  agreeable  to  the  ear ; "  but  the  old  Pagan 
theorist  declares  music  to  be  "  the  art  of  finding 
beauty  in  sounds  by  means  of  their  ratios  or 
measure.'''  And  this  is  true  ;  for  from  the  begin- 
ning of  the  world  all  music  has  been  made  upon 
one  principle,  that  is  to  say,  the  doctrine  of  the 
proportions  of  the  scale.  Music  is  caused  by  un- 
dulations in  the  atmosjjhere  which  gather  them- 
selves together  into  a  series  of  geometrical  figures 
in  the  ether.  Although  the  hearing  is  in  our 
bodily  frame,  the  causation  of  the  hearing  is  the 
geometric  figure  in  motion.  The  sound  is  the 
affection ;  the  aerial  pulsation  the  cause  of  the 
affection.  It  exists  to  us  as  an  affection  of  the 
nervous  and  muscular  organism  ;  but  when  we 
seek  to  deal  with  it  as  centrical,  relative,  a  whole, 
or  an  aliquot  part  of  some  whole,  we  must  know 
something  more  of  it  than  a  mere  sensible  proper, 
or  bare  sensation.  Effects  are  facts,  but  causes 
are  anterior  facts.    The  existence  in  nature  of  the 

2>"'  S.  N"  30.,  July  2G.  '56.] 



relations  or  proportions  of  the  scale  is  one  fact ; 
tbe  knowledge  of  these  relations,  and  the  practical 
power  of  applying  them,  is  another.  Great  music 
hath  ever  been  lying  in  the  lap  of  nature  ready 
for  man's  use  and  enjoyment  whensoever  man  had 
his  head,  his  heart,  and  his  hand,  prepared  to  take 
it  from  her.  The  perfection  of  nature  and  the 
mechanism  of  man  are  things  widely  asunder  : 
until  the  laws  of  musical  science  are  clearly  esta- 
blished every  man  will  make  his  own  sense  or 
perception  of  music  —  that  is  to  say,  his  individual 
taste  a  law  to  others  as  well  as  to  himself;  whereas 
it  is  manifest  such  a  standard  can  only  be  a  law 
unto  himself.  You?'  taste  will  not  necessarily  be 
my  taste,  unless  it  be  one  common  to  humanity, 
and  to  make  it  common  to  humanity  it  must  be 
founded  upon  the  first  laws  of  nature,  and  received 
without  prejudice  and  without  guile.  There  is  a 
vast  quantity  of  acquired  sensation  and  received 
suggestion  with  respect  to  music  in  the  ears  and 
heads  of  persons  fond  of  music,  and  who  even 
make  the  art  and  science  their  profession,  or  of 
ainateur  study  ;  and  this  stock  of  musical  percep- 
tion and  recollection  enables  many  a  one  to  talk 
of,  and  write  about,  and  even  compose  music  :  still 
from  these,  and  such  as  these,  the  true  causes  of 
music  are  altogether  concealed  and  remain  un- 
observed and  unknown  ;  for  the  facts  in  music  are 
overlooked  by  them,  and  in  their  place  has  arisen 
a  mass  of  symbols  but  ill  representing  the  realities. 
The  rudimentary  language  of  the  art  is  a  compila- 
tion of  fictions.  The  vibration  which  rims  through 
our  nervous  iluid —  the  result  of  the  figure  in  the 
ether,  when  commvmicated  to  our  bodily  frame  — 
we  describe  as  a  note.  AVe  begin  the  study  of 
music  by  learning  our  notes.  What  are  notes? 
They  are  symbols  for  sounds ;  but  who  entertains 
the  idea  of  one  sound  as  a  whole,  or  centre,  and 
other  sounds  as  relations  of  or  analogous  parts  of 
a  whole,  or  that  a  scale  is  the  genealogical  tree  of 
any  given  sound  —  the  centre  and  its  family  rela- 
tions —  the  orange  divided  into  so  many  aliquot 
parts,  and  subject  to  so  many  modes  of  apposi- 
tion and  arrangement  ?  H.  J.  Gauntlett. 
8.  Powj's  Place,  Queen  Square. 

(To  le  continued.^ 


(2"i  S.  i.  490.) 

There  is  really  very  little  to  be  surprised  at  in 
most  of  the  cases  we  see  brought  forward  of  re- 
vival after  execution  ;  and  accounts  of  such  cases 
are  of  trifling  value  unless  they  are  accompanied 
by  a  statement  of  the  circumstances  under  which 
the  execution  took  place,  and  more  especially  of 
the  length  of  time  during  which  the  body  teas  sus- 
pended.    Before   the   new   drop  —  placed   on  an 

elevated  spot  —  was  adopted,  executions  were 
very  often  managed  in  such  a  way  that  justice 
was  very  easily  evaded.  Hangmen  were  un- 
questionably often  tampered  with,  and  they  had 
every  facility  for  evading  detection,  more  par- 
ticularly as  the  friends  of  the  culprit,  —  the  gal- 
lows being  generally  on  the  ground  and  in  an 
open  space,  —  could  easily  crowd  around,  and 
thus  prevent  observation,  and  also  assist  the  exe- 
cutioner in  carrying  out  the  deception  which  he 
had  been  well  paid  to  effect.  Criminals,  it  is  true, 
were  sentenced  to  be  "  hung  by  the  neck  until 
they  ivei'e  dead"  but  the  deciding  when  a  man  was 
dead  was  often  left  entirely  to  the  discretion  of 
the  hangman,  who  thus  was  at  liberty  to  "  cut 
down "  some  culprits  much  sooner  than  he  did 
others.  Hence,  what  with  feeing  the  hangman  to 
give  his  victim  "  a  short  fall "  —  to  tie  and  place 
the  rope  in  a  particular  way  —  and  to  cut  the 
body  down  quickly  ;  and  what  with  the  friends  of 
the  culprit  crowding  round  close  to  the  gallows 
and  interfering  with  what  was  going  on,  execu- 
tions were  frequently  conducted  in  such  a  manner 
as  to  render  the  subsequent  revival  of  the  person 
a  matter  of  very  little  surprise  or  difiiculty.  The 
known  cases  are  not  a  few,  and  if  those  which  are 
unknown,  on  account  of  the  secret  having  been 
well  kept,  were  made  public,  the  list,  I  believe, 
would  contain  some  scores  of  names.  At  one 
time,  indeed,  it  was  the  regular  practice  for  the 
friends  of  a  victim  of  the  law  to  make  every  pos- 
sible preparation  for  his  sem-hanging  and  his  sab- 
sequent  resuscitation.  When  Deacon  Brodie  tvas 
hung  at  Edinburgh  in  1788,  for  robbing  the  Ex- 
cise Office,  the  hangman  was  bribed  to  give  him 
"  a  short  fall,"  and  as  soon  as  he  was  cut  down,  a 
spring  cart  was  at  hand,  which  quickly  deposited 
his  body  at  a  place  where  doctors  were  in  readi- 
ness with  every  adjunct  for  his  revival.  The  ex- 
periment failed  in  this  case,  it  is  true  ;  but  this  was 
solely  because  the  hangman  killed  Brodie  without 
intending  it,  by  tying  a  knot  which  slipped  at  the 
critical  moment,  and  gave  the  deacon  a  fall  of 
about  treble  the  length  he  had  contracted  for,  and 
the  case  therefore  is  not  the  less  valid  a  proof  of 
the  practice  I  have  referred  to.  The  new  drop, 
however,  by  the  publicity  it  ensures,  and  by  the 
efficacy  of  its  operation,  has  put  an  end  to  decep- 
tion on  the  part  of  the  hangman,  and  to  interfer- 
ence on  the  part  of  the  crowd ;  and  I  therefore  think 
you  will  agree  with  me  that  cases  of  revival  after 
execution  contain  nothing  in  them  that  is  extra- 
ordinary, unless  they  can  be  shown  to  have  oc- 
curred after  the  employment  of  the  new  drop,  and 
unless  they  are  accompanied  with  reasonable  proofs 
that  the  culprit  was  fairly  hung  and  suspended 
for  the  full  legal  hour.  Henrt  Kensington. 



[2nd  s.  No  30.,  July  2G.  'SC. 


(•2"''  S.  ii.  29.) 
The  f()lIowin<v  extract  from  Carrick's  Life  of 
Sir  William   Wallace  (Whittaker,    1840,   p.  29.) 
gives  the  information  sought  for  by  E.  C. :  • 

"  Having  said  thus  much  of  tlie  dress  and  equipment 
of  Wallace,  the  followin":  anecdote  respecting  his  strength 
and  personal  appearance  may  not  be  unacceptable  to  the 
reader;  it  is  translated  from  Hector  Boece  bj'  the  learned 
editor  of  Morrison's  edition  of  Blind  Harry,  who  thus 
introduces  it:  —  'Though  this  author  f Boece)  in  general 
is  not  much  to  be  credited,  yet  it  -would  be  hard  not  to 
believe  him  in  an  instance  which  happened  near  his  own 
time,  and  in  which,  if  he  had  spoken  falsely,  he  could 
immediately  have  been  detected.  The  anecdote  in  an- 
other respect  is  curious,  as  it  affords  an  example  of  lon- 
gevity, not  unsimilar  to  that  of  the  Irish  Countess  of 
Desmond,  who  attained  a  still  more  advanced  age. 

"  The  date  is  the  year  1430.  At  that  time  James  I. 
was  in  Perth ;  and  perhaps  having  heard  Henry  the 
3Iinstrel*  recite  some  of  Wallace's  exploits,  found  his 
curiosity  excited  to  visit  a  noble  lad}'  of  great  age,  who 
was  able  to  inform  him  of  many  ancient  matters.  She 
lived  in  the  castle  of  Kinnoul,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
river ;  and  was  probably  a  widow  of  one  of  the  Lords  of 
Erskine,  a  branch  of  whose  family  continued  to  be  de- 
nominated from  the  barony  of  Kinnoul  till  about  the 
3'_ear  1440.  It  was  Bocce's  manner  to  relate  an  event  as 
circumstantially  as  if  he  had  been  one  of  the  parties,  and 
engaged  in  it.  I  shall,  therefore,  give  the  anecdote  in  his 
own  manner,  by  translating  his  words :  — 

"  'In  consequence  of  her  extreme  old  age,  she  had  lost 
her  sight,  but  alt  her  other  senses  were  entire;  and  her 
body  was  yet  firm  and  lively.  She  had  seen  William 
Wallace  and  Robert  Bruce,  and  frequently  told  parti- 
culars concerning  them.  The  King,  who  entertained  a 
love  and  veneration  of  greatness,  resolved  to  visit  the 
old  lady,  that  he  might  hear  her  describe  the  manners 
and  strength  of  the  two  heroes,  who  were  admired  in  his 
time,  as  they  now  are  in  ours.  He,  therefore,  sent  a 
message,  acquainting  her  that  he  was  to  come  to  her 
next  day.  She  received  the  message  gratefully ;  and 
gave  immediate  orders  to  her  handmaids  to  prepare  every- 
thing for  his  reception  in  the  best  manner,  particularlj' 
that  they  should  display  her  pieces  of  tapestry ;  some  of 
which  were  uncommonly  rich  and  beautiful.  All  her  ser- 
vants became  busily  employed,  for  their  work  was  in  some 
degree  unusual,  as  she  had  not  for  a  long  time  been  ac- 
customed to  receive  princely  visitors.  The  next  day,  when 
told  the  King  was  approaching,  she  went  down  into  the 
hall  of  her  castle,  dressed  with  as  much  elegance  and  finery 
as  her  old  age  and  the  fashion  of  the  time  would  permit ; 
attended  by  a  train  of  matrons,  many  of  whom  were  her 
own  descendants,  of  which  number  some  appeai'ed  more 
altered  and  disfigured  by  age  than  she  herself  was.  One 
of  her  matrons  having  "informed  her  that  the  King  was 
entering  the  hall,  she  arose  from  her  seat,  and  advanced 
to  meet  him  so  easily  and  gracefully,  that  he  doubted  of 

*  "According  to  Pinkerton,  and  other  authorities, 
Henrj'  did  not  finish  his  work  till  1470.  It  is,  therefore, 
more  probable  that  the  curiosity  of  James  was  excited  b}' 
the  original  narrative  of  Blair ;  a  book  which,  from  his 
long  captivity  in  England,  he  had  perhaps  heard  little 
about,  till  his  return  to  Scotland.  The  rehearsal,  there- 
fore, of  the  heroic  achievements  of  his  illustrious  country- 
man may  have  produced  all  the  excitement  which  the 
editor  of  the  Perth  edition  supposes,  though  not  made  by 
the  Minstrel." 

her  being  wholly  blind.  At  his  desire,  she  embraced  and 
kissed  him.  Her  attendant  assured  him  that  she  was 
wholly  blind ;  but  that,  from  long  custom,  she  had  ac- 
quired these  easy  movements.  He  took  her  by  the  hand 
and  sat  down,  desiring  her  to  sit  on  the  same  seat  next 
to  him.  And  then,  in  a  long  conference,  he  interrogated 
her  respecting  ancient  matters.  He  was  much  delighted 
with  her  conversation.  Among  other  things,  he  asked 
her  to  tell  him  what  sort  of  a  man  William  Wallace  was? 
What  was  his  personal  figure ?  What  his  courage?  And 
with  what  degree  of  strength  he  was  endowed  ?  He  put 
the  same  questions  to  her  concerning  Bruce.  Robert,  she 
said,  was  a  man  beautiful,  and  of  a  fine  appearance.  His 
strength  was  so  great,  that  he  could  easily  have  over- 
come any  mortal  man  of  his  time ;  but  in  so  far  as  he 
excelled  other  men,  he  was  excelled  by  Wallace,  both  in 
stature  and  in  bodily  strength ;  for,  in  wrestling,  Wallace 
could  have  overthrown  two  such  men  as  Robert  was. 

"  '  The  King  made  some  inquiries  concerning  his  own 
immediate  parents,  and  his  other  ancestors ;  and  having 
heard  her  relate  many  things,  returned  to  Perth  well 
pleased  with  the  visit  he  had  made.'  "  —  Bofe'th.  Hist., 
i.  xvii. 

John  I.  Dredge. 




(2"''  S.  i.  492.) 

"Verse  sweetens  toil,  however  rude  the  sound, 
All  at  her  work  the  village  maiden  sings : 
Nor  while  she  turns  the  giddy  wheel  around. 
Revolves  the  sad  vicissitude  of  things." 

These  lines  are  quoted  by  Dr.  Samuel  Johnson 
in  his  Dictionary,  under  the  word  "  vicissitude ; " 
they  occur  in  a  short  poem  entitled  Contempla- 
tion*, which  was  printed  in  1753,  and  its  author 
was  Richard  GifFord,  B.A.,  of  Baliol  College,  Ox- 
ford ;  Vicar  of  DuffieW,  co.  Derby ;  Rector  of 
North  Ockendon,  co.  Essex  ;  and  Chaplain  to 
John  and  George,  fourth  and  sixth  Marquises  of 
Tweeddale,  to  whose  family  he  was  related.  Ri- 
chard Gifford  was  the  only  surviving  son  of  John 
Gifford  of  Tester  in  Scotland,  M.A.  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Edinburgh,  Rector  of  Mainstone,  co. 
Salop,  and  chaplain  to  Charles,  third  Marquis  of 
Tweeddale.  His  mother  was  Elizabeth  Wollaston, 
sister  of  Richard  Wollaston,  Receiver-General  of 
Taxes  for  the  county  of  Salop.  She  belonged  to 
a  branch  of  the  ancient  family  of  Wollaston  of 
Wollaston  in  Staffordshire.  In  1748  the  Rev. 
Richard  Gifford  published  his  Bemarhs  on  Mr. 
Kennicott's  Dissertation  on  the  Ti'ee  of  Life  in 
Paradise.  In  1751  appeared  his  Dissertation  on 
the  Song  of  Solomon,  tvith  the  original  Text,  di- 
vided according  to  the  Metre,  and  a  Poetical  Ver- 
sion. (See  Lowndes's  Bi'itish  Librarian,  p.  174. 
art.  393.)  His  Ontlines  of  an  Answer  to  Dr. 
Priestley  s  Disquisition  relatijtg  to  Matter  and 
Spirit  followed  in  1781.  Mr.  Gifford  took  upon 
himself  the  labour  of  translating,   for   Nichols's 

*  See  vol.  V.  p.  182.  of  Nichols's  Literary  Anecdotes  of 
ttie  Eighteenth  Centw-y. 

2"«  S.  N"  30.,  July  26.  '66.] 



History  of  Leicestershire,  so  mucli  of  Domesday 
Book  as  related  to  the  liistory  of  that  county ;  an 
arduous  task,  which  ho  performed  ably  and 
promptly.  His  translations  ut'  Lycophron  and  Ni- 
cander  into  English  verse  were  never  published, 
but  he  left  behind  him  a  mass  of  ineditcd  manu- 
scripts, evidences  of  the  unwearied  and  recondite 
studies  of  his  long  life.  Some  specimens  of  his 
polished  verse  are  to  be  found  in  Dodsley's  col- 
lection, and  to  a  few  of  his  articles  in  the  Gentle- 
man s  Magazine  the  signature  of  "K,.  DufF"  is 
placed.  This  rare  old  scholar  was  tutor,  for  a 
short  time,  to  the  late  well-known  sportsman 
Hugo  Meynell,  of  Hoar  Cross  ;  but  his  private 
fortune  was  ample,  and  it  seems  that  tuition  did 
not  suit  his  taste,  for  when  John,  eighth  Earl  of 
Rothes,  requested  him  to  become  "tutor  and 
manager  "  of  his  eldest  son,  he  declined  the  pro- 
posal, though  it  was  accompanied  by  the  promise 
of  future  preferment.  By  a  letter  addressed  to 
Mr.  Giflbrd  from  George,  sixth  Marquis  of  Tweed- 
dale  (dated  Newhall,  Dec.  26,  1772),  it  appears 
that  he  had  also  refused  to  undertake  the  same 
duties,  attended  by  the  same  prospective  advan- 
tages, in  the  family  of  that  nobleman's  elder 
brother.  The  Rev.  Richard  Giffbrd  married  in 
1763  Elizabeth  Woodhouse,  cousin  and  devisee  of 
the  Rev.  Thomas  Alleyne,  INI.  A.,  Rector  of  Lough- 
borough, CO.  Leicester.  The  subject  of  this  notice 
died  in  1807,  aged  eighty-two,  leaving  an  only 
child,  Euphemia,  who  died  unmarried,  Dec.  6, 
1853,  in  her  eighty-ninth  year.  Mr.  Giflbrd  bore 
the  arms  of  the  Giffords  of  Yestcr,  and  his  crest 
was  a  goat's  head. 
A  Relative  or  "  One  GirroKD,  A  Clergyman." 

Lines  quoted  by  Sir  Robert  Peel  (2"^  S.  ii.  48.) 
They  are  Di*yden's  of  Shaftesbury  in  Absolom  and 
Achitophel.  C, 

"  When  waves  run  high, 
A  daring  pilot  in  extremity." 

The  right  version  is,  — 

"  A  daring  pilot  in  extremity, 
Pleased  with  the  danger  when  the  waves  ran  high." 
Absolom  and  Achitophel,  160. 


Tale  loantcd  (2">^  S.  i.  11.)  — I  beg  to  refer  a.  j8. 
to  a  tale  entitled  "The  Table  d'llote,"  in  the 
Neio  Montldy  Magazine  (vol.  Ixxi.  p.  495.),  of 
which  the  following  is  a  summary  of  the  chief  in- 
cidents :  —  An  English  tourist,  at  Interlacken, 
finds  himself  placed  at  the  dinner-table  vis-a-vis 
to  a  beautiful  woman,  whose  features  seem  not 
altogether  unfamiliar  to  him.  His  memory  and 
conversational  powers  stimulated  by  his  host's 
champagne,  he  finds  himself,  by  the  time  the  ladies 

have  withdrawn,  in  a  position  to  impart  to  an 
Italian  signor  by  his  side  his  conviction  that  their 
beautiful  convive  was  the  identical  person  whom 
he  had  chanced  to  see  exposed  in  the  pillory,  and 
branded  as  a  thief,  a  year  or  two  ago  at  Brussells. 
The  Italian,  who  has  become  excited  during  the 
progress  of  the  story,  quits  the  dinner-table,  and 
the  communicative  Englishman  takes  a  digestive 
stroll.  In  the  evening  he  is  summoned  by  the 
waiter  into  the  Italian's  room ;  where  he  learns, 
to  his  horror,  that  tlie  person  whom  he  has  made 
the  confidant  of  his  reminiscences  is  the  husband 
of  their  heroine  !  A  recantation  is  demanded, 
and  a  duel  across  the  table  proposed  as  an  alter- 
native :  the  Italian  proceeding,  as  a  minor  pre- 
liminary, to  falsify  the  Englishman's  statement  by 
causing  his  wife,  who  is  an  agonised  spectator  of 
the  interview,  to  bare  her  shoulders.  She  accom- 
plishes the  pi'ocess,  and  the  fatal  scar  is  seen.  A 
yell,  that  bursts  from  the  husband's  lips,  "  pro- 
claims at  once  his  conviction  and  his  agony." 
Voices  are  now  heard  at  the  door  ;  and  the  Italian, 
finding  that  there  is  no  time  to  lose,  pi'oceeds  to 
business :  his  first  pistol  wounds  his  wife,  the 
second  puts  a  stop  to  his  own  career.  The  En- 
glishman shouts  in  desperation  to  those  outside  to 
force  the  door,  and  the  curtain  falls  on  the  tableau. 

This  outline  of  the  story  may  either  save  or 
stimulate  reference  to  the  volume  which  I  have 
indicated.  William  Bates. 


Striking  in  tkc  King's  Court  (2'"'  S.  ii.  49.)  — 
The  first  Duke  of  Devonshire,  when  Lord  Caven- 
dish, having  struck  Colonel  Culpepper  within  the 
verge  of  the  court,  was  acrimoniously  prosecuted 
for  the  offence ;  and  was  glad  to  escape  the  am- 
putation by  a  fine  of  30,000^.,  which  was,  I  think, 
remitted  at  the  Revolution  which  soon  after  fol- 
lowed. C. 

Laton  Billiards  (2'"'  S.  ii.  10.)  —  Troco,  or 
Trocho,  which  F.  C.  B.  brings  forward  as  another 
name  for  the  above,  is  most  likely  a  word  adopted 
from  the  Greek  by  the  inventor  or  restorer  of 
the  game.  Tpox^s  (vide  Donnegan's  Lex.)  means 
"  any  thing  of  a  circular  or  globular  form,  a  ball 
or  globe."  Instances  of  a  similar  application  of 
the  ancient  languages  to  modern  inventions  will 
be  familiar  to  most  of  your  readers,  e.  q.  Rhypo- 
phagoii,  Kamptidicon,  Antigropelos ;  and  in  my 
time,  at  Cambridge,  a  certain  slate  billiard  table 
was  designated  on  the  owner's  sign-board  as 
"patent  petrosian"  (from  Trerpos,  "a  stone,"  no 
doubt).  J.  Eastwood. 


Credence  Table  (2"^  S.  i.  154.)— I  saw  it  stated 
in  one  of  our  quarterly  periodicals  in  1852,  that 
"credence  table"  was  derived  from  an  obsolete 
German  verb,  Krcdcnzcn,  to  taste,  owing  to  the 



12"^  S.  No  30.,  July  26.  '5G. 

elements  being  placed  on  the  credence  table  ;  with 
a  view  to  their  being  publicly  tasted  (before  con- 
secration) by  a  person  appointed  for  that  purpose, 
whenever  the  monarch  was  about  to  communicate, 
lest  poison  intended  to  destroy  the  monarch 
should  be  mixed  with  the  bread  or  wine. 


Benjamin  Franklin  (2"''  S.  i.  305.)  —  Some 
curious  particulars  connected  with  the  life  of  the 
philosopher  are  given  in  — 

"  History  of  a  French  Louse,  or  the  Spy  of  a  New 
Species  in  France  and  England,  &c.  A  Key  to  the  chief 
Events  of  the  Year  1779,  and  those  which  are  to  happen 
in  1780.  London :  printed  for  T.  Becket,  Adelphi,  Strand, 

Franklin  had  been,  at  this  time,  the  minister- 
plenipotentiary  from  the  Ainerican  Congress  to 
the  Court  of  London,  and  had  not  escaped  the 
satire  of  the  English  pamphleteers.  From  the 
rather  scurrilous  nature  of  the  publication,  what 
is  stated  may  be  expected  to  be  a  little  over- 
charged, yet  not  inconsistent  with  the  information 
we  have  through  other  channels  of  the  Doctor's 
habits.  One  extract  as  a  specimen  of  his  economy 
may  suffice  : 

"  He  then  quitted  his  master,  and  lived  privately,  sub- 
sisting for  mauy  years  upon  fourpence  a-day.  I  cannot 
conceive  how  he  did  it :  to  me  it  seems  impossible.  And 
yet  nothing  is  more  easy;  it  requires  onlj'  resolution:  his 
method  was  to  purchase  for  three  pence  a  quantity  of 
potatoes,  which  served  him  for  bread  and  meat  both,  and 
of  which  there  was  sufficient  to  subsist  on  a  whole  week. 
A  baker  roasted  them  for  a  halfpenny;  and  he  bought 
from  a  milk-woman,  daily,  a  halfpenny  worth  of  milk ; 
all  this  amounted  to  no  more  than  sevenpence  a  week. 
He  gave  a  penny  a  daj'  for  his  lodgings  in  a  garret,  be- 
cause he  liked  neatness  and  convenience,  otherwise  he 
might  have  accommodated  himself  at  a  cheaper  rate.  He 
drank  small  beer  mixed  with  water,  and  this  cost  him 
twopence  a  week.  The  remainder  he  laid  by  for  dress  and 
pocket  -money :  for  he  employed  nobody  to  wash  for  him, 
or  to  mend  his  linen  and  stockings.  Now  let  us  calculate, 
and  you  will  be  convinced  that  it  is  not  impossible  to  live 
upon  this  sum.  Fourpence  a  day  makes  twenty-eight 
pence  a  week : 

His  potatoes,  the  dressing  of  them,  and  his  milk, 

cost  him  every  week  .         .         .         -         .     7c/, 

His  lodging  ......        --7 

And  his  beer        ........    2 



Thus,  out  of  eight-and-twenty  pence  a  week,  there  re- 
mained twelve  to  make  a  figure  with." 

In  the  Universal  Asylum  and  Columbian  Maga- 
zine for  April  1790,  printed  at  "Philadelphia  by 
William  Young"  (who  emigrated  from  Paisley), 
will  be  found  a  very  interesting  notice  of  "  the 
order  of  procession  "  at  the  Doctor's  funeral ;  and 
a  "  short  account  of  his  last  illness  by  his  attend- 
ing physician."  G.  N. 

Umbrella  or  Parasol  (2"'^  S.  i.  503.)— Jos.  G. 
says,  "  If  it  be  an  umbrella,  it  certainly  is  a  some- 

what ancient  discovery."  Why  not  ?  When,  for 
aught  we  know,  the  Chinese,  Burmese,  and  natives 
of  India,  have  used  umbrellas  from  time  imme- 
morial. The  umbrellas  referred  to  in  the  Nine- 
vite  sculptures  are  facsimiles  of  the  "  chattas " 
still  in  use  among  the  Burmese  and  Indians. 

E.  E.  Byng. 
Surnames  (2'"i  S.  i.  213.  396.  522.)  — It  may 
further  establish  the  fact,  that  Rand  is  a  local 
name,  if  I  mention  that  the  eighth  Abbat  of 
Bardney,  who  was  deposed  in  1214,  bore  the  name 
of  Ralf  de  Band.  See  Leland's  Collectanea,  vi. 
216.,  Lond.,  1770,  8vo.  J.  Sansom. 

Hengist  and  Horsa  (2"''  S.  i.  439.)  — J.  M.  K. 

says : 

"  There  is  no  reason  to  believe  the  Frisian  heroes 
Hengist  and  Horsa  to  be  a  bit  more  genuine  than  Cad- 
nms  or  Romulus;  they  merely  adumbrate  in  the  usual 
way  the  historical  fact  that  Kent  was  peopled  by  Frisian 

If  they  are  but  myths,  how  is  their  descent 
actually  registered  in  the  old  chronicles  quoted 
by  Mac  Cabe  in  his  Catholic  History  of  England? 
At  p.  96.,  he  says  :  "  Tliey  were  the  sons  of  Wicht- 
gisius,  the  son  of  Wecta,  whose  father  was 
Woden."  For  this  genealogy  he  gives  Beda  as 
his  authority.  Then  (p.  97.)  he  transcribes  from 
Roger  de  Wendover  and  Geoffry  of  Monmouth  a 
conversation  between  Hengist  and  the  British 
king  Vortigern.  In  a  note  (p.  98.),  he  quotes 
from  Sir  F.  Palgrave's  Rise  and  Progress  of  the 
English  Commonwealth,  and  says  : 

"  The  learned  author  remarks,  as  to  Hengist  and  HorSiJ, 
that,  'the  names  bestowed  upon  the  sons  of  Wightgils 
seem  to  be  poetical  epithets,  rather  than  veal  denomina- 
tions; botli  have  the  same  meaning,  and  both  only  de- 
signate the  snow-white  steed,  from  whom  their  ancestors 
sought  the  omen  before  they  entered  the  conflict,  and 
whose  form,  still  constituting  the  heraldry  of  Kent, 
adorned  the  standard  which  led  them  forth  to  victory.' " 

At  p.  101.,  he  mentions  "the  daughter  of  Hen- 
gist," quoting  William  of  Malmesbury  and  Poly- 
dore  Vergil.  By  Geoffry  of  Monmouth  she  is  called 
"  lionwen  ;"  and  by  Nennius,  "  Romwena."  The 
same  authorities  describe  the  death  of  Horsa,  and 
his  being  succeeded  by  Hengist.  In  a  note 
(p.  108.),  Mac  Cabe  says  :  "Horsa  is  believed  to 
have  been  buried  at  Horstead  in  Kent;"  adding, 
in  inverted  commas,  "  jVIonumentum  suo  nomine 
insigne."  In  the  note  following  the  above,  he 
quotes  from  the  Saxon  Chronicle,  a.  d.  455 : 
"And  aefter  tham  feng  llengest  to  rice."  Tlie 
return  of  Hengist  to  England  in  461  is  there  re- 
lated (p.  111.),  with  his  subsequent  acts,  till  his 
sentence  by  Eldad,  Bishop  of  Gloucester,  in  the 
Council  of  Conisborough,  to  be  beheaded.  Geof. 
Mon.,  Rog.  de  Wend.,  and  Matt.  Westm.,  all  agree 
in  this  account  of  his  death. 

Could  so  many^ac^s  have  been  recorded  of  two 
heroes  who  bad  no  personal  existence  whatever  ? 

2"d  S.  No  30.,  July  26.  '56.] 



when  William  of  Malmesbury  even  gives  a  per- 
sonal character  of  Hengist : 

"  Vir  qui  successus  suos  non  minus  fraudibus  quain 
viribus  urgeiis,  multum  genuine  sajvitiic  indulgens, 
omnia  cruentius  quam  civilius  agere  mallet." — Gest.  Her. 
Aug.,  lib.  i.  sec.  8. 

This  quoted  by  Mac  Cabe  in  a  note,  p.  127. 

E.  E.  Byng. 

Morning  Dreams  (2"'^  S.  i.  392.)  — Your  corre- 
spondent Sartor  has,  I  think,  misquoted  a  line 
from  Samuel  Lover's  songs  of  The  Superstitions 
of  the  Irish  Peasantry,  which  begins  with  these 
lines : 

"  The  eye  of  weeping 
Had  closed  in  sleeping, 
And  I  dreamed  a  sweet  dream  yesternight." 

The  concluding  line  of  the  song  is,  — 

"  For  I  knew  that  the  morning  dream  was  true." 

The  superstition  is  as  old  as  Horace,  who  writes 
(1st  Book  of  Satires,  10th  Satire,  31st  line)  : 

"  Atqui  ego,  cum  Grajcos  facerem,  natus  mare  citra, 
Versiculos,  vetuit  tali  me  voce  Quirinus, 
Post  mediam  noctein  visus,  quum  somnia  vera." 

Tibullus  also,  in  the  fourth  Elegy  of  his  third 
book,  writes  : 

"  Dii  meliora  ferant,  ne  sint  insomnia  vera, 
QujB  tulit  extrema  proxima  nocte  quies." 

And  Ovid  {Epist.  Heroides)  ; 

"  Namque  sub  Aurora,  jam  dormitante  lucerna, 
Tempore  quo  cerni  somnia  vera  solent." 

Sec  the  Delphin  Horace,  p.  423. 


Dreams  true  after  Midnight.  —  Orellius,  com- 
menting on  Horace,  Sat.  i.  10.  33.  ("  Quirinus 
post  mediam  noctem  visus,  quum  somnia  vera), 
cites  Moschus,  2.  2. : 

"  NvKTOs  ore  rpiraTOv°5  icTTaTai,  eYV'f'  ^'  ^"5" 
Evre  Kal  arpeKitav  Troiuaii'eTOi  efiros  oviipiav. 

A.  A.  D. 

Thomas  Simon  (P'  S.  xii.27. ;  2""^  S.  i.  477.)  — 
As  Simon  was  a  citizen  and  goldsmith,  his  father's 
name  and  his  own  age  will  be  found  in  the  record 
of  his  apprenticeship  and  admission  to  the  freedom 
in  the  books  of  the  Goldsmiths'  Company,  and 
most  likely  other  particulars.  The  officials  of  the 
Company  would  doubtless  willingly  contribute  to 
the  iamc  of  a  member  so  eminent.  The  same 
books  will  show  whether  his  sons  were  admitted 
to  the  freedom  by  patrimony.  Hyde  Clarke. 

Whitsunday  (2"^^  S.  i.  521.)  —  In  enumerating 
the  Feasts,  on  which  churches  were  decked  with 
flowers,  Mr.  Mackenzie  AValcott  having  men- 
tioned that  of  Pentecost,  calls  the  English  name 
Whiteson-Day,  and  considers  that  name  a  cor- 
ruption of  the  German  pingsten,  fiftieth.  But 
surely  here  is  a  twofold  mistake.  The  word 
should  be  Pfingsten,  which  hgs  no  apparent  con- 

nection with  the  German  word  for  fiftieth,  which 
is  funfzigste.  Still  less  conceivable  is  it  that  our 
word  Whiteson-Day,  or  Whitsunday,  can  have 
been  a  corruption  of  Pfingsten,  by  any  process 
however  ingenious.  The  received  origin  of  the 
name  Whitsunday  is  from  the  appearance  of  the 
neophytes  on  that  Sunday  and  during  the  octave, 
in  the  church,  in  the  white  garments  which  they 
had  received  at  their  solemn  baptism  on  the  pre- 
ceding Saturday,  called  Whitsun  Eve.      F.  C.  H. 

Odments  (2"'^  S.  i.  433.)  —  This  word  is  still  in 
common  use  in  various  parts  of  the  north  of  Eng- 
land, particularly  in  the  Deanery  of  Craven,  in 
the  VVest  Riding  of  Yorkshire.  Your  corre- 
spondent Centurion  will  find  it  in  both  Brocket's 
Glossary,  and  an  anonymous  one  of  the  Craven 
dialect.  Q- 


The  Weather  (2"''  S.  i.  431.)  —  The  observation 
of  N.  H.  L.  R.  relative  to  a  change  in  the  prevail- 
ing winds,  corresponds  with  my  own  experience 
on  the  same  subject ;  and  this  change  is  especially 
remarkable  in  the  west  of  England,  where  for- 
merly the  S.W.  almost  amounted  to  a  "  trade." 

A  few  yeai's  ago,  being  at  Dover,  I  learned 
from  the  pilots  that  the  S.W.,  which  used  to  be 
the  prevalent  wind,  was  no  longer  so,  —  easterly 
winds  now  predominating  ;  as  might  be  seen  by  a 
reference  to  the  book  kept  in  the  harbour-master's 

I  never  made  the  refei*ence,  therefore  cannot 
vouch  for  the  truth  of  the  assertion.  Perhaps 
your  correspondent  may  have  an  opportunity  of 
so  doing.  A.  C.  M. 


Burning  of  Books  (2"*^  S.  ii.  19.)  —  At  the  time 
of  the  late  Duke  of  York's  connexion  with  Mrs. 
Mary  Anne  Clarke,  in  the  years  1808-9,  I  re- 
member an  amusing  caricature  by  Rowlandson, 
called  "  The  Burning  of  the  Books."  It  repre- 
sented Mrs.  Clarke  ordering  piles  of  books  to  be 
burnt,  which  were  brought  on  the  shoulders  of 
several  men,  and  flung  into  a  large  fire.  The 
books  were  lettered  Memoirs  o/ilfr*.  C,  of  Col. 
Wardle,  the  D.  of  York,  &c..  and  Mrs.  Clarke  was 
represented  saying ;  "  Burn  away  !  I  would  burn 
the  universe  for  the  money.  Not  a  single  vestige 
in  print  or  manuscript  shall  be  preserved,  except 
copies  for  Dr.  O'Meara,  and  a  few  private  friends." 

^  F.C.H. 

Port  Jackson  (2"''  S.  ii.  50.)— I  think  there  can 
be  no  doubt  that  Port  Jackson  was  so  named 
after  Sir  George  Jackson,  then  second  secretary 
of  the  Admiralty.  The  claim  of  the  "  man  at  the 
mast  head"  is  negatived  by  the  statement  that 
produces  it ;  for  how  could  the  "  man  at  the  mast 
head"    have   had    any   share  in    discovering    a 



r2n«S.  N°SO.,  July  2G, '56. 

harbour,  so  wholly  invisible  from  seaward  that 
when  the  captain,  taking  to  his  boat,  found  out  an 
entrance,  he  was  filled  with  "astonishment  more 
easily  conceived  than  described."  C. 

Jeivish  Pei'siiasion  (2'"'  S.  i.  492.)  —  Centurion 
proposes  what  seems  to  me  a  very  odd  question. 
Persuasion  is  a  very  common  synonyme  for  reli- 
gious belief.  It  means  (not  that  a  man  has  been 
persuaded  by  any  one  to  adopt  a  creed,  but)  that 
he  is  what  he  is  hy  conviction.  An  instance  of  the 
use  of  the  term  occurs  in  Goldsmith's  History  of 
England,  where  one  motive  which  induced  Percy 
to  write  his  mysterious  letter  to  Lord  Monteagle 
is  said  to  be  because  the  latter  "  was  of  the  same 
persuasion  as  himself."  C.  H.  S.  (Clk.) 

Rev.  R.  Montgomery  (2"'>  S.  I.  293.  321.  400. 
521.)  —  (x.  professes  to  write  "for  the  sake  of 
accuracy,"  and  endorses  D.'s  communication  as 
"  correct."  Now  D.  said  that  the  evidence  of  u 
baptismal  register  had  never  been  adduced.  James 
Darmng,  however,  showed  that  this  had  been  ad- 
duced. And  yet  says  G.,  D.'s  communication  is 
"correct ! "  What  would  convince  G.  ?  A  bap- 
tismal register  is  evidence  in  a  court  of  law;  and 
therefore  G.  must  prove  that  Mr.  Montgomery 
sent  a  forged  certificate  to  the  Quarterly,  or  else 
must  submit  to  be  deemed  inaccurate.  A  Bath 
Directory  is  of  no  weight  against  a  baptismal 
register.  /5.  y.  5. 

Meaning  of^^hayne''  (2"^  S.  ii.  49.)— J.  E.  should 
have  stated  which  his  "  neighbourhood"  is.  It  is 
not  a  frequent  termination  in  any  district  that  I 
remember.  It  may  i)ossibly  be  the  plural  of  hay, 
a  hedge.  C. 

Parochial  Libraries  (2"'»  S.  i.  459.)  —  There 
was  one  attached  to  the  parish  church  of  Wester- 
ham,  Kent : 

"  One  Charles  West  gave  the  parish  by  will  in  1765, 
together  with  100/.  stock  for  the  use  of  the  poor,  a  library 
of  books  consisting  of  several  hundred  volumes,  many  of 
them  curious  and  rare.  The  catalogue  of  these  books  is 
carefully  preserved  in  the  parish  chest,  but  the  books 
themselves  are  nowhere  to  be  found."  —  George's  Wester- 
ham  Journal,  April  1,  1844. 

Westerham  church  has  unfortunately  often  fallen 
into  bad  hands  :  its  library  has  gone,  many  of  its 
brasses  have  been  removed,  in  some  instances  by 
those  who  should  have  protected  them.  A  writer 
in  the  Gent's  Mag.,  1807,  complains  of  seeing 
one  acting  as  fender  to  the  clerk's  fire-place! 
There  are  several  excellent  specimens  still  exist- 
ing, one  of  which  has  been  recently  engraved  by 
Mr.  Dunkin  in  his  History  of  Kent ;  but  if  not  re- 
moved to  some  other  part  of  the  church,  or  aflSxed 
to  the  wall  near,  it  will  (being  just  within  the 
porch)  be  worn  to  a  level  with  the  paving.  But 
all  has  been  "  low  and  slow:"  a  fine  roof  lath  and 
plastered  over,  pews  like  sheep  pens,  windows  cut 

about,  and  everything  done  to  deface  and  to  spoil 
what  otherwise  would  have  been  an  imposing, 
though  not  handsome,  structure. 

I  believe,  however,  that  a  different  spirit  in 
some  measure  has  been  awakened,  and  that  there 
are  those  now  who  would  prevent  any  further 
devastation.  H.  G.  D. 

Validity  of  English  Orders  (2"''  S.  i.  476.)  — 
No  one  doubts  that  the  practice  in  the  church  of 
Home  is,  and  long  has  been,  to  deny  the  validity 
of  English  orders ;  but  it  is  a  curious  point  of 
history  that  this  practice  was  by  no  means  uniform 
at  the  time  of  the  Reformation.  Thus  Latimer 
was  taken  for  no  true  bishop,  and  not  degraded 
from  the  episcopal  order,  while  several  others 
who  had  been  consecrated  exactly  as  Latimer  was, 
but  conformed  under  Queen  Mary,  were  at  once 
acknowledged  bishops,  without  re-consecration. 

ft.  7-  5. 

Religious  Play  before  Henry  VITI.  at  Green- 
wich in  1527  (2'">  S.  ii.  24.)— C.  M.  has  failed  to 
remark  the  errors  made  by  Mr.  Froude  in  his  rno- 
derniscd  version  of  tlie  old  account  respecting 
this  play.  They  ai*e  of  more  importance  than  the 
question  whether  Mr.  Froude  copied  from  Mr. 
Colliei',  or  not;  whilst  they  pretty  clearly  show 
that  he  did  not  copy  from  the  Annals  of  the  Stage, 
as  docs  the  circumstance  of  Mr.  Froude  quoting 
from  the  Rolls  House,  where  the  MS.  is  now  de- 
posited, instead  of  the  Chapter  House,  where  it  was 
when  Mr.  Collier  wrote.  Mr.  Froude  has  omitted 
two  of  the  dramatis  persona,  the  Poet,  and  one  of 
the  ladies  of  Bohemia,  named  Corruption  of  Scrip- 
ture ;  the  three  orthodox  characters,  Religio, 
Ecclesia,  and  Veritas,  he  has  converted  into 
widows  instead  of  novices,  and  their  veils  into 
"  suits"  of  lawn  and  cypress.  Neither  Mr.  Froude 
nor, Mr.  Collier  explain  how  Luther  was  "lyke  a 
party  freer;"  but  I  imagine  the  term  applies  to 
his  costume :  he  was  "  in  russet  damaske  and  blahe 
taffata," — a  sort  oi  party  or  mongrel  friar,  some- 
thing like  a  wet  Quaker.  Neither  is  it  explained 
how  it  was  that  the  children  of  Paul's  required  so 
many  as  six  boats  for  their  conveyance  to  court : 
but  I  have  little  doubt  that  the  six  boats  vyere,  as 
six  cabs  might  be  now,  employed  at  six  different 
times,  either  at  six  several  visits  to  the  court  (for 
the  rehearsals  as  well  as  the  performance),  or  for 
three  visits,  one  boat  on  each  occasion  being  hired 
for  going  to  Greenwich,  and  the  other  for  re- 
turning. J-  G.  Nichols. 

Numerous  Families  (2"^  S.  ii.  39.)  —  In  the 
church  of  St.  Nicolas,  at  Ghent,  there  is  a  tablet 
to  the  memory  of  Oliver  Minjau  and  Amalberga 
Slangen,  his  wife,  who  were  the  parents  of  thirty- 
one  children,  twenty-one  boys  and  ten  girls.  Old 
Oliver  appeared  at  the  head  of  his  twenty-one 
sons,  all  in  uniform,  when  Charles  V.  made  his 

2°d  S.  No  30.,  July  2C.  '56.  ] 



entry  Into  Ghent  as  Count  of  Flanders.  Chai-les 
was  so  pleased  at  the  fiict  of  a  simple  artisan 
bringing  up  and  educating  such  a  family,  that  he 
conferred  on  Oliver  a  modest  pension.  The  re- 
nowned Count  of  Abensberg,  when  the  Emperor 
Henry  II.  visited  his  German  provinces,  presented 
his  thirty-two  children  as  the  most  acceptable 
offering  he  could  make  to  his  sovereign.  The 
Count  was  happier  with  them  than  poor  Minjau 
and  his  wife  Amalberga  with  theirs.  The  thirty- 
one  children  of  this  Ghent  couple  were  carried  off 
together,  in  1526,  by  the  suette^  which  we  have  no 
difficulty  (as  It  Is  called  the  newly  Imported  En- 
glish disease)  In  recognising  as  the  Mack  stveat  of 
England.  Minjau  and  his  wife  died  within  a  few 
weeks  after  the  loss  of  all  their  children,  among 
whom  they  lie  interred.  Their  monument  Is  the 
most  affecting  of  the  many  memorials  of  the  dead 
raised  in  populous  Ghent.  J.  Doran. 

JrisJi  Round  Towers  (2"'^  S.  11.  44.) — In  reply 
to  J.  M.  G.,  I  beg  leave  to  express  my  dissent 
from  his  statement,  that  the  origin  of  these  towers 
Is  a  profound  mystery.  I  have  myself  visited  and 
examined  a  majority  of  them  ;  and  have  read,  I 
believe,  all  that  has  been  published  about  them, 
and  have  not  the  slightest  doubt  that  they  were 
belfries,  as  their  ancient,  as  well  as  present  native, 
denomination  imports,  clochus.  I  cannot  but  think 
that  It  would  be  a  sad  waste  of  your  space  to  re- 
produce the  absurd  theories  with  which  this  really 
very  simple  question  has  been  perplexed.  C. 

The  best  theory  that  I  have  heard,  as  to  the 
origin  of  the  round  towers,  was  one  current  in  the 
famine  years,  when  all  kinds  of  useless  labour 
were  devised  for  the  employment  of  the  poor.  It 
was  simply  this — there  was  a  Board  of  Works  In 
those  days.  X.  II. 

Shoivlng  the  While  Feather  (P'  S.  v.  274.  309.) 
—  In  Andrew  Borde's  Bohe  of  the  Introduction  of 
Knoivledge,  1542,  I  find,  under  the  head  Navarre  : 

"  The  chiefe  towne  is  Pampilona,  and  there  is  another 
towne  called  Saj'nte  Domyngo,  in  the  whj-che  towne  there 
is  a  church,  in  the  whiche  is  kept  a  white  cocke  and  a 
hene.  And  euery  pijgrime  that  goeth  or  commyth  yt 
way  to  Saynt  James  in  Compostel  hath  a  whit  feder  to 
set  on  his  hat." 

Borde  then  proceeds  to  tell  a  marvellous  tale 
about  this  cock  and  hen  ;  which,  however,  do  not 
appear  to  be  connected  with  the  pilgrim's  white 
feather,  otherwise  than  in  his  inexplicit  language. 

J.  P. 


The  Ten  Commandments  (2"'^  S.  I.  503.)  —  For 
the  sake  of  information  and  not  controversy,  will 
F.  C.  H.  be  so  good  as  to  give  the  editions,  dates, 
&c.,  of  "  the  [Roman-Catholic]  catechisms  used 
by  authority  in  this  country  "  i|i  wbich  the  Com- 

mandments are  taught  at  length  ?  Dr.  M'^Caul 
In  a  tract  published  a  few  years  ago  stated  that 
he  could  find  only  one  or  two  such  in  the  world. 

/3.  y.  5. 

Jacobite  Song  (2"''  S.  11.  43.)  —  There  Is  a  mis- 
print in  this  song  which  Is  worth  correcting : 
"  Monarchy  halters"  should  be  "  Monarchy 

In  the  "  Political  Poem,"  in  p.  46.,  "  trump" 
is  obviously  a  mistake  for  '■'■triumph"  C. 

Kneller's  Portrait  of  Shahspeare  (2"''  S.  ii.  45.) 
—  The  following  note  from  Sir  Walter  Scott's 
Dryden  (vol.  xi.  p.  87.)  will  furnish  your  corre- 
spondent with  the  information  of  which  he  is  in 
search  :  — 

"  The  portrait  was  copied  from  one  in  the  possession  of 
Mr.  Betterton,  and  afterwards  in  that  of  the  Chandos 
famih'.  Twelve  engravings  were  executed  fi'oni  this 
painting,  which,  however,  the  ingenious  Mr.  Stevens 
[Steevens?],  and  other  commentators  on  Shakspeare, 
pronounced  a  forgery.  The  copy  presented  by  Kneller  to 
Dryden  is  in  the  collection  of  Earl  Fitzwilliam  at  Went- 
worth  House;  and  may  claim  that  veneration,  from 
having  been  the  object  of  our  author's  respect  and  en- 
thusiasm, which  has  been  denied  to  its  original,  as  a 
genuine  portrait  of  Shakspeare.  It  is  not,  however,  an 
admitted  point  that  the  Chandos  picture  is  a  forgery: 
the  contrary  has  been  keenly  maintained ;  and  Mr. 
Malone's  opinion  has  given  weight  to  who  have 
espoused  its  defence." 

J.  Y. 

Crooked  Naves  (2"*^  S.  I.  432.)  —  An  Instance 
of  a  crooked  clioir  occurs  in  Christ  Church,  Dub- 
lin. The  building  takes  a  very  decided  bend  to 
the  north.  It  is  remarkable  that  the  east  window 
of  this  cathedral  is  placed  much  nearer  to  one  side 
(the  south,  I  think,)  than  the  other.  It  looks  as  If 
intended  to  compensate  for  the  bend  in  the  choir. 

C.  II.  S.  (Clk.) 

''Siuang,"  "Wong"  "Wang"  (2"''  S.  i.  471. 
522.)  —  At  Tickhill,  co.  York,  are  lands,  all  or 
mostly  meadow,  called  the  North  Wongs,  South 
Wongs,  Saffron  Wongs,  and  Church  Wongs. 



"  Southey's  Letters  shoAv  his  true  character,"  is  the 
motto,  from  one  who  knew  him  well,  quoted  on  the  title- 
page  of  the  Selections  from  t/ie  Letters  of  Robert  Soul/iey, 
of  which  the  third  and  fourth  volumes,  "edited  by  his  son- 
in-law,  the  Rev.  John  Wood  Warter,  are  now  before  us. 
We  think  this  motto  might  be  amended,  and  that  to  get 
Southey's  true  character,  we  should  have  all  his  letters, 
and  not  a  selection,  from  which  to  form  our  judgment. 
On  the  appearance  of  the  former  volumes  we  spoke 
warmly  in  their  favour ;  and  if  our  notice  of  those  which 
are  now  published  is  more  tempered,  it  is  because  we  feel 
that  ja»5tic9  to  Southey  himself,  as  w«U  aa  to  many  others, 



[2nd  g.  No  30.,  J0LY  26.  '5G. 

of  whom,  under  the  influence  of  supposed  wrong,  he  writes 
angrily,  not  to  say  unjustly,  should  have"  dictated  many 
omissions.  There  is  no  more  delicate  task  than  that  of 
selecting  from  the  papers  of  those  who  have  died  full  of 
fame  and  honours  those  which  may  most  fairly  and 
justly  be  given  to  the  world.  In  his  love  and  reverence 
for  the  name  of  Robert  Southey,  and  his  belief  that 
Southey  could  do  no  wrong,  his  editor  has  not  made  those 
suppi-essions  which  we  are  sure  Southey  himself  would 
have  insisted  on.  Such  omissions  would  have  added 
greatly  to  the  charm  of  a  book  which  Avill  still  be  read 
with  interest  bj'  all  the  admirers  of  the  Laureate. 

Tiie  new  number  of  The  Quarterhj  Review  opens  with  a 
well  Avritten  article,  on  that  historical  and  religious 
mystery,  Savonarola  :  this  is  followed  by  one  on  the  new 
volumes  of  Grote,  which  are  highly  praised  by  the  writer  ; 
and  a  graphic  and  picturesque  article  on  The  Causes  of 
the  Civil  War,  completes  the  list  of  historical  papers. 
The  political  articles  treat  on  The  Papal  Government  and 
The  Dispute  ivith  America ;  and  the  gossiping  article, 
always  a  good  one  in  The  Quarterlif,  is  that  entitled  The 
Police  and  the  Thieves. 

How  much  of  its  present  popularity  Walton's  Angler  owes 
to  the  piscatorial  tendencies  of  our  publishers  is  a  pretty 
matter  for  speculation.  To  that  cause  we  are  certainly 
indebted  for  the  beautiful  editions  of  Bagster,  John  Major, 
and  Pickering ;  and  to  this  list  we  have  now  to  add  one 
brought  out  by  Bobn,  of  great  beauty  and  marvellous 
cheapness,  under  the  editorship  and  supervision  of  Mr. 
Jesse, but  with  large  contributions  from  his  own  pen ,  When 
we  say  that  this  edition  contains  upwards  of  two  hundred 
Avoodcuts,  and  six-and-twenty  engravings  on  steel,  our 
readers  will  readily  admit  that  this  7s.  M.  volume  of 
Bohn's  Illustrated  Library  offers  to  ever.v  lover  of  dear 
old  Izaak  an  opportunity  of  secui-ing  a  handsome  copy  of 
this  quaint,  delightful,  and  world-renowned  book. 

Much  as  we  prize  Croker's  Boswell  in  one  volume,  a 
most  useful,  indeed,  indispensable  companion  to  the 
writing  table  of  all  literary  men,  we  are  well  pleased  to 
hear  that  a  new  edition  of  it,  in  four  volumes,  is  pre- 
paring for  publication  in  Murray's  Series  of  British 
Classics.  It  will  be  a  most  valuable  addition  to  this 
cheap  and  handsome  Series  ;  especially  as  the  editor  will 
of  course  take  advantage  of  all  that  has  been  lately  pro- 
duced upon  the  subject,  to  make  it,  not  a  mere  reprint, 
but  a  new  edition. 

We  cannot  resist  calling  the  attention  of  the  admirers 
of  the  poet  Cowper  to  the  fact,  that  no  less  than  foi-ty- 
four  of  his  letters  (twenty-one  of  which  are  unpublished) 
are  to  be  sold  by  Messrs.  Puttick  &  Simpson  in  the  Col- 
lection of  Autographs  belonging  to  the  late  Mr.  Lambe, 
announced  for  sale  by  them  next  week. 

Who  has  not  heard  of  the  celebrated  Athenian 
Stuart,  perhaps  better  known  to  the  last  than  to  the 
present  generation ;  but  still  revered  by  all  true  lovers  of 
the  Fine  Arts  for  the  splendid  work  bearing  his  honoured 
name  —  The  Antiquities  of  Athens.  The  notices  of  his 
death  in  1788  inform  us,  that  the  worthy  artist  and 
architect  survived  but  a  short  time  the  death  of  his  dar- 
ling boy,  the  "  very  image  and  superscription  "  of  himself 
botli  in  body  and  mind,  who  manifested  a  most  astonish- 
ing turn  for  drawing  even  before  he  was  three  years  of 
age,  and  would  imitate  with  pen  and  pencil  everything 
lying  on  his  father's  table.  Another  son  was  living  at 
the  lime  of  his  death,  "  a  fine  boj',"  then  at  Mr.  Burney's 
boarding-school  at  Hammersmith.  Many  an  octogena- 
rian will  be  glad  to  learn,  that  this  "fine  boy"  (now 
Lieut.  James  Stuart,  R.N.),  the  worthy  son  of  a  worth}' 
father,  might  have  been  seen  a  few  days  since  at  the 
Architectural  Library  in  High  Holborn,  where  he  was 
presented  by  Mr.  John  Weale,  in  a  most  handsome  man- 

ner, with  proof  impressions  of  plates  of  his  father  and 
of  the  companion  of  his  travels,  Nicolas  Kevett. 



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fifiiUti  ta  Corr«^i)0uU«Ui*. 

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2°*  S.  NO  31.,  Aug.  2.  '56.] 



LONDON,  SATURDAY,  AUGUST  2, 1856.  ] 

Some  years  ago  it  would  have  been  difficult  to 
find  the  Greek  text  of  the  Organon  (as  the  mo- 
derns call  it)  in  a  separate  form.  Beginners,  who 
have  not  acquired  the  profligate  habits  of  book 
collectors,  would  never  think  of  buying  the  five 
volumes  of  Buhle  (Strasburg,  1791,  &c.,  8vo.),  or 
the  four  volumes  of  Bekker  (Berlin,  1831,  &c., 
4to.),  or  even  the  large  single  volume  of  Weise 
(Leipsic,  1843,  4to.),  for  the  Organon  only.  In 
our  day  the  best  plan  would  be  to  get  the  ^}~st 
volume  of  Didot's  Aristotle  (Paris,  1848,  large 
octavo),  which  is  sold  separately,  and  contains  the 
Organon,  the  Rhetoric,  the  Poetics,  and  the  Po- 
litics. The  Latin  runs  by  the  side  of  the  Greek, 
and  the  type  is  beautiful.  The  greatest  defect  is 
that  the  Rhetoric  begins  on  the  over  leaf — or  verso, 
as  the  learned  say  —  of  the  end  of  the  Organon  ; 
so  that  any  one  who  would  like  to  have  a  separate 
interleaved  copy  of  the  first,  must  spoil  the  se- 
cond. It  is  a  pity  that  publishers  do  not  think  of 
such  things.  But  it  must  be  owned  that  it  is  not 
uncommon  to  find  a  case  the  rhetoric  of  which 
would  never  have  a  beginning  if  its  logic  were 
but  allowed  to  go  on  to  its  proper  end. 

For  those  who  would  rather  not  read  the  Or- 
ganon in  Greek  or  Latin,  but  would  nevertheless 
like  to  get  a  taste  of  the  Greek,  whether  for  use 
or  show,  there  is  the  small  work  of  F.  A.  Trende- 
lenberg,  Elementa  Logices  Aristotelicce,  Berlin, 
1842,  8vo.,  2nd  edition.  This  work  contains  (Gr. 
Lat.  with  notes)  such  selected  passages  as  give  an 
outline  of  the  system,  and  especially  of  its  phrase- 
ology. These  passages,  translated  into  English, 
form  the  article  "  Organon  "  in  the  Supplement  of 
the  Penny  Cyclopadia. 

I  am  not  aware  of  any  Latin  Organon,  without 
Greek,  which  can  be  easily  got  at.  But  never 
having  met  with  any  Latin  translations  of  Greek 
philosophy  which  were  intelligible  without  the 
Greek  to  explain  them,  I  should  probably  not 
venture  to  recommend  such  a  thing,  if  I  had  found 

In  French  there  are  two  works  of  the  highest 
character  :  both  by  M.  Barthelemy  St.  Hilaire. 
The  first,  La  Logique  (TAristote,  Paris,  1838,  two 
vols.  8vo.,  containing  a  complete  account  and 
analysis  of  the  Organon,  with  all  the  Greek  terms 
added,  as  they  occur,  in  parentheses.  The  second, 
Logique  (TAristote,  a  complete  translation,  Paris, 
1844,  1839,  1842,  1843,  four  vols.  8vo.,  with  the 
plan  of  each  book  prefixed.  This  is  the  first 
French  translation. 

The  first  English  translation  of  .the  Organon 
was  made  by  Thomas  Taylor,  called  tlie  Platonist, 
a  very  remarkable  man,  of  whom  the  fullest  ac- 

count is  in  the  Penny  Cyclopcedia.  He  spent  his 
life  in  reviving  Greek  philosophy,  and  it  is  said 
that,  by  his  enthusiasm,  he  induced  patrons  who 
had  money  to  print  his  translations  to  the  amount 
of  ten  thousand  pounds.  The  Organon  was  trans- 
lated by  Taylor  for  a  wealthy  retired  tradesman, 
named  Meredith,  who  had  read  Plato  in  Taylor's 
translation,  and  desired  to  read  Aristotle.  Taylor 
undertook  the  task,  on  condition  that  Meredith 
should  print  it ;  but  the  number  of  copies  was  very 
small.  It  was  published  in  quarto,  in  1807,  with 
the  title.  The  Organon,  or  Logical  Treatises  of 
Aristotle  .  .  .  with  copious  Elucidations  from 
the  Commentaries  of  Ammonius  and  Simplicius.  I 
suppose  this  very  volume  afterwards  formed  part 
of  Taylor's  complete  translation  of  Aristotle,  pub- 
lished in  nine  volumes  quarto,  in  1812. 

Taylor's  curious  Platonism,  and  his  desire  to 
revive  even  the  very  mythology  of  the  Greeks,  in 
some  sense  or  other,  caused  him  to  be  regarded  as 
a  kind  of  madman  ;  and  this  opinion  has  been  pre- 
judicial to  a  fair  judgment  of  his  works.  His 
translations  are  difficult,  because  they  are  so  • 
Greek ;  but  they  have  a  merit  which  begins  to  be 
acknowledged.  Mr.  Owen,  presently  mentioned, 
calls  him  "  my  solitary  predecessor  in  this  labo- 
rious undertaking,  whose  strict  integrity  in  en- 
deavouring to  give  the  meaning  of  the  text  de- 
serves the  highest  commendation."  But  the  work 
is  so  very  scarce  that  it  is  needless  to  discuss  it  as 
a  means  by  which  any  one  who  chooses  may  know 
Aristotle.  I  suspect  that  what  a  distinguished 
living  writer  said  of  Cousin,  "  The  reader  must  be 
mindful  to  judge  of  Plato  by  M.  Cousin's  trans- 
lations of  the  dialogues,  and  not  by  M.  Cousin's 
prefaces  to  them,"  will  also  apply  to  Taylor. 
Still,  the  opinion  of  the  man  who  lived  and  moved 
and  had  his  being  in  Greek  philosophy  must 
always  be  worthy  of  attention. 

The  second,  and  as  yet  the  best,  English  trans- 
lation of  the  Organon  is  published  in  Bohn's 
Classical  Library :  The  Organon,  or  JjOgical  Trea- 
tises of  Aristotle,  London,  1853,  two  vols,  small 
8vo,,  translated  by  the  Rev.  O.  F.  Owen.  This 
translation  has  copious  notes,  and  is  a  very  great 
boon  to  the  student.  Not  that  it  is  easy  :  in  fact, 
a  translation  of  Aristotle,  to  be  easy,  must  be, 
not  Aristotle,  but  only  a  presentation  of  the  trans- 
lator's idea  of  Aristotle.  Taylor  and  Owen  do 
not  read  like  English,  nor  does  Barthelemy  St. 
Hilaire  read  like  French ;  there  is  a  certain 
Greekishness  about  them  all.  Had  it  been  other- 
wise, we  should  have  had  less  of  a  translation,  and 
more  of  a  paraphrase. 

A  small  portion  of  the  Organon,  the  "  Posterior 
Analytics,"  has  been  translated  by  E.  Poste,  A.M., 
of  Oriel  College,  under  the  name  of  the  Logic  of 
Science,  Oxford,  1850,  8vo.,  with  notes  and  an 
introductory  sketch  of  the  Organon.  This  is 
more  English,  and  therefore  more  intelligible,  than 



[2nd  s.  No  31.,  Aug.  2.  '56. 

the  other  translations  ;  but  it  is  therefore  more  of 
a  paraphrase,  and  less  of  a  translation. 

Perhaps  others  may  be  able  to  give  information 
of  some  things  of  the  same  kind  with  which  I  am 
unacquainted.  A.  De  Mobgan. 


The  Country  Party  and  a  Standing  Army.  — 
Mr.  Macaulay,  vol.  ii.  p.  23.,  represents  the  coun- 
try party  as  strongly  opposing  the  demand  made 
in  the  Speech  from  the  Throne,  Nov.  9,  1685,  for 
a  supply  to  maintain  a  standing  army. 

"  He  tells  us  that  Sir  William  Twysden,  member 
for  the  county  of  Kent,  spoke  on  the  same  side 
with  great  keenness  and  loud  applause." 

This  Sir  William  was  son  and  heir  of  the  learned 
Sir  Roger,  and  was  himself  no  mean  scholar. 
Among  the  papers  from  Roydon  Hall,  now  in  my 
possession,  is  his  autograph  note  of  two  speeches 
which  he  made  on  this  occasion.  The  first  was  in 
the  debate  on  12th  November,  in  a  Committee  of 
the  whole  House  to  consider  the  Speech  from  the 
Throne,  as  follows : 

"  The  case  seems  to  mee  to  bee  of  great  weight ; 
wee  may  call  it  what  we  will,  it  is  the  settling  a 
standing  army  by  law,  and  charging  the  kingdome 
with  a  taxe  for  the  maintaining  it,  things  quite 
contrary  to  all  the  maximes  our  ancestors  have 
gone  by,  who  have  alwayes  endeavoured  the  sub- 
ject should  stand  in  awe  of  officers  of  justice,  but 
not  of  ofKcers  of  warr.  I  am  as  much  as  any  man 
for  tlie  king's  having  good  guards ;  I  think  it 
agreeable  to  the  majesty  of  a  king,  to  the  security 
of  his  person ;  but  I  think  the  kingdome  best 
guarded  by  lawe.  I  remember  in  the  one-and- 
twentyeth  of  Edward  the  Third  {Hot.  Par.,21  E.  3. 
n.  70.),  the  king  asked  advice  of  his  parliament, 
how  the  peace  of  his  kingdome  should  best  bee 
kept ;  they  did  not  advise  him  to  a  standing  army 
for  the  keeping  it ;  they  advised  him  to  send  com- 
missioners into  the  several  countyes  to  punish  the 
breakers  of  it.  Wee  are  now  in  a  perfaict  quiet 
peace ;  all  heads  of  partyes  and  of  factions  taken  of; 
there  seemes  now  to  bee  as  little  need  of  an  army 
as  can  bee  at  any  time  ;  and  truly,  when  it  is  not 
wanted,  I  think  the  kingdome  as  safe  without  it 
as  it  can  bee  by  it.  The  truth  is,  armyes  have  so 
often  done  more  hurt  to  governments  then  good, 
and  do  so  generally,  where  they  are,  take  a  most 
uncontrouleable  authority  in  the  managing  of  it, 
that  men  are  justly  afraid  of  them.  It  is  said  the 
case  of  the  late  Duke  of  Monmouth  seemes  to 
shew  the  necessity  of  a  standing  army ;  and  it  is 
pressed,  truely  with  great  force,  not  onely  by  the 
king  in  his  speech,  but  by  those  noble  lords  there 
at  the  barr.  To  my  apprehension,  the  argument 
will  hardly  beare  the  weight  is  layd  on  it.     Wee 

all  know  how  much  that  man  was  the  favourite  of 
a  faction  ;  that  hee  landed  in  a  part  of  England  of 
all  other  the  most  inclined  to  him.  Yet,  with  all 
this,  no  one  gentleman,  no  one  man  of  any  quality, 
joyned  themselves  to  him  ;  nay,  quite  contrary, 
did  their  duty  in  opposing  him  :  and  that  rabble 
that  he  had  gathered  together,  though  headed  by 
officers  that  himselfe  brought  with  him,  were  in 
plaine  fighting  beaten  by  eighteen  hundred  men. 
Sir,  if  the  consequence  of  this  bee  the  necessity  of 
a  standing  army,  it  is  a  strange  thing  wee  have 
lived  so  long  without  one  ;  for  most  certain  it  is, 
there  have  been  very  few  raignes  since  the  Con- 
quest, in  which  there  have  not  been  more  consider- 
able disturbances  than  this  can  amount  to.  I  will 
not  disturbe  you  long ;  that  therefore  which  I 
shall  humbly  move  is,  that  wee  may  first  consider 
whether  a  standing  army  bee  necessary,  before 
wee  do  of  a  supply  for  the  maintaining  it." 

"  This  was   spoken   by  mee   November  12, 
1685,  as  neer  as  I  can  remember  it." 

The  other  speech  was  in  a  Committee  of  Supply, 
16th  Nov.,  as  follows  : 

"  It  hath  generally  been  the  prudence  of  this 
house,  that  in  cases  that  are  new  and  are  of  great 
importance,  to  make  their  first  acts  temporary, 
and  of  probation  onely.  This  that  is  before  us,  is 
perfaictly  new.  An  establishment  for  the  main- 
taining a  standing  force  (I  do  not  say  a  standing 
army,  for  that  wee  have  all  declared  ourselves 
against)  is  what  our  ancestors  were  never  ac- 
quainted with.  Let  us,  therefore,  see  how  the 
subject  will  like  it ;  whether  it  will  sitt  easy  upon 
him,  before  wee  conclude  him  for  too  long  a  time. 
It  is  of  mighty  importance ;  wee  cannot  foresee 
the  consequences  of  it.  Let  us  not,  therefore, 
conclude  ourselves  neither,  so  as  to  leave  no 
roome  for  a  succeeding  parliament,  or  Sessions  of 
Parliament,  to  alter  or  amend  what  by  experience 
may  bee  found  necessary.  That,  therefore,  which 
I  shall  humbly  move  is,  that  wee  may  proportion 
our  gift,  so  as  that  the  establishment  may  not 
exceed  two  yeers,  which  foure  hundred  thousand 
pounds  will  fully  do." 

"  This  was   spoken   by  mee   November  16, 
1685,  as  near  as  I  can  recollect  it." 

The  substance  of  the  first  of  these  speeches  is 
given  correctly  (though  condensed  into  eight 
lines)  in  The  several  Delates  of  the  House  of 
Commons,  pro  et  contra,  relating  to  the  Establish- 
ment  of  a  Militia,  ^c,  Sfc;  begining  9th  No- 
vember, 1685,  and  ending  the  20th  day  of  the  same 
Month,  SfC.  S)-c.  SfC.     London.     8vo.     1689. 

In  the  debate  in  the  Committee  of  Supply,  Nov. 
16,  Sir  William's  speech  is  in  that  work  totally 
misrepresented.  L.  B.  L. 

2»d  S.  No  31.,  Aug.  2.  '66.] 




The  following  article,  which  occurs  in  the 
Political  Magazine,  reports  an  interesting  extract 
from  M.  de  Calonne's  reply  to  M.  Necker,  the 
French  Minister  of  Finance.  As  the  prayer  of 
an  eminent  statesman  of  the  last  century,  it  will 
not  perhaps  be  denied  a  little  space  in  the  columns 
of'N.  &Q.": 

"  An  Address  to  the  English  and  Fiench  Nations, 
"  M.  de  Calonne,  after  saying  that  he  wishes  to  be  able 
to  preserve  in  future  an  eternal  silence,  and  that  he  shall 
wait  tranquilly,  and  with  resignation,  the  events  which 
fortune  has  in  store  for  him,  being  desirous  to  devote  his 
attention  to  science,  to  letters,  and  the  arts ;  and  after 
declaring  that  he  shall  never  cease  to  remember  the  con- 
fidence reposed  in  him  by  his  king,  or  lose  the  regrets 
which  naturally  belong  to  his  native  country,  concludes 
as  follows :  — 

"  Shall  it  be  a  crime,  in  the  mean  time,  to  enjoy  the 
consolation  I  feel  in  the  reception  of  a  nation,  which 
every  day  makes  me  experience  its  kindness,  and  more 
acquainted  with  its  virtues;  of  a  free  and  considerate 
nation,  where  their  thoughts  rise  above  conditions, 
where  disgrace  is  no  stain,  and  where  honourable  senti- 
ments have  more  credit  than  an  appearance  of  being  in 
favour.  I  am  seen  with  indulgence,  anticipated  with 
affability,  and  even  treated  with  more  distinction  than  I 
desire.  I  find  well-informed  men  of  every  description ; 
I  may  make  useful  observations  on  the  arts,  on  industry, 
and  on  commerce,  which  I  can  communicate  again 
without  violating  the  laws  of  hospitality :  I  can  even 
hope  for  true  friends.  Let  this  eulogium,  frank  as  the 
country  is  in  which  I  write,  occasion  neither  surprise  nor 
offence.  Having  never  dissimulated,  shall  I  now  stifle  a 
truth  connected  with  gratitude?  This  sentiment  exists, 
and  always  will  exist,  without  displacing  from  my  bosom 
those  which  my  birth,  my  duty,  and  the  indelible  love  of 
my  country,  have  engraved  there.  Wh}-  should  not 
these  feelings  sympathise?  Oh!  that  their  accord  may 
become  more  natural  by  the  most  desirable  of  unions  :  by 
the  accomplishment  of  that  wish,  which,  according  to 
some  historians,  was  formed  by  the  most  beloved  monarch ; 
that  wish,  which  humanity  dictates,  and  which  an  intel- 
ligent policy  seems  equally  to  suggest  to  two  nations,  the 
most  worthy  of  each  other's  regard,  and  the  least  in- 
terested to  injure  each  other.  Must  a  fatal  rivalship 
always  disunite,  and  too  often  arm  against  each  other, 
two  people,  whose  natural  position  offers  no  subject  of 
dispute ;  and  who,  owing  to  their  reciprocal  advantages, 
have  nothing  for  which  to  envy  each  other  ?  As  their 
division  is  the  support  of  the  hostilities  of  others,  their 
alliance  would  be  the  seal  of  universal  peace.  They  alone 
are  in  a  condition  to  furnish  the  expences  of  a  long  war ; 
and  when  discord  springs  up,  by  the  quarrels  of  the  other 
princes,  they  alone,  if  they  are  dupes  enough  to  take 
part,  sacrifice  commerce,  treasure,  and  prosperity.  O 
nations,  without  contradiction  the  most  enlightened  of 
all  upon  the  globe,  be  better  acquainted  with  your  true 
interests !  As  enemies,  you  can  only  mutually  exhaust 
your  strength,  and  vainly  drench  the  earth  with  your 
blood  ;  as  friends,  you  can  impose  on  the  earth  the  mild  con- 
dition of  general  tranquillity.  When  can  there  be  a  more 
favourable  conjuncture  for  forming  the  hope  of  seeing 
you  partaking  in,  or  rather  exercising  together,  this  truly 
divine  function,  than  when  each  has  the  happiness  to  be 
governed  by  a  moderate,  pacific,  and  virtuous  king  ?  " 

F.  Phillott. 


Stag  Beetle.  —  The  late  Mr.  George  Samouelle, 
of  the  British  Museum,  used  to  relate  a  story  con- 
cerning the  above  insect,  of  which  I  should  like 
to  know  if  it  obtains  in  many  parts  of  England. 
During  one  of  his  excursions  to  or  in  the  New 
Forest,  he  saw  a  number  of  countrymen  assembled 
at  the  foot  of  a  tree  stoning  something  to  death. 
On  approaching  he  found  a  poor  stag-beetle  the 
subject  of  attack.  Causing  them  to  desist,  he 
picked  up  the  poor  thing  and  put  it  into  a  box, 
asking  at  the  same  time  why  it  was  to  be  stoned 
to  death.  He  was  told  it  was  the  devil's  imp, 
and  was  sent  to  do  some  evil  to  the  corn,  which 
I  have  forgotten.  Whether  Mr.  S.  was  considered 
the  identical  gentleman-in-black  or  not  it  is  im- 
possible to  say ;  but  I  know  he  used  to  laugh  at 
the  stupid  staring  wonder  of  the  countrymen,  and 
the  trouble  he  had  to  elicit  a  reply  to  his  own 
ignorance.  Avon  Lea. 

Railway  Custom.  —  While  passing  from  Ghent 
to  Antwerp,  in  1855,  through  the  Pays  de  Waes,  I 
observed  a  singular  custom,  of  which  I  could  not 
obtain  any  explanation.  When  the  railway  train 
was  in  motion,  the  labourers,  both  men  and  wo- 
men, engaged  in  the  fields,  joined  hands,  formed 
themselves  in  line  ;  and  either  turning  their  backs 
on  the  carriages,  or  at  right  angles  with  them, 
bent,  and  in  some  cases  knelt  down,  preserving 
this  attitude  until  the  train  had  passed.  It  is 
worth  noting,  that  only  such  as  were  engaged  on 
a  piece  of  ground  where  there  were  crops  growing 
acted  in  this  way ;  those  standing  on  the  road,  or 
on  ploughed  land,  taking  no  notice  of  the  train  at 
all,  nor  Indeed  did  any  do  so  save  while  it  was 
actually  moving.  I  have  never  seen  or  heard  of 
this  custom  elsewhere.  R.  F.  L. 


Fairies.  —  While  on  the  subject  of  folk-lore  I 
may  mention  the  following  from  the  same  county 
(Hertfordshire).  Near  St.  Albans  (my  grand- 
father used  to  relate)  lived  a  farmer  who  was 
beloved  by  fairies.  It  mattered  not  how  bad  his 
crop  of  wheat  was  in  the  autumn,  he  always  had 
corn  in  his  barn  as  long  as  there  was  any  in  the 
district.  Of  this  his  neighbours  were  jealous;  in- 
deed, so  much  so,  that  some  of  them  inwardly 
believed  he  augmented  his  corn  while  they  were 
asleep  ;  but  though  they  often  set  a  watch  he  was 
never  caught  in  the  act.  One  night  his  dogs  were 
uneasy,  and  he,  arising,  saw  a  man  creeping  away 
from  the  homestead.  He  peeped  into  his  barn  to 
see  if  all  were  safe,  when  what  should  he  behold 
but  the  fairies  at  work  augmenting  his  stores. 
There  was  a  loud  buzz  in  the  place,  and  hearing  a 
little  fairy  say  to  another,  "  How  I  do  tweat !  " 
he  answered  "  Ye  must  sweat  most  darnably  with 
one  ear."    Immediately  the  whole  company  took 



[2nds.  No3l.,AuG.  2. 

flight,  and  the  result  was  there  was  a  line  of  straws 
from  the  farmer's  barn  to  one  of  his  neighbour's, 
which  remained  till  the  morning,  when  the  neigh- 
bour brought  an  accusation  against  the  farmer  for 
theft.  The  evidence  of  the  man  who  was  lurking 
about  the  homestead  on  his  own  account  was 
brought  against  him ;  the  line  of  straws  was  cir- 
cumstantial evidence,  as  well  as  the  suspicion  of 
the  neighbourhood  ;  but  as  the  neighbour  had  had 
a  man  watching  in  his  own  barn,  who  had  not 
seen  the  farmer  enter,  he  was  acquitted.  The 
watchman  of  the  neighbour  had  been  sent  to  sleep 
by  the  fairies,  but  this  part  of  the  evidence  had 
been  withheld.  However,  from  that  day  forth 
the  young  farmer  was  thought  not  too  honest,  and 
the  neighbours'  suspicions  were  confirmed  by  his 
bam  ever  after  becoming  empty  at  its  proper 
period.  Avon  Lea. 


Question  as  to  the  authenticity  of  the  Bull  of 
Adrian  IV.  (Pope),  conferring  the  dominion  of 
Ireland  on  Henry  II.  of  England,  from  the  Pro- 
pugnaculum  Catholic(B  Veritatis,  by  Anthony  Bru- 
odin,  Prague,  1669,  whose  family  were,  the  author 
states,  hereditary  chronologers  of  the  O'Briens  of 
Thomond.  F. 

"  Authores  varii  dicunt,  quod  Adrianus  4  natione  An- 
glus,  qui  sedem  Petri  conscenderat  Anno  circa  1154  domi- 
nium Regni  Hiberniae,  sedi  Apostolicse  a  Rege  Donato 
8  Brien  quondam  oblatum,  cesserat  Henrico  2'io  Anglorum 

"  Hos  sequUur  Baronius  Tom.  12.  Annalium,  ubi  di- 
ploma recitat  hujus  concessionis. 

"  Ego  (ut,  quod  sentio  dicam)  non  parum  de  veritate 
hujus  Historiae  dubito;  nam,  vivente  Adriano  Papa 
(qui  obiit  Anno  salutis  1159  nee  latum  pedem  in  Hiberiiia 
habuit  Henricus  2'!"%  aut  alius  ullus  extraneus,  prseter 
Ostmannos :  unde  manifeste  convicitur  errore  Sanderus  in 
Schismate  Anglicano,  fol.  196.,  qui  dicit,  quod  postquam 
Henricus  2'i"»  nonnulla  Insulas  loca  sui,  ac  suorum  (verba 
sunt  Sanderi)  hoc  est  Roberti  Pitz  Stephani  et  Kichardi 
Comitis  armis  acquisitae  tenebat,  Clerus  Hibernicus,  simul 
cum  multis  Proceribus  suppliciter  rogarunt,  Adrianum  4 
summum  Pontificem,  ut  ad  tollendas  seditiones,  Contro- 
versias,  et  multas  alias  inconvenientias,  totius  Hibernias 
dominium  Henrico  2  concedere  vellet,  &c.  &c. 

"  Quis  oro  non  videt,  quam  crasse  Sanderus  in  hac  nar- 
ratione  erret.  Adrianus  Papa  conscendit  Petri  Cathedram 
Anno  1154,  sed  itque  annis  tantum  4  et  mensibus  8  et 
consequenter  obiit  Anno  1159  Robertus  autem  Fitz  Ste- 
phan,  cum  Geraldino  in  Hiberniam  primb  venit  in  succur- 
sum  Dermitii  Logeniae  Principis  circa  Anno  salutis  1172, 
viginti  nimiruni  duobus  annis  postquam  Adrianus  fuit 
mortuus,  quomodo  ergo  posset  esse  verum,  quod  '  Clerus, 
et  populus  supplicarunt  Adriano  Pontifici,  ut  Kegi  Hen- 
rico, postquam  jam  nonnulla  loca  in  Insula  occupavit, 
dominium  Regi  concedere  vellet? '  Adde  motiva  conces- 
sionis Dominii  Hiberniaj,  in  diplomate  Adriani  (si  ipsius 
asset)  posita,  nimirum  hac:  ut  'lapsam  lidem  Catholicam 
restauraret,  virtutes  plantaret,  &c.  esse  falsa,  et  conse- 
quenter ipsum  diploma  esse  subrepticium  et  falsum:  nam 
fides  Catholica  in  Hibernia  floruit,  vivente  Adriano,  tam 
bene  ac  in  Anglia,  vel  Italia,  ut  patet  ex  uberrima  ilia 

sanctorum  in  Hibernia  per  tot  continua  saecula  serie,  ac 
cffinobiorum,  etiam  illo  ipso  tempore  quo  Angli  Regionem 
subjugarunt,  fundationibus :  quomodo  ergo  per  Anglos 
fides  esset  restauranda? 

"  Eodem  argumento  exploditur  Sto,  qui  inter  alia  fig* 
menta,  in  sua  Chronica  dicit  quod  Adrianus  Papa,  Henrico 
2<'o  annoprimo  sui  Regni,  hoc  est  Anno  1155,  dominium 
Regni  Hibernife  donavit.  Exploditur  inquam,  nam  Papa 
Adrianus  fatiscessit  antequam  Henricus  fuisset  Rex,  ut  ex 
utriaeque  vitse  Historia  coUigitur:  ergo  non  est  verum 
quod  Henrico  2'^'^  dominium  Hibernise  cesserat.  Deinde 
nullum  jus  habuit  unquam  Papa  in  Hiberniam  quod  non 
habuit  in  Angliam,  vel  Franciam  ;  quomodo  ergo  potuis- 
set  transferre  dominium  rei  non  suae  in  alium  ?  si  dicas 
quod  a  Rege  Donato  6  Brien,  jus  simul  cum  Regni  corona, 
Romanus  acceperat  Pontifex,  nihil  dicis  pro  te:  nam  non 
habuit  Donatus  jus  transferendi  dominium  Regni  in  Pa- 
pam :  et  hoc  inde  patet  quod  post  Donatum  regn3.runt 
pacifice  in  HiberniS,  4  Reges:  sub  quibus  duo  no^ilissima 
celebrata  sunt  Concilia  Nationalia,  et  tamen  illis  regnan- 
tibus,  nunquam  fuit  auditum,  quod  Papa  Romanus  esset 
Rex,  aut  Dominus  Hibernia :  quo  dubio  procul  ipsius  le- 
gati  et  maxime  Cardinalis  Joannes  Papironius,  non  sileret, 
si  de  tali  Domino  aliquid  scivisset. 

"Concludo  igitur  primo  Papam  Adrianum  nunquam 
fuisse  Dominum  Hiberniie,  magis  quam  Anglise,  et  con- 
sequenter nunquam  cessisse  dominium  Hiberniae  Regi 
Angliae.  Secundo  Henricum  2™»  non  fuisse  Regem  An- 
gliae,  aut  saltem  non  fuisse  possessionatum  in  Hibernia, 
vivente  Papa  Adriano  in  Papatu ;  et  consequenter  Hen- 
ricum Regem  nullum  accepisse  ab  Adriano  jus  in  Hiber- 
niam. Tertio,  Henricum  devictis  armis  Hibernis,  Anno 
1 172  Petri  sedem  regnante  Alexandro  3  extorto  consensu 
omnium  Regni  Procerum  obtinuisse  dominium  Hiberniae, 
et  sic,  successu  temporis,  Reges  Angliae  in  legitimes  eva- 
sisse  Hiberniae  Dominos :  sicut  defactb  legitimi  sunt  Reges 
(utinam  et  Catholici)  ac  Domini  Hiberniae.  Successores 
etiam  tot  nobilium  Familiarum,  qu£e  illo  regnante  in  Hi- 
berniam venerunt  veri  sunt  Hiberui  et  legitimi  possessores 
bonfe  fidei  dominiorum  quae  possident  defactb  (utinam 
paterna  possiderent  omnia  bona)  quamvis  antecessorea 
illorura  tunc  non  justo  magis  titulo  invaserunt  Regnura 
alienum,  quam  Milesiani  quondam  illud  rapuerunt  Dea- 

Cap.  47.  lib.  5. 


In  "N.  &  Q.,"  P'  S.  vi.  318.,  is  inaccurate  in- 
formation relative  to  the  man  Naundorff",  who 
styled  himself  Duke  of  Normandy,  and  the  dau- 
phin son  of  Louis  XVI.  I  knew  him  intimately 
during  several  years,  and  studied  thoroughly  the 
question  of  his  pretensions.  A  full  account  of  his 
life  and  death  is  contained  in  a  work  entitled  In,' 
trigues  Devoilees,  par  M.  Gruau  de  la  Barre, 
three  vols.,  Rotterdam,  1847-8.  I  have  a  copy 
quite  at  the  service  of  Mr.  W.  H.  Hart,  of 
Hatcham,  or  any  other  of  your  correspondents. 

Opposite  facts  will  be  found  in  M.  de  Beau- 
chesne's  Memoirs  of  the  Dauphin  Son  of  Louis 
X  VL,  published  in  Paris  three  or  four  years  ago, 
and  of  which  a  translation  lately  appeared  in 
London.  The  soi-disant  Baron  de  Richemont 
was  a  different  pretender  from  NaundorflP,  with 
whom  you  confound  him  in  the  reply  to  Mr. 
PIart  ;  as  is  also  the  monomaniac  Meeves,  re- 

2»'»  S.  No  31.,  Aug.  2.  '56.1 



ferred  to  in  "  N.  &  Q.,"  1'*  S.  iv.  195.,  who  is  still 

The  most  noted  pretender  to  be  the  dauphin 
was  one  Hervagault,  who  died  in  prison  under  the 
Consulate.  Another,  Mathurin  Bruneau,  appeared 
shortly  after  the  restoration  of  the  Bourbons  in 
1815.  I  have  no  doubt  all  were  impostors,  who 
by  making  out  specious  cases  obtained  more  or 
less  credence,  and  dup^d  many  honourable  5,nd 
well-meaning  persons.  Perkin  Warbeck,  the 
false  Don  Sebastians  of  Portugal,  Martin  Guerre, 
and  others,  have  had  equal  celebrity  and  success 
at  various  times  in  history.  A  Bookworm. 

Miliar  ^attS, 

Handel  out  of  tune  !  Concordia  discors.  — 

"  This  celebrated  composer,  though  of  a  very  robust 
and  uncouth  appearance,  yet  had  such  a  remarlcable  irri- 
tability of  nerves,  that  he  could  not  bear  to  hear  the 
tuning  of  instruments,  and  therefore  this  was  always  done 
before  Handel  arrived.  A  musical  wag,  who  knew  how 
to  extract  some  mirth  from  his  irascibility  of  temper,  stole 
into  the  orchestra  on  a  night  when  the  late  Prince  of 
Wales  *  was  to  be  present  at  the  performance  of  a  new 
oratorio,  and  untuned  all  the  instruments,  some  half  a 
note,  others  a  whole  note  lower  thau  the  organ.  As  soon 
as  the  prince  arrived,  Handel  gave  the  signal  of  begin- 
•  ning  Con  Spirito;  but  such  was  the  horrible  discord,  that 
the  enraged  musician  started  up  from  his  seat,  and  having 
overturned  a  double-bass  which  stood  in  his  way,  he  seized 
a  kettle-drum,  which  he  threw  with  such  violence  at  the 
head  of  the  leader  of  the  band,  that  he  lost  his  full- 
bottomed  wig  by  the  effort.  Without  waiting  to  replace 
it,  he  advanced  fimrheaded  to  the  front  of  the  orchestra, 
breathing  vengeance,  but  so  much  choaked  with  passion, 
that  utterance  was  denied  him.  In  this  ridiculous  at- 
titude he  stood  staring  and  stamping  for  some  moments 
amidst  a  convulsion  of  laughter ;  nor  could  he  be  pre- 
vailed upon  to  resume  his  seat,  till  the  prince  went  per- 
sonally to  appease  his  wrath,  which  he  with  great  difficulty 
accomplished."  —  Political  Magazine,  1786. 

The  first  royal  personage  who  ever  succeeded 
in  composing  Handel.  F.  Philloxt. 

The  Journal  des  Debats^  M.  ViUemain,  and  M. 
Querard.  —  In  the  number  of  the  Journal  des 
Bebats  for  July  11,  there  is  a  review,  by  the  cele- 
brated Villemain,  of  Prince  Albert  de  Broglie's 
new  publication  L'Eglise  et  F Empire  Romain  au 
4"""'  Steele.  In  mentioning  some  English  authors 
who  have  written  on  the  truth  of  Christianity,  M. 
Villemain  has  fallen  into  an  error  in  ascribing  to 
Lord  Erskine  a  small  volume  on  the  Christian 
Evidences  by  Mr.  Thomas  Erskine,  an  advocate 
at  Edinburgh.  M.  Villemain  may  have  been  led 
into  this  mistake  by  the  bibliographer  Querard, 
who  in  his  otherwise  valuable  work,  which  is  a 
source  of  such  frequent  reference  —  La  France 
Litteraire  —  has  classed  all  the  French  transla- 

*  Frederic,  father  of  George  III. 

tions  of  Mr,  Thomas  Erskine's  works  under  the 
name  of  Lord  Erskine.  As  M.  Querard  is  con- 
stantly anxious  to  profit  by  every  hint  for  the 
improvement  of  his  most  useful  work,  he  probably 
will  not  fail  to  free  it  from  this  blunder  in  any 
subsequent  edition.  John  Macbay. 


Viner's  *'  Abridgment"  —  The  following  extract 
will  probably  both  interest  and  amuse  your 
readers  of  the  legal  profession  :  it  is  from  — 

"  Bibliotheca  Legum  :  or  a  new  and  compleat  List  of 
all  the  Common  and  Statute  Law  Books  of  this  Kealm, 
and  some  others  relating  thereunto,  from  their  first  Pub- 
lication to  the  Year  1746 ;  giving  an  Account  of  their 
several  Editions,  Dates,  and  Prices,  and  wherein  they 
differ.  The  Sixth  Edition  with  Improvements.  Com- 
pil'd  by  John  Worrall.     Sm.  8vo.    London,  1746. 

"  Viner's  (Cha.)  General  Abridgment  of  Law  and 
Equity,  beginning  were  Mr.  D'Anver's  Abridgment  Ends, 
viz.  with  letter  F.,  title  Factor,  and  goes  to  the  End  of 
the  Alphabet.     10  Vols.  fo. 

"  As  an  Apology  why  I  have  not  fix'd  the  Price,  I  beg 
leave  to  acquaint  the  Reader  that  Mr.  Viner  prints  his 
Abridgment  at  bis  own  Expence,  at  his  dwelling  House 
at  Aldershott,  near  Earnham  in  Hampshire,  and  sells 
them  at  his  Chambers  in  the  Bang's  Bench  Walks,  allow- 
ing those  Booksellers  who  sell  his  Books  the  Advantage 
of  bringing  Customers  to  their  Shop  for  their  profit ;  and 
if  a  Bookseller  is  not  pleased  with  this,  he  is  thought  an 
Enemy  to  the  Work,  and  may  disoblige  either  his  Cus- 
tomer or  Mr.  Viner." 

James  Knowijes. 

Now  and  Then.  —  The  following  is  a  cutting 
from  a  late  number  of  the  Birmingham  Journal. 
It  (happily)  reads  in  striking  contrast  to  the  re- 
cent accounts  of  the  execution  of  a  poisoner : 

"  Execution  of  a  Poisoner  in  1765.  —  Ivelchester,  May  9, 
1765.  —  Yesterday,  Mary  Norwood,  for  poisoning  her 
husband,  Joseph  Norwood,  of  Uxbridge,  in  this  county 
(Somersetshire),  was  burnt  here  pursuant  to  her  sentence. 
She  was  brought  out  of  the  prison  about  three  o'clock  in 
the  afternoon,  barefoot.  She  was  covered  with  a  tarred 
cloth,  made  like  a  shift,  a  tarred  bonnet  on  her  head,  and 
her  legs,  feet,  and  arms  had  also  tar  ou  them.  The  heat 
of  the  weather  melting  the  tar  on  her  bonnet  it  ran  over 
her  face,  so  that  she  made  a  most  shocking  appearance. 
She  was  put  on  a  hurdle,  and  drawn  on  a  sledge  to  the 
place  of  execution,  which  was  very  near  the  gallows. 
After  spending  some  time  in  prayer  and  singing  a  hymn, 
the  executioner  placed  her  on  a  tar  barrel,  about  three 
feet  high.  A  rope,  which  ran  in  a  pulley  through  the 
stake,  was  fixed  about  her  neck,  she  herself  placing  it 
properly  with  her  hands.  The  rope  being  drawn  ex- 
tremely tight  with  the  pulley,  the  tar  barrel  was  pushed 
away,  and  three  irons  were  fastened  round  her  body  to 
confine  it  to  the  stake,  that  it  might  not  drop  when  the 
rope  should  be  burnt.  As  soon  as  this  was  done  the  fire 
was  kindled,  but  in  all  probability  she  was  quite  dead 
before  the  fire  reached  her,  as  the  executioner  pulled  the 
body  several  times  whilst  the  irons  were  being  fixed, 
which  took  about  five  minutes.  There  being  a  great 
quantity  of  tar,  and  the  wood  on  the  pile  being  quite  dry, 
the  fire  burnt  with  amazing  fury ;  notwithstanding  which 
great  part  of  her  could  be  plainly  discerned  for  near  half 
an  hour.  Nothing  could  be  more  affecting  than  to  be- 
hold, after  her  bowels  fell  out,  the  fire  flaming  between 
her  ribs,  and  issuing  out  at  her  mouth,  ears,  eyeholes,  &c 



[2«"*  S.  No  81.,  Aug,  2.  '56. 

In  short,  it  was  so  terrible  a  sight  that  great  numbers 
turned  their  backs  and  screamed  out,  not  being  able  to 
look  at  the  horrible  scene. — Birmingham  Register,  1765." 
—  G. 


"  Dictionary  of  Gi'eek  and  Roman  Geography" 
edited  by  William  Smith,  LL.D.  —  As  this  work 
will  be  the  standard  book  of  reference  for  ancient 
geography,  and  it  is  to  be  expected  that  among 
such  a  mass  of  information  a  few  errors  will 
creep  in,  it  is  right  for  them  to  be  corrected 
■when  discovered.  In  the  third  section  of  the 
article  "Megara"  (vol.  ii.  p.  313.  col.  2.),  where 
the  topography  of  the  city  and  its  port  town  is 
described,  the  writer  says  (quoting  fromPausanias, 
Attica,  1.  41.  sect.  4.),  that  there  were  temples  of 
"  Isis,  Apollo  Agraeus,  and  Artemis  Agrotera  ; " 
clearly  showing,  both  from  the  punctuation  and 
construction  of  the  sentence,  that  there  were 
separate  temples  of  Apollo  Agraeus  and  Artemis 
Agrotera.  Now,  if  your  readers  will  turn  to  the 
passage  in  Pausanias,  they  will  find  that  the  ori- 
ginal Greek  is  — 

"  Ou  n-dppu  Se  toC 'YXAou  it-v-^ixaroi  'IcriSos  vabs  KaX  Trap  avrov 
' A.iT6X\u>v6i  e<7Ti  (cai  "AprefitSos." 

"  And  not  far  from  the  monument  of  Hyllus  is  a  temple 
of  Isis,  and  beyond  it  one  of  Apollo  and  Artemis." 

But  the  passage  that  more  distinctly  affirms  that 
there  was  but  one  temple,  occurs  at  the  end  of  the 
section : 

"  Aio.  ravra  'AAxafloui'  Tbi^  IleAoTroj  eni.x^ip-fi<TavTa.  t<3  Oripita 
KpaTrjirat  re,  koX  <os  e|3a<ri\€u(re,  to  lephv  noirj<Tai  tovto,  'Aypo- 
Tepav  'KpTifLiv  koX  ' KiroWiava.  'Aypalov  eTroi'O/ixao-ai'Ta." 

"  For  this  reason  Alcathus  the  son  of  Pelops  attacked 
the  wild  beast  and  overcame  it,  and  after  he  became  king 
founded  this  temple,  dedicating  it  to  Artemis  Agrotera 
and  Apollo  Agraeus." 

From  this  passage  there  can  be  no  doubt  that 
there  was  but  one  temple.  Tac. 

Receipt  for  Making  one  of  the  Fair  Sex,  —  The 
following  is  taken  from  a  MS.  of  the  time  of 
Charles  I. : 

"  Ingredients  of  a  Woman.  —  Joyn  to  a  slender  shape 
a  syren's  head,  the  two  eyes  of  a  basilisk,  the  dazzling  of 
the  sun,  and  the  moon's  inconstancy ;  add  to  this  odd 
compound  a  smooth  skin  and  a  fair  complexion,  and  you 
will  make  a  perfect  woman." 

Z.  z. 
Origin  of  the  Epithet  "  Turncoat"  — 

"  This  opprobrious  term  of  turncoat  took  its  rise  from 
one  of  the  first  dukes  of  Savoy,  whose  dominions  lying 
open  to  the  incursions  of  the  two  contending  houses  of 
Spain  and  France,  he  was  obliged  to  temporize  and  fall 
in  with  that  power  that  was  most  likely  to  distress  him, 
according  to  the  success  of  their  arms  against  one  another. 
So  being  frequently  obliged  to  change  sides,  he  humor- 
ously got  a  coat  made  that  was  blue  on  one  side,  and 
viMte  on  the  other,  and  might  be  indifferently  worn 
either  side  out.  While  on  the  Spanish  interest  he  wore 
the  blue  side  out,  and  the  white  side  was  the  badge  for  the 
French.  From  hence  he  was  called  Emmanuel  surnamed 
the  Turncoat,  by  way  of  distinguishing  him  from  other 

princes  of  the  same  name  of  that  house."  —  Scots  Maqa- 
zine  for  Oct.  1747,  p.  477—8. 




We  have  in  London,  Little  Britain,  Petty 
Frahce,  and  Petty  Wales,  to  which  I  can  now  add 
Little  Burgundy. 

It  was  situate  on  the  south  side  of  St.  Olave's, 
now  Tooley  Street,  opposite  to  the  Bridge  House, 
now  Cotton's  Wharf,  and  between  Glean  Alley 
and  Joiner  Street  (on  the  old  maps).  The  site  is 
now_  occupied  by  the  London  Bridge  Railway 

In  the  Accounts  of  the  Churchwardens  of  the 
parish  of  St.  Olave,  Southwark,  a.d.  1582,  there 
is  "  a  list,  conteyning  the  names  of  those  godley 
disposed  parishyoners,  that  of  their  owne  free 
will,  were  contrybutors  to  the  erecting  of  the 
New  Chureyarde  upon  Horseydowne  "  (now  called 
"  The  Old  Churchyard ").  The  names  are  ar- 
ranged according  to  the  residences  of  the  sub- 
scribers, and  among  the  then  names  of  places  in 
the  parish,  I  find  "  The  Borgyney,"  in  the  locality 
I  have  mentioned. 

I  guessed  that  the  Borgyney  meant  the  Bur- 
gundy, and  I  have  recently  confirmed  that  con- 
jecture by  the  particulars  for  a  grant  by  King 
Henry  VIII.  to  Robert  Curson,  in  the  thirty- 
sixth  year  of  his  reign,  of  divers  tenements  (late 
belonging  to  the  Priory  of  St.  Mary  Overey) 
situate  in  — 

"  Petty  Burgen,  in  the  Parish  of  Saint  Olave,  in  the 
Borough  of  Southwark,  viz.  Two  Tenements  in  tenure  of 
Lambert  Deane,  for  a  term  of  years,  at  the  rent  of  Ixvj' 
viijd ;  a  tenement  in  the  tenure  of  William  Throw,  at  will 
of  the  lord,  rent  xxvj»  viij<' ;  a  tenement  in  tenure  of 
Thomas  Boland,  at  will  of  the  lord,  rent  xxvj»  viijd ;  a 
tenement  in  tenure  of  Dominick  Hermon,  at  will  of  the 
lord,  rent  xxiij'  iiij^;  a  tenement  in  tenure  of  Robert 
Bull,  at  will  of  the  lord,  rent  vj'  viij^ ;  and  seven  cot- 
tages in  tenure  of  John  Harward,  at  will  of  the  lord,  rent 
XXX'  viij*.  The  premises  were  very  ruynous  and  sore  in 
decay,  and  were  sold  to  Robert  Curson  for  100  marks." 

I  shall  be  very  glad  of  information  respecting 
this  place  and  its  name  of  Petty  Burgundy,  which 
must  be  attributed  to  an  earlier  period  than  that 
of  King  Henry  VIII.,  probably  to  the  reign  of 
King  Edward  IV.,  when  the  Burgundian  envoys 
may  have  had  their  residence  in  this  place. 

In  1435  the  Duke  of  Burgundy's  heralds  had 
been  treated  with  great  indignity  in  London,  and 
lodged  at  a  shoemaker's.     Query  where  ? 

G.  R.  C. 


In  a  voluminous  manuscript  pedigree   of  the 
Blennerhassetts  of  the  county  of  Kerry  in  Ireland, 

2"d  S.  No  31.,  Aug.  2.  '56.] 



compiled  by  a  member  of  the  family  between 
1720  and  1735,  I  find  mention  of  "  Edmond  Fitz- 
David  Barry,  of  Eabaniskey  in  the  county  of 
Corke,  foster-father  of  the  late  Queen  Anne." 
The  person  referred  to  represented  a  once  power- 
ful branch  of  the  Barry  family  in  the  county  of 
Cork,  possessed  of  several  strong  castles,  viz.  Ro- 
bertstown,  Rahaniskey,  Ballymore  in  the  Great 
Island,  Ballydolohery,  &c.,  all  of  which,  with  the 
fertile  lands  attached,  were  forfeited  to  the  crown 
in  consequence  of  his  adherence  to  King  James  II., 
and  were  sold  by  auction  to  .various  purchasers  at 
Chichester  House  in  the  year  1703  ;  reserving  a 
jointure  to  "  Susannah,"  wife  of  the  forfeiting 
person,  in  case  she  survived  him,  of  150Z.  per  an- 
num. His  eldest  brother  was  also  an  adherent 
of  the  Stuart  family,  being  described  in  King 
Charles  II.'s  letter  as  "  Lieutenant  Richard  Barry 
of  Robertstown,  who  served  in  the  regiment  of  our 
Deare  Brother  the  Duke  of  York  in  Flanders, 
where  he  acquitted  himself  with  much  reputation 
to  himself  and  country,  with  constant  loyalty  and 
faithfulness  to  us."  Edmond,  the  person  referred 
to  in  the  Blennerhassett  manuscript,  was  the  third 
brother,  but  succeeded  to  his  family  estates  on  the 
death  of  his  elder  brothers  Richard  and  David 
without  issue;  he  had  a  younger  brother  John. 
Although  the  public  records  contain  much  matter 
relating  to  the  history  of  this  family  for  many 
generations,  I  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain  who 
Susannah,  the  supposed  foster-mother  of  the 
queen,  was,  whether  English,  Irish,  or  a  foreigner. 
The  foregoing  shows  the  connection  with  the 
Stuarts,  and  although  the  allegations  of  the  queen's 
fosterage  is  only  supported  by  Mr.  Blennerhas- 
sett's  statement,  which  he  makes  apparently  as 
being  within  his  own  personal  knowledge  (which 
it  might  well  be,  as  he  was  an  old  man  at  the 
time  he  compiled  the  pedigree),  yet  it  deserves 
some  credence  from  the  known  respectability  of 
the  writer.  Perhaps  the  question  with  which  I 
have  headed  this  paper  may  be  an  inducement  to 
some  of  your  numerous  readers  to  search  for  the 
truth  of  a  circumstance  of  historical  interest  never 
alluded  to,  as  far  as  I  can  ascertain,  by  any  writer 
of  history.  C.  M.  B. 


Winter  Assizes.  —  Can  any  of  your  correspon- 
dents oblige  me  by  giving  the  date  of  a  third  or 
winter  assize  being  first  appointed  in  England, 
and  whether  there  is  an  instance  of  the  same 
having  been  held  on  the  Western  Circuit  ?  Mr. 
James  is  a  clever  novelist,  and  his  plots  are  ably 
conceived  ;  but  I  consider  him  apt  to  commit  mis- 
takes in  carrying  out  details.  In  his  novel  of 
Delaware,  for  instance,  he  fixes  a  trial  to  take 

place  at  Christmas  in  "  the  small  neat  country 
(query  county  ?)  town  of"  — Dorchester  ;  for  such 
is  evidently  the  place  intended,  being  described 
as  near  the  western  coast  of  England,  and  the 
period  is  early  in  the  present  century,  being  prior 
to  the  death  of  the  Bow  Street  officer,  Ruthven, 
who  is  made  an  agent  in  the  story,  and  who  came, 
as  we  all  know,  to  an  unfortunate  end  in  the 
Cato  Street  Conspiracy.  N,  L.  T. 

Shahspeare  at  Paddington.  —  There  is  a  tradi- 
tion mentioned  in  Ollier's  romance  of  Ferrers, 
and  by  Mr.  Robins  in  his  Paddington,  Past  and 
Present,  p.  182.,  that  our  great  poet  visited  or 
played  at  the  old  Red  Lion  Inn,  in  the  Edgeware 
Road,  near  the  Harrow  Road,  taken  down  a  few 
years  since  for  the  present  one  to  be  erected. 
What  is  the  real  tradition,  and  its  history,  &c.  ? 
And  is  there  any  print  of  the  old  inn  in  existence  ? 

H.  G.  D. 

"  Alfred,  or  the  Magic  of  Nature"  —  Can  any 
of  your  readers  inform  me  who  is  the  author  of 
Alfred,  or  the  Magic  of  Nature,  a  tragedy,  pub- 
lished at  Edinburgh  in  1820  ?  R.  J. 

David  Lindsay.  —  Can  you  give  me  any  in- 
formation regarding  David  Lindsay,  who  was 
author  of  Dramas  of  the  Ancient  World,  published 
at  Edinburgh  about  1822  ?  I  think  one  or  two  of 
the  dramas  had  previously  appeared  in  Black- 
wood's Magazine.  R.  J. 

Lightning  Conductors  to  Ships.  —  When  were 
conductors  first  attached  to  the  masts  of  vessels 
to  prevent  them  from  being  struck  by  lightning  ? 

L.  C. 

Figure  of  the  Horse  in  Hieroglyphics.  —  What 
is  the  meaning  of  the  figure  of  the  horse  in  the 
Egyptian  hieroglyphics?  Amongst  the  number 
of  such  hieroglyphics  which  cover,  both  internally 
and  externally,  the  sarcophagus  of  the  queen  of 
Amasis  II.  in  the  British  Museum,  it  occurs  only 
once ;  or  perhaps  I  should  say,  on  examination 
I  could  only  find  it  once,  either  thereon  or  else- 
where engraven.  At  all  events,  its  rarity  causes 
it  to  be  the  subject  of  this  inquiry. 

R.  W.  Hackwood. 

Poem,  about  a  Mummy.  —  Can  any  correspon- 
dent direct  me  where  to  look  for  some  droll  lines 
which  I  remember  to  have  read,  in  which  a 
mummy  just  unrolled  gives  the  conceited  nine- 
teenth century  an  account  "how  much  better 
they  did  things  "  in  his  day  ?  A.  A.  D. 

A  Noble  Cook.  — 

«  'Tis  said,  that  by  (he  death  of  a  Scots  nobleman,  who 
died  lately  a  Roman  Catholick  priest,  the  title  descends 
to  a  man  cook  that  lived  with  a  general  officer  in  Eng- 
land, who,  in  regard  to  his  cook's  present  dignity,  could 
not  think  of  employing  him  any  longer  in  that  station, 
but  very  generoiisly raised  a  subscription  for  his  support; 



[2"d  S.  No  31.,  Aug.  2.  '56. 

and  that  on  the  affair  being  represented  to  his  majesty, 
he  had  ordered  him  a  pension  of  200Z.  per  annum."  — 
Annual  Register  for  1761,  p.  63. 

Who  is  the  "  Scots  nobleman"  above  referred 
to  P  C.  J.  Douglas. 

Olovensis,  Bishoprick  of .  —  In  the  list  of  suf- 
fragan bishops  contributed  by  Mb.  Mackenzie 
Walcott  ("N.  &  Q.,"  2""^  S.  ii.  1—3.)  occurs 
below  the  date  1491,  — 

"  Richard,  educated  at  Oxford,  Dominican  of  Warwick, 
died  in  1502,  buried  in  Blaclifriars,  Worcester.  Bishop  of 
[Olevensis?]  in  Mauritania  (Worcester)." 

I  have  reason  to  believe  this  bishop's  surname 
was  Wycherley.  I  once  found  in  a  patent  of 
Henry  VIII.,  which  cited  an  inquisition  referring 
to  transactions  apparently  of  the  year  1495  or 
1496,  casual  mention  of  "  Ricardus  Wycherley 
tunc  Episcopus  Eleneri."  Either  misreading  the 
title,  or  supposing  it  a  slight  clerical  error,  I  took 
him  at  the  time  to  be  Bishop  of  Ely ;  but  a  re- 
ference to  Beatson's  Political  Index  corrected  my 
mistake.  A  friend  of  mine  looked  up  the  inqui- 
sition, and  told  me  he  found  the  name  there 
written  "  Clonensis."  This  sent  me  to  Ireland, 
where  I  hesitated  between  Cloyne  and  Clonmac- 
noise,  but  could  not  find  a  resting-place  in 
either.  I  therefore  again  consulted  the  inquisi- 
tion, and  found  the  word  to  be  "  Olonensis  "  in 
that  document.  I  presume  that  "  Olevensis " 
was  the  proper  title.  Query,  what  is  the  name  of 
the  place  ?  James  Gaiednek. 

Johannes  F.  Crivellus. — I  should  be  very  much 
obliged,  if  you  could  inform  me,  whether  anything 
is  known  of  Johannes  Franciscus  Crivellus,  a 
painter,  about  1480,  of  considerable  merit  (some- 
thing in  the  style  of  Perugino),  corresponding,  in 
fact,  with  the  account  usually  given  of  Carlo 
Crivelli.  Was  Carlo  this  painter's  real  name,  or 
only,  as  is  sometimes  the  case,  a  nickname  ? 

J.  C.  J. 

Grain  Crops. — Can  any  of  your  readers  supply 
a  copy  of  the  pamphlet,  published  at  York,  up- 
wards of  fifty  years  ago,  by  John  Tuke,  a  land 
surveyor  in  extensive  practice,  and  steward  to 
several  estates  of  importance  in  that  locality.  Its 
short  title  was.  On  the  Advantages  of  cutting  Grain 
Crops  early ;  and  Mr.  Tuke's  theory  was,  that 
corn,  after  becoming  ripe  at  the  root,  would  ripen 
in  the  ear  to  greater  advantage  being  cut  than 
remaining  on  its  root.  This  practice  is  partially 
observed  among  farmers,  but  is  not  generally 
adopted.  One  great  benefit  was,  I  remember, 
that  in  case  of  rain  the  ear  would  be  less  liable 
to  sprout,  while  the  process  of  ripening  in  the 
evaporation  of  sap  in  the  blade  would  go  on 
to  better  advantage  both  to  the  straw  and  the 
berry.  A  notice  of  this  subject  might  have  its 
Utility  at  the  present  season.  F.  R.  Maxon. 

Walpole,  and  Whittington  and  his  Cat.  —  In 
Walpole's  "Letter  to  Cole,"  dated  Jan.  8,  1773, 
in  which  he  shows  himself  very  angry  with  The 
Society  of  Antiquaries,  clearly  for  tlieir  publica- 
tion, in  the  Archceologia,  of  Masters'  Reply  to  his 
Historic  Doubts,  he  says :  "  for  the  Antiquarian 
Society,  I  shall  leave  them  in  peace  with  Whit- 
tington and  his  Cat."  In  a  previous  Letter,  viz. 
July  28,  1772,  he  had  stated  : 

"  I  choose  to  be  at  liberty  to  say  what  I  think  of  the 
learned  Societj';  and,  therefore,  I  have  taken  leave  of 
them,  having  so  good  an  occasion  presented  as  their 
council  on  Whittingtorf  and  his  Cat,  and  the  ridicule 
that  Foote  has  thrown  on  them,"  &c. 

To  what  paper  or  discussion  on  Whittington 
and  his  Cat  does  Walpole  allude  ?         W.  W.  (2.) 

Special  Service  omitted  from  the  Prayer  Book 
of  the  Church  of  England.  —  When  was  the 
"  Service  for  the  Twenty-third  Day  of  October" 
omitted  from  the  (Irish)  Prayer  Book  ?  It  was 
appointed  by  Act  of  Parliament  in  the  14th  & 
15th  year  of  King  Charles  IL  (1662-63)  ;  and  was 
ordered  to  be  retained  by  King  George  I.,  by  a 
warrant  issued  at  St.  James's  Palace,  Nov.  3, 1715. 
In  the  list  of  special-service  days  for  the  month 
of  October,  in  Grierson's  folio  Prayer  Book, 
Dublin  (1750),  no  mention  is  made  of  Oct.  23. 
being  a  remarkable  day,  and  yet  this  service  is  to 
be  found  in  that  edition  of  the  Prayer-Book.  On 
the  accession  of  Her  Majesty  Queen  Victoria,  a 
royal  warrant  was  issued,  dated  June  21,  1837, 
in  which  no  mention  is  made  of  this  special  ser- 
vice ;  and  yet,  in  the  quarto  Prayer-Book  pub- 
lished by  Grierson  (state  printer),  Dublin  (1846), 
a  reference  is  made  in  the  month  of  October  to 
the  "Irish  Rebellion"  of  1641.  No  special  ser- 
vice appears  in  this  edition. 

The  rubric  prefixed  to  the  "  Service  for  the 
Fifth  of  November  "  orders  that  — 

"  After  Morning  Pra5'er,  or  Preaching,  upon  the  said 
Fifth  Day  of  November,  the  Minister  of  every  Parish 
shall  read  publicly,  distinctly,  and  plainly,  the  Act  of 
Parliament  made  in  the  third  year  of  King  James  the 
First,  for  the  observance  of  it." 

The  rubric  preceding  the  office  for  the  Twenty- 
ninth  day  of  May  orders  that  — 

"  The  Act  of  Parliament  made  in  the  Twelfth,  and  con- 
firmed in  the  Thirteenth  year  of  King  Charles  the  Second 
for  the  observation  of  the  29th  day  of  May,  yearly,  as  a 
day  of  public  thanksgiving  is  to  be  read  publicly  in  all 
Churches  at  Morning  Prayer,  immediately  after  the 
Nicene  Creed,  on  the  Lord's  Day  next  before  every  such 
29th  of  May." 

I  have  never  heard  these  Acts  of  Parliament 
read,  although  I  have  attended  services  on  those 
special  days  in  every  part  of  the  United  Kingdom. 


Samuel  Rolle,  Fellow  of  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
bridge, —  What  can  be  ascertained  of  the  history 

2°d  S.  N"  31.,  Aug.  2.  '56.] 



of  Samuel  Rolle,  or  Rolls,  D.D.,  formerly  Fellow 
of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  a  non-conformist 
divine,  who  wrote,  under  the  name  of  Philagathus, 
A  Sober  Answer  to  Bishop  Patrick's  Friendly 
Delate  ?  Among  other  writings  he  is  stated  to 
have  taken  part  with  some  others  in  composing  a 
book  entitled  Physical  Contemplations  on  Fire,  de- 
dicated to  Dr.  George  Bate,  in  1667.  What  is  this 
book,  and  who  were  the  other  authors  ? 

A.  Tailob,  M.A. 

Quotation  tvanted :  "  Love  and  Sorrow." — Where 
can   I  find  two   stanzas,  commencing  with   the 

lines  — 

"  Love  and  sorrow  twins  were  born, 
On  a  shining,  showery  morn  ?  " 

I  fancy  they  are  Blacklock's,  but  I  have  not  this 
author  at  hand.  K.  H.  D. 

7mA  Tithes.  —  Have  the  tithes  in  Ireland  been 
commuted  similar  to  those  in  England  ?  and  if  so, 
where  will  the  commutation  awards  be  found  ? 


Siege  of  Lille,  a.d.  1708. — Where  can  I  find 
an  authentic  list  of  the  British  officers  in  this  siege, 
and  of  those  wounded  ;  or  can  any  of  your  readers 
refer  me  to  any  mention  of  the  Hon.  John  Spencer, 
or  the  Hon.  John  Buncombe,  assisting  at  that 
siege,  in  what  capacity,  and  whether  wounded  ? 

James  Knowles. 

Deans,  Canons,  and  Prelendaries  of  Cathedrals. 
— Will  some  kind  reader  of  "  N.  &  Q."  point  out 
where  the  names  of  the  various  stalls,  and  their 
emoluments,  are  to  be  found  ?  I  have  some  recol- 
lection of  a  parliamentary  return  stating  these 
facts,  but  cannot  trace  it  in  either  of  the  three 
Reports  of  the  Cathedral  Commissioners. 


"  Adding  Sunshine  to  Daylight.'"  —  Whose  is 
the  phrase  "  Adding  sunshine  to  daylight,"  to  ex- 
press the  pleasures  as  distinguished  from  the 
necessaries  of  life  ?  X.  H. 

Rural  Deaneries.  —  Is  there  any  parliamentary 
or  other  authoritative  book  which  will  describe 
the  extent  and  jurisdiction  of  the  various  rural 
deaneries  ?  Scripsit. 

Device  of  a  Star  (qy.  Sun  ?)  above  a  Crescent  on 
Ecclesiastical  Seals.  —  All  seal  collectors  are  aware 
of  the  common  occurrence  of  this  device  on  early 
ecclesiastical  seals.  Does  it  typify  Christ  {the  sun), 
and  his  church  (the  moon')  dependent  on  him  for 
light.  It  would  be  well  to  obtain  a  list  of  all 
examples  ;  and  as  a  contribution  I  append  :  — 

The  ancient  seal  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of 
Waterford,  of  which  the  matrix  is  still  in  use. 

The  ancient  seal  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of 
Lichfield  (Proceedings  of  the  Suffolk  Institute  of 
Archaeology,  &c.,  vol.  ii.  p.  225). 

The  seal  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Ossory 
bears  the  crescent,  but  not  the  star  (sun  ?).  The 
ancient  matrix  is  still  in  use. 

N.  B.  The  same  device  is  well  known  as  oc- 
curring on  some  of  the  coins  of  King  John. 

James  Graves,  Clerk. 


Water-Spouts. — Camoens  in  the  fifth  book  of 
the  Lusiad  has  a  graphic  description  of  the  forma- 
tion and  descent  of  a  water-spout  in  the  Indian 
Ocean,  which  he  closes  with  an  exclamation  of 
surprise  that  the  water  which  he  had  seen  drawn 
up  salt  from  the  ocean  should,  a  few  minutes  after, 
fall  fresh  from  the  cloud  which  attracted  it: 

"  But  say,  ye  sages,  who  can  weigh  the  cause 
And  trace  the  secret  springs  of  Nature's  laws, 
Say,  why  the  wave,  of  bitter  hritie  ere  while, 
Should  to  the  bosom  of  the  deep  recoil 
Robbed  of  its  salt,  and  from  the  cloud  distill. 
Sweet  as  the  waters  of  the  limpid  rill." 

Mtckle's  Transl. 

Will  any  of  your  correspondents  who  has  tested 
the  phenomenon  at  sea,  say  whether  this  be  cor- 
rectly stated  by  the  poet  ? 

J.  Emerson  Tennent. 

Hieroglyphic  Bible.  —  I  possess  a  small  octavo 
work,  the  title-page  of  which  is  as  follows  : 

"  A  curious  Hieroglyphick  Bible,  or  Select  Passages  in 
the  Old  and  New  Testaments,  represented  with  Emble- 
matical Figures,  for  the  Amusement  of  Youth  ;  designed 
cbieiiy  to  familiarize  tender  Age,  in  a  pleasing  and 
diverting  Manner,  with  early  Ideas  of  the  Holy  Scrip- 
tures. To  which  are  subjoined,  a  short  Account  of  the 
Lives  of  the  Evangelists,  and  other  Pieces,  illustrated 
with  Cuts.  The  Fourth  Edition;  with  Additions,  and 
other  great  Improvements.  Dublin:  printed  by  B. 
Dugdale,  N"  150,  Capel  Street,    mdcclxxxix." 

This  work  was  published  anonymously,  and  is 
not  mentioned  by  Home  in  his  editions  of  the 
Bible  enumerated  in  his  Introduction  to  the  Cri- 
tical Study  and  Knowledge  of  the  Holy  Scriptures. 
What  is  known  of  its  authorship  ?     Ein  Frager. 

Mrs.  Siddons.  — In  Tymm's  Family  Topo- 
grapher (vol.  iv.  p.  292.)  is  the  following  passage  : 

«  At  Lower  Swinford  a  thatched  cottage  is  shown  as 
the  birth-place  of  the  actress  Mrs.  Siddons,  who  is  said  to 
have  made  her  '  very  first '  debut  in  a  barn  at  Bell  Lane, 
at  the  coronation  of  George  III." 

This  barn  is  still  remaining ;  it  is  situate  at  the 
back  of  the  Bell  Inn,  in  the  town  of  Stourbridge, 
in  the  parish  of  Oldswinford,  and  county  of  Wor- 
cester ;  and,  I  believe,  portions  of  the  scenery 
used  on  this  and  other  occasions  are  still  in  exist- 
ence. I  must,  however,  confess  myself  ignorant 
of  the  whereabouts  of  the  thatched  cottage  men- 
tioned in  the  quotation,   and  rather  doubt  the 



[2°'!  S.  N»  31.,  Aug.  2.  '56. 

trutU'  of  it.  Can  any  correspondent  tell  me  the 
real  place  of  her  birth  ?  C.  J.  Douglas. 

'  [Thomas  Campbell  has  furriished  the  following  account 
of  Mrs.  Siddons's  birth-place  in  his  interesting  Life  of 
that  lady  (vol.  i.  p,  27.):  — "Our  great  actress's  birth- 
place was  Brecon,  or  Brecknon,  in  South  Wales.  A  friend 
has  obligingly  written  to  me  as  follows,  respecting  the 
house  in'whic'h  Mrs.  Siddons  was  born :  — '  It  is  a  public- 
house  in  the  high  street  of  this  town,  which  still  retains 
its  appellation,  "The  Shoulder  of  Mutton,"  though  now 
entirely  altered  from  its  pristine  appearance.  I  send  you 
a  drawing  of  the  house  [this  is  a  wood  engraving],  not 
as  it  is  at  present,  but  as  I  perfectly  well  remember  seeing 
it  stand,  with  its  gable  front,  projecting  upper  floors,  and 
a  rich  well-fed  shoulder  of  mutton  painted  over  the  door, 
offering  an  irresistible  temptation  to  the  sharpened  appe- 
tites of  the  Welsh  farmers,  who  frequented  the  adjoining 
market-place;  especially  as  within  doors  the  same,  or 
some  similar  object  in  a  more  substantial  shape,  was 
always,  at  the  accustomed  hour,  seen  roasting  at  the 
kitchen  fire,  on  a  spit  turned  by  a  dog  in  a  wheel,  the 
invariable  mode  in  all  the  Breconian  kitchens.  In  addi- 
tion to  which  noontide  entertainment  for  country  guests, 
there  was  abundance  of  Welsh  ale  of  the  rarest  quality ; 
and,  as  the  "Shoulder  of  Mutton"  was  situated  in  the 
centre  of  Brecon,  it  was  much  resorted  to  by  the  neigh- 
bouring inhabitants  of  the  borough.  If  I  am  rightly  in- 
formed, old  Kemble  [Mrs.  Siddons's  father]  was  neither 
an  unwilling  nor  an  unwelcome  member  of  their  jolly 
associations.'  "] 

"  Book  of  KnowledgeJ'* — I  have  a  small  book  in 
three  parts,  of  which  the  title-page  is  wanting. 
The  pages  of  the  first  part  are  headed,  "  The  Book 
of  Knowledge  ;"  the  second  part  is  the  "  Husband- 
man's Practise,  or  Prognostication  for  ever;"  the 
third  part,  "  The  Shepherd's  Prognostication  for 
the  Weather."  The  book  is  black-letter,  and 
printed  for  W.  Thackeray  at  "The  Angel"  in 
Duck  Lane,  1691.  A  small  picture  "by  which 
this  book  may  be  distinguished  from  some  coun- 
terfeit '  copies,'  has  the  letters  '  1.  S.' "  The  con- 
tents, as  the  title  signifies,  are  most  miscellaneous, 
and  extend  from  a  notice  of  "  good  days  for  blood- 
letting," an  A.  B.  C.  to  know  what  planet  every 
man  is  born  under,  his  fortunes  and  time  of  death, 
to  "  '  Pithagoras'  Wheele,'  by  which  ye  may  know 
most  things  that  you  can  demand,"  and  much 
other  useful  information. 

What  is  the  title  of  the  book,  and  who  was  the 
author  ?  Charles  Wylib. 

[The  first  edition  of  this  work,  without  date,  was 
printed  by  Robert  Wj^er,  about  1 540.  It  is  entitled  "  The 
Boke  of  Knowledge  of  Thynges  Vnknowen  apperteynynge 
to  Astronomye,  with  certaj'ne  necessarye  Rules,  and  cer- 
tayne  Sphere  contaynyng  herein.  Compyled  by  God- 
fridus  super  Palladium  de  Agricultura  Anglicatum." 
Colophon,  "Imprynted  by  me  Robert  Wyer  in  S.  Mar- 
Ij'ns  Parysshe,  besyde  Charynge*'Cros8e."  Prefixed  is  a 
cut  of  an  astronomer,  half  length,  with  four  stars.  On 
the  back  of  the  title  a  cut  of  Ptholomeus  and  his  wife, 
and  under  it :  "  ^  This  is  vnknowen  to  many  men,  though 
they  be  knowen  to  some  men."  Another  edition  appeared 
in  1585,  "Imprinted  at  London,  in  Fleete-streete,  be- 
neath the  Conduite,  at  the  Signe  of  S.  John  Euangelist, 
by  M.  lackson,"    This  only  extends  (is  far  as  chap,  xv., 

"The  Change  of  Man  twelve  times,  according  to  the 
Months."  Another  edition  enlarged  appeared  in  1688, 
with  the  following  title:  "The  Knowledge  of  Things 
Unknown.  Shewing  the  Effects  of  the  Planets,  and 
other  Astronomical  Constellations.  With  the  strange 
Events  that  befal  Men,  Women,  and  Children  born  under 
them.  Compiled  by  Godfridus  super  Palladium  de  Agri- 
cuTtura  Anglicatum.  Together  with  the  Husband-Man's 
Practice:  or  Prognostication  forever:  asteacheth  Albert, 
Alkind,  Haly,  and  Ptolomy.  With  the  Shepherd's  Prog- 
nostication for  the  Weather,  and  Pythagoras  his  Wheel 
of  Fortune.  Printed  by  J.  M.  for  W.  Thackeray,  at  the 
Angel  in  Duck  Lane."  The  cuts  are  the  same  as  in 
Wyer's  edition.  Our  correspondent's  copy  of  1G91  seems 
to  be  a  reprint  of  that  of  1688.] 


On  Music ;  and  suggestions  for  improvement  in  its  symbols, 
or  nomenclature  of  sounds :  to  the  end  that  there  may  he  a 
clearer  demonstration  of  the  ratios  of  sounds,  and,  by  con- 
sequence, a  more  extended  knowledge  of  the  fundus  of  this 
art,  that  is  the  poetry  or  measured  relation  of  its  forms. 

(^Continued from  p.  73.} 

Mr.  Frank  Howard,  in  his  Treatise  on  the  Art 
of  Making  a  Picture,  declares  "  there  is  no  work, 
elementary  or  scientific,  which  teaches  the  praxis 
of  pictorial  eflfect,  or  that  of  making  a  picture." 
As  with  painting,  so  it  is  with  music :  indeed, 
Dr.  Marx,  the  latest  writer  on  the  theory,  assures 
his  readers  there  exists  "  no  work  on  harmony  or 
thorough  base  that  can  possibly  fulfil  the  promises 
held  out  to  the  student  in  musical  composition." 
In  this  remark,  Dr.  Marx  may  include  his  own 
work.  There  is  at  present  no  written  law  for  the 
composition  of  music,  and  composers  have  care- 
fully eschewed  talking  or  writing  upon  the  sub- 
ject. Haydn,  who  taught  when  in  this  country, 
after  giving  a  certain  number  of  lessons,  was  in 
the  habit  of  dismissing  the  student  in  these 
words  : — "  I  have  taught  you  all  the  known  rules : 
there  are  others,  but  these  I  do  not  teach." 
Mozart,  when  applied  to  by  W^elgl,  a  well-known 
composer,  to  teach  his  mode  of  composing,  replied 
in  the  brief  and  decided  sentence :  "  No  :  find 
out,  as  I  had  to  find  out."  On  a  recent  occasion, 
when  visiting  a  musical  friend,  he  produced  rather 
a  long  and  ambitious  composition,  which,  after 
listening  to,  I  remarked :  "  The  first  eight  bars 
are  right,  and  the  remainder  all  wrong."  After 
some  pause,  he  said  :  "  What  makes  you  say  the 
first  eight  bars  are  right,  and  the  others  wrong  ? 
for  I  am  certain  there  Is  not  an  error  according 
to  Cherubinl."  "  That  may  be,"  was  my  reply, 
"  but  no  man  can  write  music  from  studying 
Cherubinl."  After  some  time,  he  confessed  the 
first  eight  bars  were  borrowed  from  Beethoven ; 
but  he  had  so  mystified  the  passage  as  to  escape 
recognition  of  the  plagiary.  I  am  certain  no  one 
will  ever  write  music  by  the  aid  of  any  work  now 

2'««  S.  No  31.,  Aug.  ?.  '56.] 



before  the  public.  The  great  theorists  of  the 
present  day  are  too  wise  to  publish,  and  most  of 
them  bind  their  pupils  not  to  divulge  their  teach- 
ing until  after  their  deaths. 

I  have  made  the  remark,  that  the  pupil  is 
taught  notes,  not  sounds.  He  is  afterwards  taught 
scales  or  gamuts.  The  modern  scales  are  the 
standard,  the  natural,  the  transposed,  the  major, 
the  minor,  the  pathetic,  the  augmented,  the  chro- 
matic, and  the  enharmonic.  Should  he  desire  to 
go  back  some  centuries,  he  must  learn  the  dorian, 
hypodorian,  phrygian,  hypophrygian,  lydian,  hypo- 
lydian,  mixolydian,  hypomixolydian  ;  and  if  the 
origin  of  these,  he  must  study  the  tetrachords, 
the  tetrachordon-hypaton,  meson,  dies-eugmenon, 
hyperboleon,  proslambanomenos,  hypate-hypaton, 
par-hypate-hypaton ;  together  with  the  paranese, 
and  all  other  parts  and  portions  of  the  Greek 
scales.  "  The  semitone  makes  music"  was  the 
adage  of  the  old  composers ;  and  all  this  barbaric 
jargon  has  been  retained  to  mark  the  place  of  the 
semitone  in  the  scale.  The  knowledge  of  the 
varieties  and  relations  of  the  scale  has  had  a  slow, 
but  certain  progress.  The  three  principles  which 
govern  musical  composition,  that  is  to  say : 

1.  Sounds,  which  are  the  matter  or  subject, 

2.  Rhythms,  which  make  figure  or  movement, 

3.  Heart  (or  spirit),  which  gives  life,  feeling, 
and  individuality, 

are  seen  as  strongly  in  the  earliest  music  as  in  the 
music  of  the  present  day.  From  these  principles, 
we  have  gained  the  music  called  the  Gregorian,  the 
Glarean,  the  Alia  Cappella,  the  Italian,  Neapolitan, 
French,  German,  Anglican,  and  all  other  national 
schools.  These  schools  represent  certain  states  of 
knowledge  with  respect  to  the  analogies  of  sounds, 
certain  motions  or  figures  governed  by  the  then 
prevailing  state  of  language  and  the  national 
dance,  and  certain  states  of  emotion  or  feeling 
belonging  to  the  master-spirits  who  were  enabled 
to  leave  such  records  in  their  compositions.  Every 
student  in  music  should  know  every  scale  in 
music  that  has  existed,  and  that  does  exist ;  but 
in  place  of  all  this  monstrous  confusion  of  terms, 
why  not  describe  the  semitone  and  its  situation  in 
plain  and  unmistakeable  language  ? 

We  read  of  intervals  as  if  they  were  sounds ; 
whereas  the  interval  is  the  distance  or  ratio  be- 
tween one  sound  and  another.  Again,  chords  are 
called  harmonies  ;  whereas  harmonia  is  the  pro- 
portion between  one  chord  and  another  chord. 
A  chord  is  not  an  analogy  until  it  is  placed  by 
the  side  of  some  other  chord. 

The  student  is  taught  the  theory  of  dischords. 
How  few  are  there  who  know  what  takes  place  in 
nature,  when  the  so-called  resolution  of  the 
seventh  is  made !  In  olden  language,  it  is  the 
dislocation  of  the  lychanos-meson  (or  meson-dia- 
touos)  when  conjoined  with  the  proslambanomenos. 

In  these  days  it  is  the  art  of  resolving  the  seventh. 
Is  not  the  one  term  quite  as  absurd  as  the  other  ? 
How  much  could  be  gained  if  students  were 
taught,  that  having  arrived  at  the  two  extremes 
of  the  mean  (G.  C,  F.),  it  is  necessary  to  return 
to  the  centre  proportion,  or  to  its  equivalent? 
The  whole  mystery  of  free  sevenths,  fettered 
sevenths,  and  every  other  sort  of  seventh,  then 
becomes  intelligible,  and  when  the  equivalents  of 
the  centre  are  known,  every  possible  remove  is 
laid  bare  and  at  instant  command. 

H.  J.  Gauntlett. 
8.  Powys  Place,  Queen  Square. 

{To  he  continued.') 


(2°o  S.  ii.  1.) 

I  have  extracted  from  The  Wiltshire  Institutions, 
privately  printed  by  Sir  Thomas  Phillipps  in  1 825, 
a  list  of  preferments  enjoyed  in  that  county  by 
suffragan  bishops,  as  follows  : 

" '  Robertus,  Iinelacensis  Epus,'  was  instituted  to  the 
vicarage  of  Littleton  Drew  in  a.d.  1441. 

"'Jacobus,  Dei  gratia  Akardensis  Episcopus,'  was  in- 
stituted to  the  Rectory  of  Stockton  in  1447 ;  William  My- 
chell  was  instituted  to  the  same  benefice  in  1454. 

"  '  Simon,  Connerensis  Episcopus,'  was  instituted  to  the 
Rectory  of  Paulsholt  in  1459.  '  Simon  Conneren  '  ex- 
changed Pawlesholt  with  Roger  Newton,  for  the  Vicarage 
of  Aldeborne  in  1462. 

" '  Johannes,  Tinensis  Epus,'  was  instituted  to  the  Rec- 
tory of  St.  John's,  Devizes,  in  1479  '  per  resig'  Johannis, 
Episcopi  RofFen'.'  St.  John's  was  vacated  in  1480  'per. 
mort'  Yen'  Patris  Johannis,  Tinensis  Episcopi,'  who  was 
succeeded  by  Henry  Boost,  Provost  of  Eton  College. 

"  '  Augustinus  Church,  Liden'  Epus,'  was  instituted  to 
the  Rectory  of  Boscombe  in  1498.  Boscombe  was  vacated 
in  1499  '  per  resig'  Augustini,  Lidensis  EpL' 

" '  John<'%  Mayonensis  Epus,'  was  instituted  to  the  Vi- 
carage of  Coseham  in  1504. 

" '  Ecc'  Ebbysborn  et  Succentoria.'  Francis  May  was 
instituted  in  1509  to  these  preferments  '  per  dim'  Gul""* 
Barton,  facti  Epi  Salon'.' 

"  '  Johannes,  Syenensis  Epus,'  was  instituted  to  the 
Vicarage  of  Inglesham  in  1518.  'Johannes  Pynnock, 
Syenensis  Episcopus '  resigned  Inglesham  in  1520.  He 
seems  to  have  resigned  the  same  benefice  again,  in  the 
year  1524,  and  to  the  same  person.  The  first  resignation 
may  not  have  been  completed. 

"  The  Rectory  of  Colern  was  vacated  in  1526  '  per  mort' 
Johannis,  Calipolens'  Episcopi.' 

"  Thomas  Morley  was  instituted  to  the  Rectory  of 
Blounesdon,  B.  S.  Andrese,  in  1487,  and  John  Abendon 
was  instituted  to  the  same  benefice  in  1489. 

"'Thomas  Morley,  sedis  Merlebergen'  Episcopus  suf- 
fraganeus,'  was  instituted  to  the  Vicarage  of  Bradford, 
CO.  Wilts,  and  to  the  Rectory  of  Fittleton  in  1540,  both 
void  'per  attincturam  VVillielmi  Byrde,  de  alta  prodi- 
tione ; '  which  William  '  Brydde  '  had  been  presented  to 
Bradford  in  1491  by  the  Abbess  of  Shaston,  and  to  Fittle- 
ton in  1511  by  Sir  Edward  Darel.  Fittleton  was  vacated 
'  per  mortem  Thomas  Morley '  in  1564." 

The  last  bishop  in  Mb.  Walcott's  list  should 



[2'"i  S.  No  31.,  Aug.  2,  '56. 

have  been  printed  "  Reginald  Courtenay."  He  is, 
I  believe,  second  son  of  the  late  Rt.  Hon.  Thomas 
Peregrine  Courtenay,  next  brother  to  the  present 
Earl  of  Devon.  Patonce. 


(2"'i  S.  i.  513.) 

Anon's  note,  with  the  word  originals  in  Italics, 
seems  to  imply  that  he  charges  Newton,  Hahne- 
mann, and  others,  with  being  indebted  to  Jacob 
Sehmen,  without  having  had  the  candour  to  ac- 
knowledge the  fact;  a  very  serious  charge,  which 
induces  me  to  mention,  as  an  experience  of  my 
own,  that  a  theosopher  will  make  such  a  charge 
without  knowing  iicry  much  of  the  man  impugned. 
Some  years  ago,  when  beginning  to  study  Beh- 
men,  I  was  told  by  an  ardent  theosopher  (I 
rather  think  Anon,  himself)  that  Emanuel  Swe* 
denborg  had  been  indebted  to  Behmen.  I  had  read 
much  of  Swedenborg,  and  besides  the  internal 
evidence  to  the  contrary,  I  knew  that  Sweden- 
borg, in  one  of  his  letters,  had  expressly  said  (the 
question  having  been  asked)  that  he  had  not  read 
Jacob  Behmen,  for  which  he  also  gave  a  reason. 
I  naturally  inquired  of  this  gentleman,  "  What  do 
you  know  of  Swedenborg  ?  "  when  he  produced  a 
small  volume  called  The  Beauties  of  Swedenborg, 
a  most  unhappy  piece  of  garbling.  This  was  all 
he  knew  of  the  author  of  several  works,  in  which, 
as  with  Behmen  also,  the  internal  state  of  the  author 
is  given  by  himself 

It  struck  me  that  this  indisposition,  in  a  theoso- 
pher, to  believe  that  another  man,  as  well  as  his 
special  Master,  might  be  original,  in  the  proper 
sense  of  the  word,  was  highly  tmphilosophical,  to 
say  nothing  of  the  impropriety  of  lightly  attributing 
mean  conduct  to  eminent  men. 

It  would  be  easy  to  show  that  the  very  extraor- 
dinary and  profound  writings  of  Jacob  Behmen 
would  afford  no  countenance  to  this  particular 
shortcoming  in  his  pupil.  Alfbed  RorrE. 

Somers  Town. 


(2°<>  S.  ii.  13,' 14.) 

In  the  various  remarks  of  correspondents  on  the 
arras  of  Glasgow,  they  appear  to  have  omitted  the 
motto  surrounding  them,  which  also  betokens  an 
early  ecclesiastical  origin.  So  far  as  I  am  aware 
there  is  no  very  ancient  copy  of  it :  the  most  au- 
thoritative which  I  have  seen  is  that  used  by 
Robert  Sanders,  printer  to  the  city  and  uni- 
versity, anno  1675,  reading  "Lord,  let  Glasgow 
Flourish  through  the  Preaching  of  thy  Word.""  At 
what  period  it  was  clipped  down  to  its  present 
unmeaning  dimensions,  "  Let  Glasgow  Flourish," 

seems  uncertain.  In  the  "  Dedication "  of  the 
work  of  John  M'^Ure  in  1736  (Glasgow's  first  his- 
torian) to  the  magistrates,  "  wishing  them  all  hap- 
piness and  prosperity,  and  according  to  your  own 
motto,  may  ever  flourish  through  the  j>reaching  of 
God's  ivord,"  it  had  likely  then  been  considerably 
tampered  with,  or  only  employed  at  full  length  on 
state  occasions.  The  piety  of  the  sentiment,  and 
its  continued  appropriateness  to  Glasgow  as  a 
city,  ought  to  form  a  reason  for  the  civic  autho- 
rities restoring  it  to  its  original. 

Dr.  Cleland,  in  the  Annals  of  Glasgoiv,  1816, 
vol.  i.  p.  42.,  says  : 

"  The  armorial  bearing  of  the  city  is  on  a  field  parti,  p. 
fess  nrgent  and  gules,  an  oak  tree  surmounted  with  a  bird 
in  chief,  a  salmon  with  a  gold  stoned  ring  in  its  mouth  in 
base,  and  on  a  branch  on  the  sinister  side  a  bell  langued 
or,  all  proper.  .  .  .  Prior  to  the  Reformation  St. 
Mungo,  or  Kentigem,  mitred,  appeared  on  the  dexter  side 
of  the  shield,  which  had  two  salmons  for  supporters." 

Respecting  obscure  matters  of  this  kind  there 
will  of  course  be  always  much  to  exercise  the 
fancy,  and  hence  many  theories  to  explain  the 
various  insignia  of  the  arms  have  from  time  to 
time  been  published,  leaving  us  in  the  same  state 
of  conjecture.  Dr.  Main,  an  eminent  professor  of 
physic  in  the  University  of  Glasgow,  who  died  in 
1646,  had  his  Latin  verses,  "  Salmo  maris,"  &c., 
Englished  in  rather  a  homely  strain  by  J.  B.  in 
1685,  as  follows  : 

"  The  salmon  which  is  a  fish  of  the  sea, 
The  oak  which  springs  from  earth  that  loftie  tree, 
The  bird  on  it  which  in  the  air  doth  flee, 
O  Glasgow  does  presage  all  things  to  thee 
To  which  the  sea,  or  air,  or  fertile  earth. 
Do  either  give  their  nourishment  or  birth ; 
The  bell  that  doth  to  public  worship  call 
Saves  heaven  will  give  most  lasting  things  of  all ; 
The  ring  the  token  of  the  marriage  is, 
Of  things  in  heaven  and  earth  both  thee  to  bless." 

Similar  are  extant,  from  the  learned  professor 
downwards  to  those  of  the  schoolboy  who  usually 
had  at  his  finger  ends  a  rhyme  now  nearly  obso- 
lete, and  who  cut  the  knot  he  could  not  untie  : 

"  This  is  the  tree  that  never  grew, 
This  is  the  bird  that  never  flew, 
This  is  the  bell  that  never  rang. 
This  is  the  fish  that  never  swam, 
This  is  the  drunken  salmon." 

Without  pretending  to  be  as  skilly  as  those  who 
have  tried  their  hand  at  interpretation,  it  has  often 
occurred  to  me  that  the  different  religious  em- 
blems,.as  in  the  bird,  may  have  been  intended  to 
figure  the  dove,  or  Holy  Spirit ;  or  perhaps  in  re- 
ference to  the  meeting  at  Glasgow  of  St.  Mungo 
with  St.  Columba  the  "  Dove  "  —  the  ring  as  re- 
presenting the  sacrament  of  marriage  and  the 
episcopal  see  —  and  the  hell,  baptized  and  blessed, 
to  which  the  greatest  sanctity  was  attached,  as 
typical  of  the  cathedral.  There  was  the  fine  local 
situation  of  Glasgow,  adorned  by  a  magnificent 

2°^  S.  No  31.,  Aug.  2.  '56.] 



river,  abounding  with  fisheries,  on  whose  banks 
grew  the  spreading  oaks  and  fertile  orchards,  all 
of  which  objects,  ecclesiastical  and  civil,  came  so 
far  to  be  interwoven  in  her  arms,  denoting  the 
importance  of  her  status  among  the  nations. 

An  excellent  Gaelic  scholar,  now  deceased,  in- 
formed me  that  the  name  Kentigern  should  be 
rendered  Ceantigh  — Tighearna,  the  head,  or  go- 
vernor, or  father,  or  chief,  or  ruler  of  the  Lord's 
House ;  Columba,  or  Colum-cille,  Colum  of  the 
Cells,  from  his  having  founded  so  many  churches 
and  monasteries ;  Glasgow,  Olas  agus  Dhu,  grey 
and  black  —  Glas's  Dhu,  grey  and  black  —  Baile 
Glass  Dhu,  the  town  of  grey  and  black  (monks). 
The  most  of  her  historians  respectively  consider 
the  appellation  as  signifying  a  grey  smith,  from  a 
supposed  well-qualified  craftsman  in  iron  having 
taken  up  his  abode  in  the  place ;  as  a  dark  glen 
in  allusion  to  a  deep  mass  of  trees  where  the  cell 
of  St.  Kentigern  stood ;  and  among  the  latest  as 
derived  from  glas  (Brit,),  meaning  "  green,"  and 
coed,  wood ;  thus  glas-coed,  the  green  wood, 
thought  to  be  corroborated  from  the  unquestion- 
able early  existence  of  a  forest,  subsequently  de- 
nominated the  "  bishop's."  A  brook  in  a  deep 
ravine  at  the  east  end  of  the  cathedral,  known  as 
the  Mulendinar  Burn,  still  continues  to  flow,  which 
Ir  the  days  of  St.  Mungo  was  no  doubt  covered 
with  woods,  and  which  it  is  not  improbable  led 
him  to  select  the  spot  for  a  cathedral  to  plant  the 
Christian  faith  on  the  ruins  of  some  Druidical 
groves.  GrijS'. 


(2"'i  S.  I.  465.  523.) 

Your  correspondent  A.  was  misinformed  as  to 
the  officer  alluded  to  having  received  the  grace  of 
a  suspension  of  his  sentence  of  death  "  for  ninety- 
nine  years."  The  facts  of  the  case  were  as  fol- 
lows: —  Several  dep6ts  of  regiments  serving  on 
the  West  Indian  and  North  American  stations 
were  quartered  together  In  the  spacious  barracks 
at  Winchester  in  1813.  Amongst  the  officers 
thus  thrown  into  each  others'  society  were  Lieut. 
Blundell,  Lieut.  Anthony  Dillon,  and  En- 
sign Daniel  O'Brien,  all  of  the  late  101st,  or  Duke 
of  York's  Irish  Regiment  (a  corps  of  duellists)  ; 
and  Ensigns  Edward  Maguire  and  James  Peddle 
Gilchrist,  both  of  the  late  6th  West  India  Regi- 
ment. Between  Lieut.  Blundell  and  Ensign 
Maguire  a  trivial  difference  arose,  which  was 
fomented  into  a  quarrel  by  Lieut.  Dillon  and  En- 
signs Gilchrist  and  O'Brien  ;  until  a  fatal  duel 
was  fought  July  9,  1813,  in  which  Lieut.  Blundell 
lost  his  life.  Lieut.  Dillon,  Ensigns  Gilchrist, 
Maguire,  and  O'Brien  were  tried  by  civil  law  at 
Winchester,  were  found  guilty  of  murder,  and 
were  sentenced  to  death,  whereupon  a  royal  par- 

don was  granted  to  them  by  the  Prince  Regent ; 
mark,  not  a  respite,  or  even  a  reprieve  substi- 
tuting "  transportation"  for  "  death"  as  a  punish- 
ment, biit  a  free  and  unconditional  pardon.  The 
four  officers  were  removed  from  the  service  on 
Sept.  8,  1813,  without  the  formality  of  a  court 
martial.  Mr.  Gilchrist  was  only  two  months  an 
ensign  at  the  time  of  this  unfortunate  duel,  and 
there  may  have  been  extenuating  circumstances 
in  his  case :  for  he  was  appointed  ensign,  67th 
Regiment,  without  purchase.  In  November  1 820 ; 
was  transferred  to  a  veteran  battalion  In  February 
1821,  and  thence,  in  June  following,  to  60th  regi- 
ment; from  which  he  was  placed  on  half-pay  in 
August,  by  the  reduction  of  several  junior  officers 
in  each  rank.  He  was  appointed  in  January 
1831  to  86th  regiment,  and  obtained  about  the 
same  time  the  situation  of  Garrison  Quarter- 
master at  Gibraltar,  which  he  retained  until  June 
1834,  when  he  was  ordered  to  join  the  depot  at 
home ;  he  was  promoted  lieutenant  In  October 
1834,  and  joined  the  regiment  at  Demerara  in 
summer  1835.  The  regiment  returned  home  in 
May  1837,  and  Lieut.  Gilchrist  was  re-appointed 
in  June  1837  Garrison  Quartermaster  at  Gibral- 
tar ;  which  situation  he  again  held  until  April 
1841,  when  he  retired  on  half-pay,  and  resigned 
his  staff"  appointment.  He  died  on  Christmas 
Eve,  1849.  G.  L.  S. 

Conservative  Club. 


(2""^  S.  i.  516.) 

Mb.  Aspland  states  truly  that  the  name  of 
Samuel  Eaton  Is  not  mentioned  "  In  Hanbury's 
three  bulky  volumes  of  Historical  Memorials  re- 
lating to  the  Independents ; "  and  he  is  solicitous  to 
obtain  references  illustrative  of  Eaton's  life  and 
writings.  That  I  was  not  ignorant  respecting 
Eaton's  character  and  writings  when  I  "  professed 
to  write  the  history  of  Independency  in  England 
and  its  literature,"  Mb.  Aspland  may  see  in  the 
subjoined  extract  from  my  Historical  Research 
concerning  the  most  ancient  Congregational  Church 
in  England,  1820,  8vo.,  pp.  54. : 

"  That  the  claim  of  Mr.  Jacob's  church  to  priority  has 
been  questioned,  is  evident  from  what  is  said  in  Edwards's 
Gangrcena,  pt.  iii.  1646 ;  but,  as  will  presently  appear,  that 
writer  is  not  sufficient  authority.  He  says,  in  p.  164., 
'  There  is  a  godly  minister  of  Cheshire,  who  was  lately  in 
London,  that  related  with  a  great  deal  of  confidence  the 
following  story,  as  a  most  certain  truth  known  to  many 
of  that  county;  that  this  last  summer,  the  church  of 
Duckingfield  (of  which  Master  Eaton  and  Master  Taylor 
are  pastor  and  teacher)  being  met  in  their  chapel,  to  the 
performing  of  their  worship  and  service,  as  Master  Eaton 
was  preaching,  there  was  heard  the  perfect  sound  as  of  a 
man  beating  a  march  on  a  drum,'  .  .  .  'insomuch 
that  it  terrified  Master  Eaton  and  the  people,  caused  him 
to  give  over  preaching,'  &c.    And  he  adds,  in  p.  165., 



[2nds.  No3L,  Aug.  2. '56. 

*  This  church  of  Ductinfrfield  is  the  first  Independent 
church,  visible  and  framed,  that  was  set  up  in  England, 
being  before  the  Apologists  came  from  Holland,  and  so 
before  their  setting  up  their  churches  here  in  London.' 
That  Kdwards's  account  is  not  quite  correct,  the  follow- 
ing titles  of  works  will  show :  A  Defence  of  sundry  Po- 
sitions and  Scriptures,  alledged  to  justifie  the  Congregationall- 
way,  by  Samuel  Eaton,  Teacher,  and  Timothy  Taylor, 
Pastor,  of  the  Church  in  Ducken  field,  in  Cheshire,  1645, 
4to. ;  The  Defence  of  sundry  Positions  and  Scriptiires  for 
the  Congregational-way  justified,  by  Sam.  Eaton  and  Tim. 
Taylor,  1646,  4to.  In  Calamy's  Nonconformists'  Memorial, 
Palmer's  ed.  1775,  vol.  ii.  p.  91.,  under  the  head  '  Ducken- 
field,  Lancashire,'  is  an  account  of  Mr.  Samuel  Eaton ; 
whence  we  find,  that  having  been  puritanically  educated, 
he  dissented  in  some  particulars  from  the  Church  of 
England,  and  withdrew  to  New  England  [in  1637]  ;  but 
returned  and  gathered  a  congregational  church  at  Duck- 
enfield.  He  died  Jan.  9,  1664,  aged  sixty-eight.  This 
account  completely  confutes  Edwards's,  for  at  the  time  Mr. 
Jacob  instituted  his  church,  Mr.  Eaton  was  but  twenty 
years  old  I  "  —  Hist.  Res.,  p.  6. 

Benjamin  Hanburt. 
Gloucester  Villas,  Brixton. 

COMMON-PLACE  BOOKS  (P'  S.  xii.  366.  478. ;  2"'^ 
S.  i.  486.,  ii.  38.)  :  motto  for  index  (2"^  S.  i. 
413.  481.) 

To  convince  your  correspondent  F.  C.  H.  that 
the  method  he  describes  of  a  common- place  book, 
dividing  the  page  into  compartments,  a,  e,  i,  o,  u, 
T,  and  facilitating  the  use  of  Locke's  New  Method 
of  a  Common-Place  Book  and  Numerical  Index, 
was  adopted  at  the  period  I  have  mentioned,  viz. 
1792,  the  only  difference  being  the  omission  of 
the  vowel  y,  I  beg  to  furnish  a  specimen  from  the 
work  before  referred  to,  Asiatic  Researches,  vol.  iii. 
p.  249.  et  seq.,  from  which  he  will  see  that  although 
he  did  not  refer  to  any  of  the  works  which  I  men- 
tion, he  described  a  plan  precisely  the  same,  and 
which  was  consequently  not,  as  he  supposes,  new 
forty  years  ago. 





















The  words  Arabia,  &c.,  are  given  by  way  of 

Common-Place  Book,  256. : 

"  Arabia :  In  this  celebrated  peninsula  the  richest  and 
most  beautiful  of  languages  was  brought  to  per- 
fection :  the  Arabick  dictionary  by  Golius  is  the  most 
elegant,  the  most  convenient,  and,  in  one  word,  the 
best,  that  was  ever  compiled  in  any  language." 

The  directions  and  explanation  of  the  superior  ad- 
vantages of  this  new  method  occupy  four  pages. 
Perhaps  Mr.  Chadwick  will  not  be  dissatisfied 

with  the  trite  motto,  "  Festina  Lente,"  for  his 
Index.  In  the  Golden  Remains  of  the  "  ever  me- 
morable" Hales  of  Eton,  London,  1688,  he  thus 
exhibits  the  progressive  unity  of  an  index,  which 
methodically  arranges  excerptions  though  thrown 
together  "  in  most  admired  disorder : " 

"  In  your  reading  excerpe,  and  note  in  your  books  such 
things  as  you  like,  going  on  continually  without  any  re- 
spect unto  order ;  and  for  the  avoiding  of  confusion  it 
shall  be  very  profitable  to  allot  some  time  to  the  reading 
again  of  your  own  notes,  which  do  as  much  and  as  oft  as 
j-ou  can.  For  by  this  means  your  notes  shall  be  better 
fixt  in  your  memory,  and  your  memory  will  easily  supply 
you  with  things  of  the  like  nature,  if  by  chance  you  have 
dispersedly  noted  them,  that  so  you  may  bring  them  to- 
gether by  marginal  references.  But  because  your  notes 
in  time  must  needs  arise  in  some  bulk,  that  it  may  be  too 
great  a  task,  and  too  great  loss  of  time  to  review  them, 
do  thus :  cause  a  large  index  to  be  fram'd  according  to 
alphabetical  order,  and  register  in  it  your  heads,  as  they 
shall  ofi^er  themselves  in  the  course  of  your  reading,  every 
head  under  his  proper  letter.  For  thus  though  your  notes 
lie  confused  in  your  papers,  yet  are  thej^  digested  in  your 
index,  and  tQ  draw  them  together  when  you  are  to  make 
use  of  them  will  be  nothing  so  great  pains  as  it  would  be 
to  have  ranged  them  under  their  several  heads  at  their 
first  gathering.  A  little  experience  of  this  course  will 
show  you  the  profit  of  it,  especially  if  you  did  compare  it 
with  some  others  that  are  in  use."  —  Page  234. 


(2°'l  S.  i.  411.) 

The  punishment  of  death  was  formerly  most 
barbarously  inflicted  upon  persons  who  refused  to 
plead  to  an  indictment  preferred  against  them. 
I  am  enabled  to  give  you  the  exact  terms  of  the 
sentence.  The  prisoner  being  called  upon  to 
plead,  and  remaining  mute,  the  judgment  or- 
dained by  law  was  as  follows  : 

"That  the  prisoner  shall  be  sent  to  the  prison  from 
whence  he  came,  and  put  into  a  mean  room,  stopped  from 
the  light,  and  shall  be  laid  on  the  bare  ground,  without 
any  litter,  straw,  or  other  covering,  and  without  any  gar- 
ment about  him  (except  something  to  hide  his  privy 
members).  He  shall  lie  upon  his  back,  his  head  shall  be 
covered,  but  his  feet  shall  be  bare.  One  of  his  arms  shall 
be  drawn  by  a  cord  to  one  side  of  the  room,  and  the  other 
arm  to  the  other  side,  and  his  legs  shall  be  served  in  like 
manner.  Then  there  shall  be  laid  upon  his  body  as  much 
iron  or  stone  as  he  can  bear,  and  more.  And  the  first  day 
after  he  shall  have  three  morsels  of  barley  bread,  without 
any  drink ;  and  the  second  day  he  shall  be  allowed  to 
drink  as  much  as  he  can  at  three  times  of  the  water  that 
is  next  the  prison  door,  except  running  water,  without 
any  bread ;  and  this  shall  be  his  diet  till  he  dies.  And 
he  against  whom  this  judgment  shall  be  given  forfeits 
his  goods  to  the  king." 

This  sentence  once  pronounced,  it  remained  at 
the  discretion  of  the  court  to  allow  the  prisoner  to 
return  and  plead  if  he  desired.  By  an  act  passed 
in  1772  this  statute  was  repealed,  and  persons  re- 
fusing to  plead  were  deemed  guilty  as  if  tried  by  31.,  Aug.  2. '56.]  N^TES   AND   QUERIES. 


a  jury.  This  was  called  at  the  time  a  merciful 
alteration  :  but  the  present  law  on  this  subject  is 
much  more  in  accordance  with  the  spirit  of  justice 
and  humanity ;  for  if  a  prisoner  refuses  to  plead, 
he  is  tried  as  he  would  be  had  he  pleaded  "  not 
guilty  "  to  the  charge.  The  old  law  of  pressing  to 
death  never  became  obsolete,  but  was  enforced 
almost  up  to  the  very  year  of  its  repeal. 

John  Bawtree  Haevey. 


(2"'i  S.  ii.  48.) 

The  following  account  is  from  the  Biographic 
Unioerselle,  Ancienne  et  Moderne,  Supplement, 
tome  57^""%  Paris,  1834  : 

"Bathurst  (Lord  Benjamin?),  n^en  1784  k  Londres, 
d'une  famille  illustre  (voy.  Bathurst,  iii.  516.),  re(;ut 
une  brillaute» education,  et  fut  d^s  sa  jeuaesse  destine  h  la 
diplomatie.  Une  mission  lui  ayant  ete  confiee  auprfes  de 
la  Cour  de  Vienne,  en  1809,  il  revenait  de  cette  capitale 
avec  des  de'peches  d'une  grande  importance,  l|rsqu'il  dis- 
parut  tout  k  coup,  h.  son  passage  prfes  de  Hambourg,  an 
moment  ou  il  allait  s'embarquer  pour  I'Angleterre.  Tout 
annonce  qu'il  fut  assassine  par  suite  d'un  crime  h,  peu 
prfes  semblable  h  celui  dont  le  Major  Sinclair  avait  ^t^ 
victime.  On  ne  trouva  d'autres  traces  de  sa  disparution 
q'une  partie  de  ses  vetements  restee  sur  les  bords  de 
I'Elbe.  Cette  perte  causa  en  Angleterre  de  trfes-vifs  re- 
grets, et  Ton  h,  fait  long-temps  d'inutiles  recherches  pour 
connaitre  les  auteurs  du  crime.  Lorsqu'en  1815  I'ex- 
ministre  de  la  police  imperiale,  Savary,  tomba  dans  les 
mains  des  Anglais,  il  lui  fut  address^  sur  cette  ^vfenement, 
par  le  ministre  Bathurst,  beaucoup  de  questions  qui 
n'eurent  point  de  resultat." 

From  this  it  would  appear  that  nothing  certain, 
up  to  1834,  had  been  ascertained  on  this  distress- 
mg  subject.  The  Major  Sinclair  alluded  to  in 
the  above  extract  was  an  officer  in  the  Swedish 
service,  who  had  been  sent,  in  1739,  to  negociate 
a  treaty  at  Constantinople,  and  was  assassinated 
on  his  return,  near  Naumburgh,  in  Silesia.  The 
Biog.  Univ.  (tome  42.)  says  that  the  evident  ob- 
ject of  this  crime  was  to  obtain  possession  of  his 
dispatches,  the  secret  of  which  could  only  interest 
Russia.  J.  Macray. 


Nothing  certain  is  known  of  Mr.  Bathurst's  fate. 
In  the  life  of  his  father,  the  late  Bishop  of  Nor- 
wich, by  Mrs.  Thistelthwaite,  any  person  inter- 
ested in  this  strange  story  may  see  all  that  is 
known.  His  eldest  daughter  was  drowned  in  the 
Tiber,  the  other  is  living.  Mrs.  Bathurst  was  a 
sister  of  Sir  W.  P.  Call,  Bart.,  and  a  cousin  of  my 
mother's.  She  died  at  an  advanced  age,  in  Italy, 
about  a  year  since. 

Would  A  Bookworm  be  so  kind  as  to  let  me 
see  Mrs.  Bathurst's  MS.  journal  ? 

A.  Holt  White. 

Southend,  Essex. 

I  think  your  correspondent  A  Bookworm  is 
under  a  mistake  in  saying  Mrs.  Benjamin  Bathurst 
was  a  sister  of  Sir  G.  P.  Call's ;  she  was  sister  to 
Lord  Aylmer.  Her  surviving  daughter  is  Dow- 
ager Countess  of  Castle  Stuart.  Bookworm 
would  find  the  information  he  seeks  in  the  Life  of 
Bishop  Bathurst,  written  by  his  son  the  late  Arch- 
deacon Bathurst. 

A  Reader  of  "  Notes  and  Queries  "  from 
ITS  Commencement, 

songs  on  tobacco. 

(2"'»  S.  i.  182.  258.) 

I  have  a  version  of  the  old  song  "  Think  of  that, 
when  you  smoke  tobacco,"  differing  in  words 
from  the  versions  inserted  in  "N.  &  Q.,"  but 
similar  in  sentiment  and  metre,  for  which  reason 
I  shall  not  ask  you  to  insert  it.  I  send,  however, 
one  which  is  headed  "  a  translation  "  in  my  note- 
book, and  which  differs  in  metre  from  those  that 
have  been  embalmed  in  the  classic  pages  of  your 
invaluable  journal. 

"  The  leaves  of  tobacco  which  come  from  afar. 

For  better  or  worse  to  the  smoker. 
Their  colour  so  green  in  the  morn  seems  to  be. 

In  the  evening  they  're  livid  —  they  wither ; 
This  constantly  shews  to  us  pilgrims  on  earth 
That  we  are  but  strangers  on  this  stage,  from  birth, 
In  worldly  enjoyments  there  's  always  a  dearth ; 

These  morals  at  once  touch  the  smoker. 

"  The  pipe,  through  this  habit,  it  blackens  in  time, 
The  ashes  and  smoke  make  it  blacken ; 

Before  it  be  cleansfed,  or  whiten'd,  'tis  put 
In  the  fire,  when  it  turns  to  its  colour. 

So  we  are,  all  of  us,  without  and  within, 

Uncleanly  and  full  of  dire  hatred  and  sin, 

Before  he  is  purified,  grace  must  begin 
To  work  on  the  mind  of  the  smoker. 

"  The  white  chalky  pipe  has  the  colour  of  them 
Whom  we  call  our  fair  maidens  and  beauties ; 
When  once  it  is  broken,  it  is  put  aside. 
And  wholly  dispensed  with  its  uses ; 
And  thus  we  are,  all  of  us,  seemingly  strong, 
But  a  light  stroke  of  Fate  may  cast  us  along 
The  stream  of  adversity  —  both  th'  old  and  the  young 
Should  muse  as  the  smoke  them  infuses. 

"  The  ashes  or  dross  in  the  pipe  they  remain, 
It  must  be  remember'd  with  wonder ; 
But  the  smoke  it  ascends  to  the  regions  above, 

Most  surelj',  as  on  it  we  ponder : 
From  this  earth  to  that  earth  we  soon  must  return, 
From  ashes  to  ashes  —  though  the  thought  we  maj' 

spurn ; 
Our  life  it  decays,  as  tobacco  doth  burn, 
Consider  thy  exit,  then,  Smoker." 

Pemb.  Coll.,  Oxon. 

Your  correspondent  Dr.  Rimbault  remarks  on 
the  old  phrase,  "drinking  tobacco."  _ May  I  add  a 
parallel  case  of  the  natives  of  India,  who  call  it 



[2nd  s.  No  31.,  Aug.  2.  '66. 

"  hooka  peue,"  to  drink  the  hooka ;  and  who  like- 
wise swallow  the  smoke,  and  breathe  it  out 
through  the  nostrils.  E.  E.  Btng, 

3R«jpItci  t0  Minax  H^utvitS, 

Portraits  of  Swift  (2"'^  S.  ii.  21.)— I  am  not  able 
to  say  (writinor  from  the  country)  whether,  as 
G.  N.  states,  Faulkner  (not  Faulkener)  printed 
an  edition  of  Swift  in  1734 ;  but  I  have  his  edi- 
tion of  1735,  which  makes  no  allusion  to  a  former 
edition.  My  edition  contains,  in  the  4th  volume, 
the  print  that  G.  N.  seems  to  allude  to,  but  it 
differs  from  his  description :  first,  in  having  Vert 
for  Vertue,  the  engraver's  name  ;  and  secondly,  in 
being,  in  my  opinion,  a  very  poor  performance, 
and  a  peculiarly  bad  likeness  of  Swift,  which  is 
the  more  apparent  because  the  first  volume  has  an 
admirable  portrait  of  the  Dean  engraved  by  "  G. 
Vertue,"  and  in  his  very  best  style.  If  G.  N.  be 
accurate  in  his  statementSj  I  would  guess  that 
Faulkner  published  his  first  volumes  in  1734, 
■without  Vertue's  fine  portrait,  and  republished 
them  in  173o  with  that  plate  and  a  new  date. 
The  plate  in  the  4th  volume,  described  by  G.  N., 
and  marked  in  my  copy  as  by  "  Vert,"  was,  I  am 
satisfied,  not  by  Vertue ;  but  by  some  very  in- 
ferior artist,  who  was  not  impudent  enough  to 
give  Vertue's  name  at  full  length.  C. 

"  God  save  the  King"  (2"'^  S.  ii.  60.)  —  A.  A.  D. 
has  been  misinformed.  No  doubt  can  exist  that 
Dr.  John  Bull  was  the  composer  of  this  tune.  It 
stands  in  the  volume  of  MS.  music  by  Bull, 
formerly  the  property  of  Dr.  Pepusch,  now  of 
Mr.  Richard  Clark.  Mr.  William  Chappell  is  not 
a  professional  musician ;  and  his  statements  upon 
music,  as  abstract  music,  should  be  received  only 
so  far  as  supported  by  the  strongest  evidence. 
Even  musicians  have  made  great  mistakes  in  the 
origin  and  chronology  of  melody.  Dr.  Crotch, 
who  chose  to  fix  upon  one  chronological  date  as 
the  rise  of  pure  church-music,  and  another  chro- 
nological date  as  the  period  of  its  decline,  has 
made  a  ludicrous  mistake  in  exemplifying  his  un- 
tenable theory.  As  an  example  of  the  church 
school  in  its  perfection,  he  quotes  a  chant  in 
D  minor,  imagining  it  was  the  composition  of 
Thomas  Morley  of  1585,  whereas  it  was  made  by 
William  Morley  of  1740,  a  period  in  which,  ac- 
cording to  Dr.  Crotch's  notion,  all  true  church- 
music  was  defunct.  H.  J.  Gatjntlbtt. 

Approach  of  Vessels  (2°"*  S.  i.  315. 418.)— In  the 
Nautical  Magazine  for  March,  1834,  will  be  found 
a  very  interesting  account  of  Nauscopie,  or  the 
art  of  ascertaining  the  approach  of  vessels  at  a 
great  distance,  by  M.  Bottineau.     He  says ; 

"  This  knowledge  neither  results  from  the  undulation 

of  the  waves,  nor  from  quick  sight,  nor  from  a  particular 
sensation;  but  simply  from  observing  the  horizon,  which 
bears  upon  it  certain  signs  indicative  of  the  approach  of 
vessels  or  land.  When  a  vessel  approaches  land,  or 
another  vessel,  a  meteor  appears  in  the  atmosphere  of  a 
particular  nature,  visible  to  every  eye,  without  any  difficult 
effort :  it  is  not  by  the  effect  of  a  fortuitous  occurrence 
that  this  meteor  makes  its  appearance  under  such  cir- 
cumstances ;  it  is,  on  the  contrary,  the  necessary  result  of 
one  vessel  towards  another  or  towards  land." 

R.  Thokburn. 

Bottineau  is  the  name  of  the  person  who  prac- 
tised the  very  curious  art  of  foretelling  the  ap- 
proach of  vessels  to  land.  He  held  a  situation 
under  the  French  government,  in  the  Mauritius, 
towards  the  end  of  the  last  century,  and  appears 
to  have  made  repeated  and  vain  efforts  to  gain  the 
patronage  of  his  native  government  for  his  art, 
but  having  failed  to  sell  it  to  advantage,  permitted 
it  to  expire  with  him.  He  died  in  obscurity  about 
the  time  of  the  Revolution  ;  and  it  doesiiot  appear 
that  any  offer  of  his  services  was  ever  made  by 
him  to  the  English  government,  or  that  he  derived 
any  pensi^  from  it.  The  Nautical  Magazine  for 
March,  1834,  contains  a  series  of  documents  re- 
specting this  strange  art;  and  in  No.  115.  of  the 
first  series  of  Chamber^ s  Journal  will  be  found  an 
interesting  paper  upon  the  subject,  under  the 
fanciful  title  of  "  Nautical  Second-Sight." 

William  Blood, 


Lines  on  Warburton  (2°'^  S.  ii.  22.)  —  If  S.  W. 
will  refer  to  Churchill's  Works,  vol.  ii.  pp.  43,  44., 
1844,  edited  by  W.  Tooke,  he  will  find  the  verses 
on  Warburton  he  quotes,  as  written  by  S.  Rogers 
in  Johnson's  Table-Talk: 

"  The  first  entitled  to  the  place 

Of  Honour  both  by  gown  and  grace, 

Who  never  let  occasion  slip 

To  take  right  hand  of  fellowship  ; 

And  was  so  proud,  that  should  he  meet 

The  Twelve  Apostles  in  the  street. 

He'd  turn  his  nose  up  at  them  all, 

And  sliove  his  Saviour  from  the  wall," 

Nichols's  Literary  Anecdotes,  and  D 'Israeli's 
Quarrels  of  Authors,  and  the  notes  of  Mr.  Tooke, 
may  be  usefully  consulted  in  relation  to  Warbur- 
ton and  Churchill's  satire. 

A  good  life  of  Warburton,  embracing  the  lite- 
rary history  of  the  period,  in  relation  to  him  and 
to  his  immediate  contemporaries,  is  much  to  be 
desired.  Spenceb  Hall. 

Rawson  (2"^  S.  i.  452.)  —  G.  R.  C.  will  see  a 
pedigree  of  Rawson,  of  Bessacarr,  in  par.  Cantley, 
CO.  York,  stated  to  be  descended  from  the  Raw- 
sons  of  Frystone,  in  Hunter's  South  Yorkshire 
(vol.  i.  p.  85.).  Also,  at  p.  321.  of  the  same  work, 
another  Rawson  of  Pickburn,  or  Pigburn,  in  par. 
Brodsworth.  Accounts  of  other  families  of  the 
same  name  are  to  be  found  in  Hunter's  Hallam- 
shire  (pp.  224.  267.)  C.  J. 

2'"'  S.  No  81.,  AcG.  2.  '56.] 



Allow  (2'">  S.  ii.  10.)  — The  meaning  of  this 
word  in  the  Baptismal  Service  most  likely  will 
be  the  meaning  usually  attached  to  it  by  the 
writers  of  the  age  in  which  the  service  was  drawn 
up.  In  the  English  version  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment the  word  occurs  five  times,  to  express  what 
in  the  original  are  four  different  words  : 

Luke  xi.  48.  —  <rvvevS6KeiTe. 

Acts  Xxiv.  15.  — Trpoa-S^xovTOLl. 

Horn.  vii.  15.  —  •yiftoo-Koj. 

liom.  xiv.  22.  —  Soxif^afei ;  also  1  Thess.  ii.  4. 

In  this  last  sense  of  "  approving  after  trial,"  it 
is  used  in  the  Prayer-Book  version  of  Psalm  xi. 
6.,  where  the  authorised  version  has  "  trieth,"  and 
the  original  }n3* ;  but  the  most  usual  meaning 
seems  to  have  been  "  approve,  be  well  pleased 
with,  take  pleasure  in."  Cf.  King  Lear^  Act  III. 
So.  4. : 

"  If  your  sweet  sway 
Allow  obedience." 

There  seems  to  be  no  objection  to  this  meaning 
in  the  passage  referred  to  by  E.  G.  R. ;  for  though 
your  pages  are  not  the  place  to  discuss  the  ques- 
tion  of  infant  baptism,  I  think  that  God  nowhere 
expressly  commands  it,  though  the  Church  in  her 
27th  Article  says  it  "  is  in  anywise  to  be  retained, 
as  most  agreeable  with  the  institution  of  Christ,"  a 
phrase  which  seems  exactly  to  correspond  to  the 
"  favourably  alloweth  "  of  the  Baptismal  Service. 
J.  Eastwood,  M.A. 


_  Canary  (2°'^  S.  i.  374.  440. ;  ii.  34.)— Without 
disputing  the  statement  in  Hebrews  xiii.  12.,  or 
the  interpretation  put  upon  it,  I  must  call  atten- 
tion to  the  reading  of  John  xix.  20.,  which,  on 
the  authority  of  the  best  MSS.,  declares  that  "  the 
part  of  the  city  where  Jesus  was  crucified  was 
nigh. '  "  'E77US  ?iv  6  Toiros  rrjs  TrjAeoij,  Sttov  icrrav- 
pcidf]  6  'iTjtroDs."  This  is  the  adopted  reading  of 
Scholz  and  Tischendorff.  Consequently  Golgotha 
or  Calvary  was  within,  and  not  without  the  city. 
The  present  walls  of  Jerusalem  were  erected  a.d. 
1542  ;  the  previous  walls,  extending  farther  to 
the  north  than  these,  were  erected  under  Clau- 
dius, forty-one  years  after  Christ  (Joseph.  War, 
V.  4.  2.  Corap.  Tacit.  Hist.,  v.  12.).  But  in  the 
time  of  Christ  there  were  two  walls  (neither  coin- 
ciding with  the  above).  Of  the  outer  one  Scholz 
found  traces ;  the  inner  one  probably  excluded 
Calvary,  which,  if  situated  betwixt  these  two 
walls,  was  not  only,  according  to  St.  John,  "  part 
of  the  city,"  but  also  "  without  the  gate,"  accord- 
ing to  the  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews,  which,  how- 
ever, does  not  say  it  was  without  the  gate  of  the 
city,  but  might,  for  the  allegorical  purpose  of  the 
writer,  be  without  the  gate  of  the  Temple  ("Tera- 
plum  in  modum  arcis  propriique  muri,"   Tacit. 

1.  C.)  T.  J.  BOCKTON. 


The  House  of  Brunswick  and  the  Casting  Vote 
(2°'^  S.  ii.  44.).  — Sir  Arthur  Owen,  Bart.,  of 
Orielton,  in  the  county  of  Pembroke,  is  the  in- 
dividual who  is  asserted  to  have  given  the  casting 
vote  which  placed  the  Brunswick  dynasty  upon 
the  throne  of  England.  A  lady  now  residing  in 
Haverfordwest  remembers  her  grandmother,  who 
was  staying  at  Orielton  at  the  time  when  Sir 
Arthur  Owen  rode  to  London  on  horseback,  for 
the  purpose  of  recording  his  vote.  He  had  relays 
of  horses  at  the  different  posting  houses,  and  ac- 
complished the  journey  in  an  incredibly  short 
space  of  time ;  arriving  at  the  precise  juncture 
when  his  single  vote  caused  the  scale  to  pre- 
ponderate in  favour  of  the  descendants  of  the 
Electress  Sophia.  John  Pavin  Phillips. 


Cast  of  Oliver  Cromwell  (2"''  S.  ii.  34.)  —  I  do 
not  know  of  any  cast  of  Oliver  Cromwell  being 
preserved  in  the  Tower.  The  original  one,  taken 
after  death,  is,  I  believe,  in  the  possession  of 
Henry  W.  Field,  Esq.,  of  H.  M.  Mint,  a  descen- 
dant of  the  Lord  Protector.  Mercator,  A.B. 

Reginald  Bligh,  A.B.  (2"^  S.  ii.  10.)  —  was 
presented  to  the  rectory  of  Romaldkirk  in  the 
North  Riding  of  Yorkshire,  April  7,  1787.  I 
have  every  reason  to  believe  that  he  died  and  was 
buried  at  Romaldkirk,  but  I  am  sure  that  the 
present  rector  will  give  Messrs.  C.  H.  &  T.  Coo- 
per all  the  information  about  him  that  they 
require.  Mr.  Bligh  was  related  to  the  Captain 
Bligh  whose  name  has  become  famous  from  his 
connection  with  the  mutiny  of  the  Bounty. 


Raid  (2"d  S.  i.  213.  396.  522.)  —  Between  a 
place  called  Trumfleet  Marsh  and  the  north  bank 
of  the  river  Don,  near  Kirk-Bramwith,  about  six 
miles  N.N.E.  of  Doucaster,  is  a  portion  of  land 
bearing  the  name  of  "  The  Rands."  On  the  oppo- 
site, or  south  bank,  is  Fishlake  ;  to  the  school  of 
which  parish  the  Rev.  Richard  Rands  alias  Crab- 
tree  (so  he  writes  himself)  was  a  benefactor  circa 
1640.  He  mentions  Fishlake  as  being  "  the  place 
of  his  nativity."  C.  J. 

Blood  which  will  not  wash  out  (2°'^  S.  i.  461 ; 
ii,  57,) — It  is  forty  years,  exactly,  since  I  visited 
the  chapel  of  the  Carmelites  at  Paris,  alluded  to 
in  the  above  pages.  At  that  time  the  blood  was 
left  in  quantities  all  over  the  pavement  and 
benches,  and  on  the  walls.  I  was  told,  on  the 
spot,  that  the  number  of  clergy  massacred  in  this 
small  chapel  was  102  !  Others  were  shut  up  and 
murdered  in  the  beautiful  church  of  the  convent ; 
and  the  whole  number  thus  sacrificed  was  500 ! 
With  reference,  however,  to  the  original  Querpr 
as  to  the  blood  not  washing  out,  my  impression  is 
that  in  this  case  no  attempt  has  been  made  to 



[2fld  s.  No  31.,  AcG.  2. '5G, 

wash  it  out.  It  is  regarded  with  the  greatest 
veneration ;  and  when  I  was  there,  it  was  pre- 
served most  carefully  by  never  sweeping  over  it, 
except  with  a  bunch  of  feathers.  At  the  time  of 
my  visit,  the  convent  was  occupied  by  about 
thirty-six  Carmelite  nuns.  I  had  just  before  paid 
a  visit  to  the  good  old  Abbe  Barruel,  who  had 
then  lost  the  sight  of  one  eye,  and  was  declining, 
but  very  cheerful.  He  spoke  very  highly  of 
Bishop  Milner,  and  expressed  a  wish  to  possess 
his  Letters  to  a  Prebendary,  to  which  he  said  he 
should  give  a  more  honourable  place  in  his  library 
than  to  Bossuet's  Variations.  F.  C.  H. 

The  Doleman  (2"'^  S.  i.  375.)— Dollman  (some- 
times Dowman)  is  not  a  very  uncommon  name : 
the  family  appears  to  be  originally  from  Yorkshire, 
but  there  are  branches  in  Herts,  Berks,  and  Cam- 
bridgeshire. J.  K.  does  not  say  to  which  town 
he  alludes,  or  the  name  might  possibly  be  traced 
in  the  neighbourhood.  There  are  several  pedi- 
grees of  the  name  in  Brit.  Mus.  (see  Sims's  Index), 
Shaw  gives  the  arms  of  a  branch  settled  in  Staf- 
fordshire (vol.  ii.  p.  101.)  LX. 

Oamage  Family  (2""^  S.  ii.  48.)  — The  place 
Anonymous  writes  "  Royiode,"  is  perhaps  Coyty, 
near  Bridgend,  in  Glamorganshire.  The  castle  of 
Coyty  was  formerly  the  chief  possession  of  the 
family  of  Gamage  ;  and,  among  persons  in  a  hum- 
ble condition  of  life,  in  that  county,  the  name  still 
exists.  T.  F. 

^'Aneroid''  (2"'»  S.  i.  114.)  —This  word,  as 
applied  to  the  vacuum  barometer,  is  a  modern 
coinage ;  and  is  compounded  of  a,  privative,  and 
the  obsolete  adjective  vi)pbs,  "  humidus."  The 
motion  of  the  index  on  the  dial-plate  of  the  in- 
strument is  produced  by  the  pressure  of  the  at- 
mosphere upon  a  corrugated  iron  box,  from  which 
the  air  has  been  exhausted.  There  being  no  fluid 
tis»d  in  the  construction  of  the  barometer,  it  is, 
therefore,  not  inaptly  designated  "  Aneroid,"  i.  e. 
moistureless.  John  Pavin  PHiiiLiPS. 


The  Ducking  Stool  (2"'^  S.  ii.  38.)  —  In  a  recent 
number  of  "  N.  &  Q."  a  correspondent  from  Birk- 
enhead has  mentioned  the  use  of  the  ducking  stool 
as  a  punishment  for  women,  in  Liverpool,  in  1779, 
and  perhaps  much  later,  and  has  referred,  as  his 
authority,  to  my  historical  work  on  Liverpool. 
The  fact  certainly  was  as  he  has  stated.  That 
barbarous  and  unfeeling  punishment  was  inflicted 
in  the  old  House  of  Correction  in  Liverpool,  at 
least  as  lately  as  in  1779;  and  its  constant  inflic- 
tion there  is  mentioned  in  Howard's  Appendix  to 
the  State  of  the  Prisons  in  England  and  Wales, 

&258.     See  also  the  allusion  to  it  by  Mr.  James 
ield,    the    philanthropist,    in    the    Gentleman's 
Magazine  of  1803,  vol.  Ixxiii.  part  2.  p.  1104. 

I  may  be  allowed  to  add,  that  there  is  yet  a 
portable  ducking  stool,  on  wheels,  preserved  in 
the  church  at  Leominster,  in  Herefordshire,  as 
your  correspondent  states.  I  have  repeatedly 
seen  it,  and  the  last  time  was  only  in  May  last ; 
and  I  have  been  informed  by  the  worthy  vicar, 
who  kindly  accompanied  me  and  pointed  it  out  to 
me,  that  about  seventy  years  ago,  it  was  used  for 
the  ducking  of  a  notoriously  bad  woman  named 
Jane  Curran,  but  called  by  many  "  Jenny  Pipes." 

Richard  Brooke. 

Canning  Street,  Liverpool. 

"Hallow,  my  Fancie"  (2"''  S.  i.  511. ;  ii.  57.)  — 
This  old  song  is  to  be  found  in  The  Cabinet,  a 
(now  somewhat  rare)  collection  of  tales,  &c.  In 
a  note  is  added  — 

"  From  Watson's  Choice  Collection  of  Comic  and  Serious 
Scots  Poems,  both  Ancient  and  Modern,  1706,  a  volume  of 
uncommon  rarity,  where  it  is  prefaced  by  the  following  : 

"'iVoto.  —  It  was  thought  fit  to  insert  these  verses, 
because  the  one  half  of  them  (viz.  from  this  mark  *  *  *  to 
the  end)  were  writ  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Clealand,  of 
my  Lord  Angus's  Regiment,  when  he  was  a  Student  in 
the  College  of  Edinburgh,  and  18  Years  of  Age.'  " 

The  mark  is  at  the  verse  beginning,  "  In  con- 
ceit like  Phaeton,"  and  ascribes  the  last  nine  of 
seventeen  stanzas  to  Col.  Clealand. 

C.  H.  S.  (Clk.) 

Dissection  (2""^  S.  ii.  64.)  —The  object  of  the 
statute,  2  &  3  Will.  IV.  c.  75.,  which  enacts  that 
the  bodies  of  murderers  shall  not  be  dissected, 
but  buried  in  the  prison,  was  obviously  to  remove 
the  prejudice  against  dissection,  and  to  induce 
persons  to  give  their  own  or  their  relatives'  bodies 
for  dissection;  for  the  act,  after  reciting  that 
there  is  an  insufficient  supply  of  bodies  for  scien- 
tific purposes,  authorises  the  executor,  or  other 
party  having  lawful  possession  of  the  body  of  any 
deceased  person,  to  permit  the  body  to  undergo 
anatomical  examination;"  and  also  makes  it  im- 
perative on  such  party  to  permit  dissection,  if  the 
deceased  had  expressed  a  wish  to  that  effect, 
unless  the  surviving  relatives  object. 

Prior  to  that  act,  it  was  unlawful  to  have  pos- 
session of  a  body  for  anatomical  purposes  ;  and, 
therefore,  no  person  could  authorise  the  dissection 
of  his  body.  It  was  argued,  when  the  act  was 
proposed,  that  the  legalisation  of  dissection,  and 
the  removal  of  the  infamy,  would  induce  many 
persons,  for  the  sake  of  science,  to  give  bodies  ibr 
dissection.  Except  as  to  paupers,  the  act  has 
probably  failed  of  the  object  proposed  ;_  and  it 
might  be  expedient  again  to  legalise  the  dissection 
of  murderers.  Eden  Warwick. 


Ancient  Oaths  (2°'^  S.  ii.  70.)  —  The  collection 
suggested  by  T.  II.  P.  to  be  valuable  should  cer- 
tainly be  complete ;  but  such  a  collection  would 
surely  be  too  shocking  and  profane  for  admission 

2»d8,  N0  31.,  AuG.2. '56.] 



into  the  pages  of  "N.  &  Q."  One  inestimable 
blessing  which  we  owe  to  tbe  Reformation,  is  the 
freedom  from  the  awful  oaths  in  use  up  to  that 
time ;  and  it  can  serve  no  good  purpose  even  to 
know  the  precise  forms  of  blasphemy  by  which  an 
incarnate  Saviour  was  appealed  to  by  "  the  faith- 
ful." On  this  subject,  see  an  article  in  the  last 
Christian  Rememhrancer  on  the  "  Religious  and 
Social  State  of  England  before  the  Reformation." 

X.  Y.  Z. 

Whitsxinday  (2°<i  S.  i.  521.  ;  ii.  77.)  — Although 
F.  C.  H.  seems  satisfied  with  "  the  received  origin 
of  the  name  Whitsunday,"  I  confess  that  the  de- 
rivation has  always  appeared  to  me  the  most  un- 
satisfactory and  fanciful  that  could  have  been 
chosen.  Did  neophytes  always  wear  white  gar- 
ments on  this  day  ?  If  they  did,  were  they  so 
specially  worn  on  that  day  only,  as  to  make  it 
likely  that  they  should  give  a  name  to  this  day  ? 
Dissenting  equally  from  Mk.  Mackenzie  AVal- 
COTT  and  from  T.  C.  H.,  I  can  find  no  more  likely 
origin  of  the  word  than  that  which  Hearne  gives 
in  the  glossary  to  his  edition  oi  Rohert  of  Gloucester, 
s.  v.  "  Wyttosonetyd."     His  words  are  : 

"  There  are  many  opinions  about  the  original  of  the 
name,  all  which  I  forbear  noticing,  unless  it  be  one  not 
taken  notice  of  by  common  et3'mologists,  but  occurs  in 
folio  liiij  a.  of  a  very  rare  book  printed  by  VVynken  de 
Worde.  .  .  .  the  words  to  our  purpose  are  these : 

"  '  ^  In  die  pentecostes. 

"  '  Good  men  and  wymmen  this  day  is  called  Wytson- 
day  bycause  the  Holy  Ghost  brought  wytte  and  wysdom 
into  Cristis  disciples,  and  so  by  her  prechyng  after  in  to 
all  cristendom.  Thenne  niaye  ye  understande  that  many 
hath  wytte,  but  not  W3'sdom.  For  there  ben  many  that 
hath  wytte  to  preche  well,  but  there  ben  few  that  have 
wysdom  to  live  well.  There  be  many  wj'se  prechers  and 
techers,  but  her  lyvyng  in  no  maner  thyng  after  her 
prechynge.  Also  there  be  many  that  labour  to  have 
wytte  and  connyng,  but  there  ben  few  travaylleth  to 
come  to  good  lyvynge.'  " 

Would  some  of  your  philological  readers  give 
the  name  of  this  feast  in  the  various  languages  of 
Europe,  as  this  might  enable  us  to  decide  upon 
the  derivation  of  the  word  in  our  own  language. 

Wm.  Denton. 

Anonymous  Works  (1"  S.  x.  306.)  —  I  have 
heard  that  Violet,  or  The  Danseiise,  was  written 
by  Sir  Edward  JBulvver  Lytton,  Bart. ;  and  that 
Nights  at  Mess,  originally  published  in  Black- 
wood's Magazine,  were  not  written  by  the  late 
Dr.  Maginn,  but  by  the  Rev.  James  White, 
M.  A.,  subsequently  residing  in  Norfolk  or 
Somerset.  Wahrheit. 

"  Pence  a  piece,''  for  a  penny  a  piece  (2'"'  S.  ii. 
6G.)  —  This  phrase  may  sometimes  be  heard  in 
Pembrokeshire.  I  have  often  been  struck  with 
the  manifest  inaccuracy  of  the  expression  in  its 
popular  sense  ;  for,  if  it  means  anything,  it  must 
mean  tivo  pence  a  piece  at  least,   to  satisfy  the 

grammatical  construction  ;  just  as  a  lease  for  years, 
without  saying  how  many,  is  a  lease  for  two  years. 
"  Verba  ex  captu  vulgi  imponuntur,"  and  we  have 
here  a  sample  of  the  loose  way  in  which  the  captus 
vulgi  often  works.  J.  W.  Phillifs. 


Gypsum,  Bones,  Guano  (2°^  S.  i.  374.)  —  The 
use  of  gypsum,  as  a  manure,  was  very  partially 
known  until  Mayer,  a  clergyman  of  Kupferzell, 
in  the  principality  of  Hohenlohe,  in  Germany, 
noticed  it  about  the  middle  of  the  last  century  in 
a  correspondence  with  Count  Von  der  Schulen- 
berg,  at  Hehlen,  in  the  electorate  of  Hanover,  as 
having  been  long  in  use  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Gottingen  as  a  top-dressing  for  young  clover. 
Tscheffeli,  the  zealous  Swiss  agriculturist,  soon 
after  tried  experiments  with  it,  and  his  success 
introduced  it  very  generally  into  Switzerland, 
where  it  continues  to  maintain  its  first  reputation. 

In  the  Dumfries  and  Galloway  Courier  for 
March,  1837,  it  is  stated  that  around  Hull,  and  in 
other  parts  of  England,  bones  have  been  used  as 
•  a  manure  for  a  period  of  nearly  thirty  years  ;  and 
it  is  added,  as  a  curious  fact,  that  while  the  Scots 
have  the  reputation  of  being  the  best  farmers  in  the 
world,  almost  all  our  great  improvements  are  im- 
ported from  the  sister  country.  From  Hull  the 
practice  travelled  to  East  Lothian,  and  was  for 
years  so  stationary  that  not  a  single  bushel  of  the 
new  manure  was  seen  in  the  south  of  Scotland  till 

Guano  is  supposed  to  have  been  used  as  a  ma- 
nure probably  for  ages  before  Peru  was  visited  by 
the  Spaniards.  It  is  spoken  of  by  Herrera  in  a 
work  published  at  Madrid  in  1601  ;  in  another 
work  published  at  Lisbon  in  1609.  In  the  time 
of  the  Incas  there  was  so  much  vigilance  in  guard- 
ing the  sea  fowl,  that  during  the  rearing  season 
no  person  was  allowed  to  visit  the  islands  which 
they  frequented,  under  pain  of  death,  in  order 
that  they  might  not  be  frightened  and  driven 
away  from  their  nests.  About  the  commencement 
of  1843,  guano  was  discovered  on  the  island  of 
Ichaboe,  about  two  miles  and  a  half  from  the 
mainland  of  Africa.  The  place  soon  attracted 
notice,  and  by  the  end  of  1844,  nearly  the  whole 
of  the  guano  had  been  carried  away. 

William  Blood. 

"Rebukes  for  Sin"  (2°'»  S.  ii.  30.)  — This  book 
was  written  by  the  celebrated  Nonconformist 
Thomas  Doolittle.  John  I.  Dredge. 

Memorials  of  former  Greatness  (2"''  S.  i.  405.)  — 
In  the  parish  church  of  Alnwick,  there  are  also 
many  banners,  gloves,  and  (T  think)  spears  or 
swords,  hung  up.  Also  some  gloves  and  wreaths 
in  the  private  chapel  at  Hill  Hall,  in  Essex. 

E.  E.  Btng. 



[2nd  s.  No  31.,  Ara.  2.  '56. 

Rev.  Charles  Hotham  (2"^  S.  ii.  10.)  —  was  a 
son  of  Sir  John  Hotham,  the  celebrated  governor 
of  Hull  who  was  beheaded  on  Tower  Hill,  by  his 
second  wife,  Anne,  daughter  of  Ralph  Rokeby, 
Esq.,  of  York.  He  was  rector  of  Wigan,  Lan- 
cashire, and  married  Eliz.,  daughter  of  Stephen 
Thompson  of  Hambleton,  Esq.,  and  from  him  the 
present  family  of  Hotham  descends. 


''Paraph"  (2"*  S.  i.  373.  420.  481.  521.)  — 
All  the  correspondents  with  "  N.  &  Q."  who  have 
written  in  answer  to  my  inquiries,  as  to  the  diplo- 
matic usages  of  this  word,  have  passed  unnoticed 
this  question. 

"  As  the  King  of  France  had  his  particular  paraph,  said 
to  have  been  a  grate,  are  Ave  to  presume  that  each  state 
had  its  own  ?  " 

Vossim  on  Catullus  (quoted  by  Menage)  intro- 
duces us  to  a  very  difl'erent  custom,  under  the 
same  name,  from  any  that  has  yet  been  noticed  : 

"  Qui  rainio,  cocco,  et  rubrica,  ]ibros  exornabant, 
etiam  illi  ■rTapaypa.4>ti.v  dicebantur.  Et  hinc  est,  quod  ju- 
risconsultorum  rubriciB  rABAGRApiii  adpeilantur." 





It  was  well  said  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  a  few  months 
after  the  death  of  Gainsborough,  that,  "  if  ever  this 
nation  should  produce  genius  sufficient  to  acquire  to  us 
the  honourable  distinction  of  an  English  School,  the  name 
of  Gainsborough  will  be  transmitted  to  posterity,  in  the 
history  of  the  Art,  among  the  very  first  of  that  rising 
name :  "  yet,  high  as  is  the  reputation  which  Gainsborough 
now  enjoys  as  one  of  the  best  as  well  as  earliest  masters 
of  the  English  School,  no  biography  worthy  of  his  great 
talents  has  appeared  of  him  until  the  present  moment. 
A  small  volume,  compiled  with  great  care  and  attention, 
at  length  furnishes  the  admirers  of  Thomas  Gainsborough 
with  the  particulars  of  his  early  strivings  after  art  —  his 
progress,  and  ultimate  triumph.  The.  Life  of  Thomas 
Gainsboroiigh,  by  the  late  George  William  Fulcher,  edited 
by  his  Son,  was  commenced  by  one  who  esteemed  it  a 
privilege  to  have  been  born  in  the  same  town,  educated 
at  the  same  school,  and  loved  the  same  scenes  as  Thomas 
Gainsborough ;  he  availed  himself  to  the  fullest  of  these 
advantages,  and,  although  not  spared  to  complete  the 
labours  which  he  had  so  zealously  commenced,  the 
volume  has  perhaps  gained  somewhat  in  interest  by 
the  fact  that  it  is  itself  a  tribute  of  filial  affection.  It 
does  not,  however,  require  this  adventitious  help  to  repu- 
tation :  it  has  been  industriously  and  honestly  worked  at, 
and  wo  have  no  doubt  will,  from  its  completeness,  take  a 
permanent  place  among  English  Art  Biographies. 

Rogers  tells  a  story,  in  proof  of  Robertson's  good  nature, 
of  the  great  historian  spreading  out  a  great  map  of  Scot- 
land on  the  floor,  and  sprawling  on  his  hands  and  knees 
to  show  him  the  best  routes  through  the  country.  There 
was  then  no  Black's  Picturesque  Tourist  of  Scotland,  with 
its  numerous  maps,  views,  &c.  We  live  in  better  days. 
The  railroad  carries  us  to  the  North  in  a  few  hours,  and 
when  there,  thanks  to  the  worthy  M.P.  for  Edinburgh, 
we  are  at  no  loss  to  know  what  is  best  worth  seeing,  or 

how  it  may  best  be  seen.  No  wonder  that  this  vear's 
edition  of  this  most  useful  guide  should  bear  on  its  "title- 
page  the  recognition  of  its  merits  implied  bv  the  words, 
"  Twelfth  Edition." 

The  new  number  of  The  North  British  Review  is  a  very 
pleasant  one.  The  articles  on  the  Ottoman  Empire,  the 
Crimean  Campaign  (a  series  of  corrections  of  the  French 
mis-statements),  and  on  the  Annexation  of  Oude,  will 
interest  the  politician.  The  religious  reader  will  peruse 
with  interest  those  on  Christian  Missions,  and  the  Mart3TS 
and  Heroes  of  Holland.  There  is  a  good  article  on  the 
Microscope  for  the  scientific,  while  the  literary  papers 
—  on  the  life  of  Perthes,  the  Literary  Tendencies  of 
France,  and  the  Life  and  Times  of  Samuel  Rogers, —  give 
an  agreeable  variety  to  the  number. 



Particulars  of  Price,  &c.  of  the  foUowins  Booka  to  be  sent  (Mtec.t  to 
the  gentlemen  by  whom  they  are  required,  and  wlioss  names  and  ad- 
dresses are  given  for  that  purpose  : 

Some  Remarks   on   Hamlet,  Prince   op   Denmark.     Sto.    London, 

MrscELLAXEous   Observations   on   thb   Tragedv   of    Hamlet.     8vo. 

London,  1752. 
An  Essay  on  the  Learning  op  Shakspeare.   By  Dr.  Farmer.    1821. 
An   E,^say    on    the  Character    of  Hamlet   as    performed   ry  Mr. 

Hknoerson.    8vo.    No  date. 
A  Philosophical  Analysis  and  Illustration  of  some  of  Shakspeare's 

Dramatic  Characters.    [By  Wm.  Richardson.]    Latest  Edition. 
Essays  on  Richard  III.,  &c.    By  Wm.  Richardson.    12mo.    London, 

Essay    on  the   Character  of  Hamlet.    By  the  Rev.   T.  Robertson. 

4to.    London,  1788. 
Observations   on   Hamlet.     By  James  Plumtre.     8vo.     Cambridge, 

1796,  and  the  Appendix.    8vo.    London,  1797. 
Ulrici's  Shakspeare's  Dramatic  Art.    English  Translation. 
W.  S.  Landor's  Work  on  Shakspeare  (?) 
IIazlitt's  Characters  of  Shakspeare's  Plays.     1338. 

Wanted  by  ^.  ^ .  //.,  Post  Office,  Dartmouth  Eoiv,  Blackheath. 

England's  Forgotten  Worthies. 

Wanted  by  J.  W.  II.,  Islington  Literary  Society. 

Lady  Jane  Grey. 
Fair  Rosamond. 
Royston  Gower. 
Rural  Sketches. 

All  by  Thos.  Miller,  Basket-Maker. 

Also  Vols.  VIII.  and  X.  of  Eliza  Cook's  Journal. 

Wanted  by  Thos.  Riley,  Bookseller,  2.  Old  Millgate,  Manchester. 

fialitti  to  (fLaxtei^a\\titnti» 

Among  other  valuable  communicationi  which  we  are  compelled  to  post- 
pone until  next  week  is  an  inedited  letter  b;/  Gustavus  Adolphus  in  favour 
of  Patrick  Ruthven,  and  a  mast  admirable  Oxford  Jen  d'Esprit  of  the 
beginning  of  the  last  century. 

We  are  remindc'l  of  an  inaccuracy  in  the  account  of  tlie  family  of 
Athenian  Stuart  in  our  last  number.  The  '^fine  boy"  at  Mr.  Bnrney  s 
boardinp-school  teas  John  Georf/e  Hardinge  Stuart,  who  ivas  subsequently 
a  midshipman  in  the  Royal  Navy,  and  died  of  the  yellow  fevei;  at  Mar- 
tinique, tn  the  West  Indies,  in  the  year  1800.  Lieut.  James  Stuart,  R.  N., 
now  Uving.was  aposthumoug  child,  born  April  13. 17SS,  shortly  after  the 
death  ofhisfather. 

Ansioers  to  other  Correspondents  in  our  next. 

Index  to  the  First  Series.  As  this  is  now  published,  and  the  im- 
pression is  a  limited  one,  such  of  our  readers  as  desire  copies  would  do 
well  to  intimate  their  wish  to  their  respective  booksellers  without  delay. 
Our  publishers,  Mr.ssRS.  Bell  &  Daldy,  «)t7Z  forward  copies  by  post  on 
receipt  of  a  Post  Office  Order  for  Five  Shillings. 

"Notes  and  Queries"  is  published  at  noon  on  Friday,  so  tliat  the 
Country  Booksellers  may  receive  Copies  in  that  night's  parcels,  and 
deliver  them  to  their  Subscribers  on  the  Saturday. 

"  Notes  and  Queries  "  is  also  issued  in  Monthly  Parts,  for  the  con- 
venience of  those  who  may  either  have  a  difficulty  in  procuring  the  un- 
stamped weekly  Numbers,  or  prefer  receiving  it  monthly.  While  jmrtics 
resident  in  the  country  or  abroad,  who  may  be  desirous  of  receiving  the 
weekly  Numbers,  may  have  stamped  copte«  forwarded  direct  from  the 
Publisher.  The  mibseription  for  the  stamped  edition  of  '  Notes  and 
Queries  "  (including  a  very  copious  Index)  is  eleven  shillings  and  four- 
pence  for  six  months,  which  may  be  paid  by  Post  Office  Order,  drawn  t)» 
favour  of  the  Publisher,  Mr.  George  Bell,  No.  186.  Fleet  Street. 

2B1S.N0  32.,  Ayo.9.'56.] 



LONpqN,  SdTUJpiDAY,  AUGUST  9, 18$6. 


Such  pf  our  re^cjerg  as  are  Fello\ys  of  the  So- 
ciety of  Antiquaries  remember,  we  have  no  (Joubt, 
the  valuable  illustrations  of  the  History  of  the 
Ruthven  Family  contributed  by  Mr.  Bruce  to  the 
ArcJiceologia^  vol.  xxxiv.,  founded  pn  documents 
which  bad  been  unearthed  from  our  varioijs  Rer 
cord  Offices  by  the  persevering  and  well-directe4 
zeal  of  Colonel  Stepney  Cowell,  a  present  repre- 
sentative of  the  last  male  descendant  of  that  most 
unhappy  family. 

Tp  the  kindness  of  Colonel  Cowell  we  are  now 
indebted  for  the  opportunity  of  bringing  before 
them  a  document  recently  discovered  by  him  in 
the  State  Paper  Office,  which  document  will  be 
read  with  great  interest,  recording  as  it  does  the 
friendly  intercession  of  Gustavus  Ad()lphus  with 
Charles  I.  in  behalf  of  Patrick  Ruthven  ;  and  we 
shall  be  well  pleased  indeed,  if  its  publication  in 
these  columns  should  be  the  means  of  bringing  to 
light  any  evidence  as  to  the  results  of  the  exertions 
so  earnestly  made  by  the  ^vyedish  moparcl),  that 
Patrick  Ruthven  "  might  obtain  the  splendour  of 
his  ancient  house,  and  maintain  the  place  and 
dignityof  his  ancestors." 

"  Gustavt^s  Adplphus,  by  the  Grace  of  iGod  King 
of  Sweeden." 

"Most  excellent  and  most  mightie  Prince, 
Our  most  deare  brother,  Cousin  and  friend. 

"  Your  Mag*  hath  giuen  us  just  occasion  to  re- 
joyce  at  your  frendship,  hauing  upon  Our  inter- 
cession made  by  Our  Counseller  and  Ambass"^ 
Gabriel  Oxgnstern  some  Two  years  agoe,  in  the 
behalf  of  your  sublet  Partrig  Ruthuen,  promised 
for  our  sake  to  restore  him  to  his  former  condi- 
tion. Therefore  understanding  that  y''  Ma""  being 
mindful  of  that  intercession,  hath  not  only  ad- 
mitted the  said  Ruthuen  into  Your  presence,  but 
also  permitted  him  to  kisse  you'  kinglie  hand,  and 
giuen  him  further  hope  withall,  to  obtaine  his 
former  hereditarie  Ijonp""',  We  could  not  but  giue 
you  many  thanks. 

"  Now  for  as  much  as  he  hath  his  hope  upon 
the  mutuall  frendsliip  and  good  correspondence 
as  passeth  betweine  You"^  Maj*  an  Us,  thereby  to 
attaine  Yqu*^  full  grace,  and  to  obtaine  the  splen- 
do""  of  his  auncient  house,  and  to  maintaine  the 
place  and  dignitie  of  his  Ancesto'■^  We  againe 
entreat  You"^  Ma*  most  kindly  to  vouchsaf,  as  he 
has  allready  felt  a  good  foundation  by  the  pre- 
mices  of  our  request,  so  also  that  now  he  may 
perceiue,  upon  this  our  reiterated  intercession, 
such  an  encrease  of  Yo"^  grace,  that  at  the  last  he 
may  be  bound  unto  Yo'  Ma*  for  ever  for  an  ac- 

complishm*,  and  as  it  were  for  a  new  Life,  by 
Yo'  munificence  bestowed  on  his  familie.  Anq. 
we  assure  You'  Ma"  that  whatsoever  he  shall  re? 
ceiue  hereupon  of  grace  and  fau'.  That  We  will 
so  accept  of,  that  We  ourselves  will  endau""  upon 
each  occasion  to  deserue  it.  And  he  and  bi^ 
Whole  familie  shall  without  doubt  for  euer  ac? 
knowledge  yo'  grace  by  all  thankfjulnes,  praise, 
obedience,  and  service,  &c.  Giuen  in  our  Camp 
at  Wormdit,  ^  Octob.  1627. 

"  The  King  of  Sweeden  unto  his  most  exc. 
Ma.^  in  the  behalf  of  Pardrig  Ruthen, 
that  he  may  enjoy  the  former  hon" 
and  jdignitie  of  his  predecess',  ^^Oc- 
tober,  1627." 
(Charles  1",  Re^,) 


In  rummaging  the  old  family  papers  of  a  neigh- 
bouring "  Country  Squire,"  I  lately  found  a  large 
collection  pf  literary  MSS.,  in  quantity  and  quality 
amply  sufficient  to  vindicate  the  aacestry  pf  my 
friend  from  the  charge  of  ignorance  and  boorish 
habits  brought  by  a  brilliant  writer  against  the 
country  squires  of  a  former  age.  During  my 
search  the  following  pasquinade  turned  up.  As 
you  have  invited  contributions  pf  university 
squihS)  I  do  not  hesitate  to  send  it  you ;  for  nei- 
ther in  classical  Latinity  nor  racy  humpur  is  it 
inferior  to  any  that, have  yet  appeared  in  your 
columns.  There  are  evidently  paany  sly  and 
happy  hits  at  personal  character  and  history  to 
which  we  need  the  key,  though  they  almost  tell 
their  own  tale.  All  Souls,  as  usual  in  more  mo- 
dern days,  comes  in  for  its  full  share  of  envious 
satire.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  squib  is  in  the 
form  of  a  letter,  assumed  to  be  written  by  Ma- 
thew  Hole,  rector  of  Exeter  College,  a  divine  of 
some  eminence,  to  Sir  Hans  Sloane,  with  an  ac- 
count of  the  reception  given  by  the  university  to 
a  Norwegian  o^vl  presented  to  them  by  the  great 

As  to  its  date.  Sir  Hans  Sloane  was  elected 
President  of  the  College  of  Physicians  in  1719; 
Bernard  Gardiner  was  Warden  pf  All  Souls  from 
1702  to  1726.  Between  1719  and  1726,  then,  this 
effusion  was  put  forth. 

I  send  it  literatim  as  I  find  it ;  though  there  are 
a  few  palpable  clerical  errors,  which  I  have  been 
almost  tempted  to  cprrect.  L.  B.  L. 

•'  Viro  insignissimo  necnon  Putrono  ac  Benefactori  munijir 
centis-mno  Domino  Hans  Shane,  Equiti  aurato  CoUegii 
medicorum  inter  Londinenses  Prxsidi,  &fc. 

"  Domine, 
"  Bubonem  Norvegensera,  pignus    amoris   tui,-  avem 
perraram  perpujchramque,  in  quam  tota  stupet  Academi^, 
lEeti  accepimus  incolumem  ac  sanam.      Per  me  igitur 



[2nd  s.  No  32.,  Aug.  9.  '56. 

gratiap  quam  maximas  rependit  Venerabilis  Domus  Con- 
vocationis,  quae  mihi  in  mandata  dedit  ut  gratias  hasce 
celeriter  et  sine  mora  rependerem,  ne  ingrati  animi  nota 
inureretur  nobis,  neve  ignorare  videamur  quanti  pretii 
tarn  insigne  beneficium  ffistimari  debet. 

"  Edwardus  Whistler,  legatus  academicus,  mihique  con- 
sanguineus  (utpote  uxor  illius  eandem  matrem,  licet  di- 
versum  patrem,  cum  mea  uxore  jactat)  jussu  meo  ad 
vicum  rusticum,  vulgo  vocatum  Wheatly,  fecit  iter,  ut 
ibi  praestolaretur  advenlum  Bubonis,  eamque  ad  Oxoniam 
deduceret  prima  nocte,  sine  ullo  tubarum  aut  Tympa- 
norum  strepitu,  et,  si  fieri  potuit,  private  fallentique 
mode:  Cavere  enim  necesse  esse  duxi,  ut  nullam  moles- 
tiam  facesserent  Eeginae  avium  vel  lascivi  Juvenes  vel 
profanum  Vulgus ;  utque  nihil  accideret  per  quod  fieret 
publica;  perturbatio  pacis,  pulsante  Thoma  Ciusio,  ipse 
cum  caeteris  Collegiorum  prafectis  primum  salutavimus 
Bubonem  in  hospitio  meo.  Avem  discumbere  fecimus 
super  mollem  lecticam  juxta  focillum,  in  eodem  lecto 
quotidie  requiescit,  somno  ac  cibo  potuque  parum  indi- 
gent, et  vitam  agens  vere  collegialem. 

Postero  die  quam  Bubo  est  in  gremium  Almae  Matris 
Academise  recepta,  convenerunt  apud  Golgotha  singuli 
Collegiorum  ac  Aularum  praefectus,  ut  novo  hospiti  hos- 
pitium  assignarent,  deliberarentque  qualem  victum  cul- 
tumque  prsestare  ei  par  esset. 

"In  hoc  venerabili  concessu  ipse  pro  more  primus  surrexi 
et  sequentia  verba  feci. 

"  Insignissimi  Doctores,  Vosque  egregii  Procuratores. 

"  Est  mihi  placens  uxor,  sunt  etiam  quamplurima  mu- 
nera  h  me  volente,  nolente,  obeunda,  quae  atram  caliginem 
obducunt  diei,  quae  noctes  insomnes  reddunt.  Quando- 
quidem  ita  se  res  habet,  etiam  atque  etiam  a  vobis, 
Fratres  fraterrimi,  rogo,  ut  Bubo,  quae  mihi  '  sollicitae 
jiicunda  oblivia  vitae '  suppeditabit,  quaeque  curis  domes- 
ticis  gravatae  innocuum  movebit  risum,  et,  me  absente, 
meas  vices  gerat,  ut  haec  optatissima  Bubo,  inquam, 
inter  domesticos  meos  adsciscatur,  mihique  perpetuus  fiat 
liospes ;  Verumenimvero  si  huic  venerando  CcBtui  secus 
statuere  in  hac  re  visum  fueritj  tamen  sorte  mea  con- 
tentus  abibo,  memet  paratum  praestabo  publicae  voci 
assentiri,  atque  viris  parere  quorum  sententia  nunquam 
sortilegis  discrepuit  Delphis. 

"Sic  fatus  resedebam,  et  protinus  'D'  D'  Delaune, 
reverendus  Sanctl  Johannis  Baptiste  praeses  surrexit, 

"  Insignissime  Vice  Cancellarie. 
"De  via  recta  devius  aberras:  non  ea  mens,  non  id 
propositum  fuit  a  Domino  H.  Sloane,  ut  Bubo  senesceret 
ad  instar  fratris  nostri  Matthei  Hole,  intra  Collegii  pa- 
rietes,  donee  procumberet  a  Lethi  jactu  ictus ;  sed  data 
est  avis  ut  enecaretur,  coquereturque,  nobisque  exquisi- 
tissimas  praeberet  dapes.  Mihi  enim  credite  (vel  si  fides 
mihi  parum  sit  adhibenda)  credite  Plinio,  qui  in  Naturali 
sua  historia  apertfe  profitetur  carnem  Bubonis  esse  sapore 
praestantissimum,  et  omni  alii  cibo  longfe  anteponendum. 

"  Crastino  igitur  die  iterum  conveniamus  apud  hospitia 
Domini  Vice  Cancellarii,  ibique  assata  bubone  epulemur, 
et  saluti  Domini  Hans  Sloane  propinemus  Gallicum 
Vinum  eo  modo  quo  par  est,  vel  potius  sine  ullo  modo  vel 

"Domino  Doctori  Delaune  respondit  Dominus  Doctor 
Dobson  Collegii  Trinitatis  Praeses  laudatissimus,  et  se- 
quentem  orationem  habuit. 

"  Non  assentior  tibi  Domine  Doctor ;  est  enim  adagium 
satis  notum,  'si  me  ames,  ama  etiam  canem  meum;" 
quod  si  canis  est  magistri  gratia  amandus,  ita  debes 
ratioci_nari.  Si  colis  Dominum  H.  Sloane  colenda  est, 
etiam  Bubo  ejus;  jam  vero  si  pectore  homicidali  avem 
mactemus  et  devoremus,  ipse  Dominus  Hans  Sloane  me- 

tuat  ne  eadem  sors  ei  contingat,  si  quando  intra  limites 
academiae  fuerit  deprehensus.  Quocirch,  ab  hoc  sanguiiio- 
lento  proposito  vestras  cohibete  manus,  et  aliquod  melius 
inter  nos  ineamus  Consilium. 

"  Relapso  in  sedem  suam  Dominus  Doctor  Dobson,  sese 
ad  eloquendum  accinxit  D»  D""  Holland  Collegii  Merton- 
ensis  Gustos,  atque  ita  est  exorsus. 

"  Si  quid  est  in  me  ingenii,  Judices,  quod  vos  scntitis 
quam  sit  exiguum,  aut  si  quae  exercitatio  dicendi  in  qua 
me  non  inficior  mediocriter  esse  versatum,  earum  rerum 
omnium  vel  in  primis  haec  Bubo  fructum  a  me  repetere 
propesuojure  debet.  In  medium  igitur  proferam  quod 
mens  in  pectoribus  suadet  in  hoc  solenni  negotio  esse 
faciendum,  quodque  et  vobis  et  toti  academiae  (cui  Deus 
sit  semper  propitius)  maximfe  in  Gloriae  et  Laudis  pereni- 
tatem  cedat.  Hortum  Botannicum  supereminent  aedes  in 
hospitium  Professoris  nostri  Botannici  exstructse,  quae 
amanum  hunc  Hortum,  omni  genere  leguminis  olerisque 
consitum,  grato  et  ridenti  aspectant  vultu.  In  hisce 
aedibus  cohabitet  Bubo,  unk  cum  Botannico  Professore, 
qui  ave  (quod  absit)  wgrotante,  ei  opem  prsesentem  ferat, 
reducatque  ad  integram  sanitatem  arte  sua  vere  Apol- 
linea.  Ne  vero  Professor  ipse,  qui  Bubonis  curae  nullo  non 
tempore  totus  vacabit,  damnum  vel  minimum  sentiat  in 
praxi  medicinali,  solvatur  ei  obolus  quadransve  a  singulis 
qui  Bubonem  visendi  causa  Botannicum  frequentabunt 
hortum.  Huic  larga  excrescent  emolumenta  quae  egregii 
Professoris  fidelitatem  et  curam  abundfe  remunerabunt 
suppeditabuntque  non  solum  et  illi  et  Buboni  victum 
competentem,  veriim  etiam  quicquid  horum  animantium 
desiderat  Vita. 

"  Hanc  orationem  vix  peroraverat  D'  D""  Holland,  cum 
D»  D''  Gardner  Collegii  Omnium  Animarum  Gustos  emi- 
nentissimus  valde  mutatus  de  sede  prosiluit,  et  hasce 
iratas  voces  contra  Hollandum  projecit. 

"Tace  Circuliuncule,  tace  inquam,  Ego  assatam  Bu- 
bonem comedere  cum  D.  Delaune  mallem,  vel  crudam  et 
plumatam  avem  protinus  deglutire  quam  cum  fatuo  Doc- 
tore  Holland  suffragan  ut  Bubo  apud  Hortum  Botannicum 
asservetur  ibique  publicum  spectaculuni  fiat ;  Nemo  enim 
nescit  socios  meos  ea  esse  ignava  atque  nugaci  indole 
praeditos,  ut  si  perpetuus  ingressus  pateret,  perpetui  eva- 
derent  Buboni  Comites.  In  sacello  ita,  nee  non  in  Biblio- 
theca  ac  in  toto  Collegio  meo  foret  infrequentia  summa, 
rueret  Disciplina,  ruerent  Exercitia,  ruerent  Artes;  at 
tales  minas  avertat  Coelum,  aut  hiec  mea  avertet  Dextra. 
"  Sic  fatus  anhelans  recumbit  surrexitque  D"  Dj  Gibson 
Collegii  Regalis  Praepositus  acutissimus  qui  h»c  en-ca  nre- 
poevra  irpoo'evSa, 

"D'Dr  Gardner! 

"  Quare  tam  iracundus,  tam  ferox,  et  tarn  contumeliosus 
es  in  bonum  nostrum  fratrem  D^^  Hollandum?  profecto 
tuus  vultus  magis  rabidus  et  magis  Iruculentus  apparet, 
quam  caput  apri  illius  quem  pauper  puer  de  meo  collegio 
trucidavit  decollavitque  unico  armatus  Aristotelis  libro — 
Dico  autem  tibi,  quod  ni  tu  malus  esses  Gubernator, 
nullam  causam  haberes  trepidandi  de  sociis  tuis.  Sis  tu 
igitur  mihi  sirailis,  et  tui  socii  erunt  similes  meis,  quos 
libera  permittam  Bubonem  visere  toties  quoties  volunt. 

"  Ad  hiBC  verba  raptim  surrexit  Dominus  Doctor  Gard- 
ner, etlaevamanu  prelienso  Domini  Doctoris  Gibson  jugulo, 
dextra  comminuisset  eum,  ni  Bedellus  Theologiae  eo  in- 
stanti  intrasset,narrassetque  Bubonem  ita  male  se  habere, 
ut  respueret  Escam  e  manibus  uxoris  meae.  Hoc  audito 
singuli  Prsefectus  festinantes  domum  se  receperunt  ut 
quisque  a  Collegio  suo  ablegaret  medicum  qui  aegrotie 
Buboni  opem  pro  viribus  ferret.  Ipse  vero,  monitu  Doc- 
toris Skippen,  tequm  esse  censui  ad  te  de  rebus  hodie  inter 
nos  gestis  scriptitare,  simulque  humiliter  petere  ut  nobis 
quamprimum  prascipias  quid  in  hisce  arduis  negotiis 
agendum  sit.    Hoc  igitur  in  praecordiis  persuasum  habe 

2»«»  S.  No  32.,  Aug.  9.  '56.] 



me  paratissimum  esse  tua  exequi  mandata,  et  metnet 
praestare  nullo  non  tempore  cum  omni  cultu  et  grati- 
tudine.    Tuum  servum  fidelissimum  humillimum." 


The  twenty-three  years'  experience  of  the 
worthy  gravedigger  of  Bath  (see  "N.  &  Q.," 
1''  S.  viii.  6.  205.),  to  the  effect  that  in  the  course 
of  decomposition  the  face  of  every  individual  turns 
to  the  earth,  proves  too  much  for  the  supposition, 
which,  had  the  instances  been  less  universal, 
might  have  been  held  sufficiently  explanatory, 
that  premature  interments,  the  result  of  undue 
haste  and  culpable  carelessness  or  ignorance  as  to 
the  true  signs  of  death,  had  been  the  cause  of  the 
phenomenon.  Newspaper  paragraphs,  headed 
"  Buried  alive !  "  appear  at  intervals  sufficiently 
brief  to  keep  the  frightful  possibility  of  such  an 
occurrence  vivid  in  the  imagination  ;  and  the  his- 
toric cases  in  proof  are  too  numerous  and  well- 
authenticated  to  need  citation  or  inquiry.  The 
ancients,  as  is  well  known,  instituted  their  con- 
clamatio,  and  other  precautions  to  prevent  this 
most  horrible  of  fates,  and  all  tourists  are  aware 
of  the  careful  provisions  made  at  the  present  day 
in  the  cemeteries  of  Germany  to  avoid  the  possi- 
bility of  premature  interment.  The  tender  Juliet 
soliloquises : 

"  How,  if  when  I  am  laid  into  the  tomb 
I  wake    ..... 
there's  a  fearful  point ! " 

and  how  prevalent  is  such  a  fear  we  may  gather 
from  the  number  of  the  instances  in  which  men 
have  requested,  that,  before  the  last  offices  are 
done  for  them,  such  wounds  or  mutilations  should 
be  inflicted  upon  their  bodies,  as  should  effectually 
prevent  the  possibility  of  an  awakening  in  the 
tomb.  So  in  the  case  of  a  well-known  antiquary 
and  lover  of  books  : 

"  The  late  Francis  Douce  requested  in  his  will,  that  Sir 
Anthony  Carlisle,  the  surgeon,  should  sever  his  head  from 
his  body,  or  take  out  his  heart,  to  prevent  the  return  of 
vitality.  His  old  friend,  and  co-residuary  legatee,  Mr. 
Kerrick,  had  also  requested  the  same  operation  to  be  per- 
formed in  the  presence  of  his  son."  —  T.  F.  Dibdin's  Lit. 
Item.,  vol.  ii.  p.  777. 

In  France  especially,  premature  interments 
seem  to  have  been  formerly  startlingly  numerous, 
and  the  subject  has  at  times  excited  great  in- 
terest. Bruhier  has  collected  and  classified  no 
less  than  180  cases,  many  of  which  were  doubtless 
attributable  to  hospital  negligence.  Twenty  years 
ago  M.  Manni,  Professor  in  the  University  at 
Rome,  placed  the  sum  of  1500  francs  at  the  dis- 
posal of  the  Academy  of  Sciences,  for  the  best 
treatise  on  the  signs  of  death,  and  the  means  to 
prevent  premature  interment.  This  premium  was 
not  adjudicated  till  1846,  when  the  following  me- 
moir was  considered  to  merit  its  bestowal : 

"Traits  des  Signes  de  la  Mort,  et  des  Moyens  de 
pr^venir  les  Enterrements  prematures.  Par  E.  Bouchut. 
Paris :  Bailli^re,  1849." 

This  is  the  best  treatise  we  have  on  the  subject. 
A  well  written  little  book  has  more  recently  ap- 
peared : 

"  The  Medical  Aspects  of  Death :  and  the  Medical  As- 
pects of  the  Human  Mind.  By  James  Bower  Harrison, 
&c.    London:  12mo.,  1852."     ^ 

For  the  behoof  of  those  who  may  take  an  in- 
terest in  this  horrible  subject,  and  wish  to  investi- 
gate it  for  themselves,  I  append  the  titles  of  a  few 
volumes  in  my  collection  : 

"  Garmanni  (L.  C.  F.)  de  Miraculis  Mortuorum,  lib.  iii. 
quibus  praemissa  Dissertatio  de  Cadavere  et  Rliraculis  in 
Genere,  Opus  physico-medicum.    4to.     Dresden,  1709." 

"The  Uncertainty  of  the  Signs  of  Death,  and  the 
Danger  of  Precipitate  Interments  and  Dissections  De- 
monstrated, &c.    2nd  ed.    London,  12mo.,  1751." 

"  Observations  on  Apparent  Death  from  Drowning, 
Hanging,  Suffocation  by  Noxious  Vapours,  Fainting  Fits, 
Intoxication,  Lightning,  Exposure  to  Cold,  &c.  By 
James  Curry,  M.D.,  &c.     London,  8vo.,  1815." 

"  The  Danger  of  Premature  Interment  proved  from 
many  remarkable  Instances  of  Persons  who  have  recovered 
after  being  laid  out  for  Dead.  By  Joseph  Taylor.  12mo. 

"  The  Thesaurus  of  Horror ;  or  the  Charnel-House  Ex- 
plored ! !  Being  an  Historical  and  Philanthropical  In- 
quisition made  for  the  quondam  Blood  of  its  Inhabitants! 
By  a  contemplative  descent  into  the  untimelj'  grave! 
Shewing,  by  a  number  of  awful  facts  that  have  transpired, 
as  well  as  from  philosophical  inquiry,  the  reanimating 
power  of  Fresh  Earth  in  cases  of  Syncope,  &c.,  and  the 
extreme  criminality  of  hasty  Funerals :  with  the  surest 
method  of  escaping  the  ineffable  horrors  of  Premature  In- 
terment ! !  The  frightful  Mysteries  of  the  Dark  Ages 
laid  open,  &c.  By  John  Smart,  ^iKdvOpurroi.  London : 
8vo.    1817." 

Reference  may  also  be  made  to  the  following  : 

"  Encyclopaedia  Londinensis :  sub  voc.  '  Mausoleum,' 
and  '  Reanimation.' " 

"Diet,  de  Me'dicine  et  de  Chirurgie.  Art.  'Inhuma- 
tions precipit^es.' " 

"  Reports  of  the  Royal  Humane  Society  for  1787-8-9, 
p.  77." 

"  Collet's  Relics  of  Literature,  p.  186.' 

"  Granger's  Biog.  Hist,  of  England,  vol.  i.  p.  330." 

I  cannot  more  appropriately  conclude  than  by 
the  transcription,  from  a  magazine  cutting,  of  a 
story,  cognate  in  horror  and  mystery  with  that 
alluded  to  at  the  commencement  of  the  present 
paper ;  soliciting  the  elucidatory  remarks  of  the 
readers  of  "  N.  &  Q."  thereto. 

"  Horrible  Phenomena.  —  It  is  not  generally  known, 
that  in  Barbadoes  there  is  a  mysterious  vault,  in  which 
no  one  now  dares  to  deposit  the  dead :  it  is  in  a  church- 
yard near  the  sea-side.  In  1807,  the  first  coflSn  that  was 
deposited  in  it  was  that  of  a  Mrs.  Goddard;  in  1808,  a 
Miss  A.  M.  Chase  was  placed  in  it ;  and  in  1812,  Miss  D. 
Chase.  In  the  end  of  1812,  the  vault  was  opened  for  the 
body  of  the  Hon.  T.  Chase ;  but  the  three  first  coffins 
were  found  in  a  confused  state,  having  been  apparently 
tossed  from  their  places.  Again  was  the  vault  opened  to 
receive  the  body  of  an  infant,  and  the  four  coffins,  all  of 


IfOfES  AKt)  QlfERIES. 

[2n«  S.  No  82.,  Aug.  9,  '56. 

lead,  and  very  heavy,  were  found  iriucli  flistiirbed.  In 
1816,  a  Mr.  Brewster's  body  was  placed  ih  the  vaiilt,  and 
again  great  disorder  was  apparent  amotig  the  cOfiins.  In 
1819,  a  Mr.  Qiarke  was  placed  in  the  vault;  and,  as  bei- 
fore,  the  coflSns  were  in  confusion.  Each  time  that  the 
vault  was  opened,  tiie  cOfflns  Were  replaced  in  their  proper 
situations :  that  is,  three  on  the  ground,  side  by  sidfe,  arid 
the  others  laid  on  them.  The  vault  was  then  regularly 
closed ;  the  door  (a  massive  stonej  which  required  six  or 
seven  men  to  move)  was  cemented  by  masons;  and 
though  the  floor  was  (^j^nd,  there  were  no  marks  of 
footsteps  or  water;  Again  the  vattilt  was  opefted  in  1819. 
Lord  Combermere  was  then  present;  and  the  cofHnswere 
found  thrown  confusedly  about  the  vault  —  some  with 
the  heads  down,  and  others  up.  '  What  could  have  occa- 
sioned this  phenomenon  ?  In  no  other  vault  in  the  island 
has  this  ever  occurred.  Was  it  an  earthquake  which  oc- 
casioned it,  or  the  effects  of  an  inundation  in  the  vault?  ' 
These  were  the  questions  asked  by  a  Barbadoes  journal  at 
the  time,  and  no  one  eoald  afford  a  solution. 

"The  matter  gradually  died  away,  until  the  present 
year,  when,  on  the  16th  of  February,  the  vault  was  again 
opened^  and  all  the  coffins  were  found  thro-kn  about  as 
confusedly  as  before.  A  strict  investigation  took  place, 
and  no  cause  could  be  discovered.  Was  it,  after  all,  that 
the  sudden  bursting  forth  of  noxious  gas  froiii  one  of  the 
coffins  could  have  produced  the  phenomena  ?  If  so,  it  is 
against  all  former  experience;  The  vault  has  been  her- 
metically sealed  again  -^  ■♦rhen  tO  be  re-opened  tfre  caiJliot 

"  In  England  there  was  a  parallel  occurrence  to  this, 
some  years  ago,  at  Hauntou  in  Suffolk.  It  is  stated,  that 
6n  opening  a  vault  there,  several  Jeaderi  coffins,  with 
wooden  cases,  which  had  been  fixed  on  biers,  were  fouftd 
displaced,  to  the  great  consterflatiOii  of  thfe  villagef-s.  The 
coffins  were  again  placed  as  before,  aild  the  vault  propferly 
closed,  when  again  another  of  the  family  dyihg,  they 
were  a  second  time  found  displaced ;  and  tWo  years  after 
that,  they  wet'e  not  only  fbtJnd  atU  off  their  bifers^  btit  olie 
coffin  (so  heavy  as  to  rfeqiiirfe  eight  mfen  td  raise  it)  was 
found  on  the  fourth  step  which  Ifed  dd^n  to  the  vaults, 
and  it  seemed  perfectly  certain  that  no  human  htod  bm 
done  this." 

WiiiiiAM  Bates. 



Under  this  name,  an  unique  and  extraordinary 
collection  has  been  hete  Idtely  fotmed.  Its  ra- 
tionale ■rtras  thd  followiiig  :  —  Siiice  the  year  1838, 
England  has  gone  through  a  number  of  political 
and  soeietary  revulsions,  which  in  some  cases 
assumed  an  important  charactel-— ^for  instahoe,  the 
storming  of  the  soldiers'  station  at  MoinraOuth  ;  the 
extempore  procession  of  40,000  London  prolitaires 
in  the  night  of  June  29^  1848.  These  and  sittiilar 
facts  implied  an  analogous  motion  and  convulsion 
ot  the  public  mind  :  this  again  became  typified 
and  pourtrayed  in  a  niimbeir  of  flying  leaves,  pam- 
phlets^  and  journals,  all  of  the  same  fepheiiieral 
character  as  the  deeds  to  t^hlfch  they  led  hitherto. 
Still,  they  iiil  ^ISO  fdrtn 

"Ihe  very  age  and  body  of  the  tlme<  his  form  and 

Hence,  therefore)  it  had  seettied  advisable  tb 
c&llect  tbtise  strafige  rriemeritos  of  the  titae,  other- 

wise irretrievably  lost.  Evrfen  the  titles  6f  sbihe  of 
them  are  remarkable :  The  Atheist  and  RepuhUcan  ! 
a  penny  periodical,  the  few  numbers  of  which 
were  probably  published  by  some  deluded  journey- 
man who  thought  that  he  had  discovered  these 
mystic  words  of  histttry.  The  late  W.  Hethering- 
ton  (formerly  of  the  Strand)  delighted  in  such 
deep  issues,  by  which  also  he  became  a  bankrupt. 
The  number  of  Social  {Owenite)  and  Chartist  piib- 
licatioiis  and  leaves  is  legion— ; all  which  seemed 
to  be  built  on  sand.  To  say  at  least  100,000Z. 
must  have  been  spent  in  1839  seqq.  in  journals  like 
The  Working  Mans  Friend,  The  Charter,  Sfc. ; 
some  of  which,  like  The  London  Dispatch,  were 
large  weeklies,  in  folio.  The  late  line  of  policy  of 
not  prosecuting  such  publications  has  done  then! 
a  deal  of  harm ;  and  some  of  them  contain  pas- 
sages which  we  would  not  venture  to  reprint  here. 
On  an  equally  untenable  foundation  rest  the  anti^ 
religious,  atheistic  publications  of  that  period — - 
The  07'acles  of  Reason  —  which  only  establish  the 
fact,  that  in  a  huge  community  every  creed  and 
sentiment  will  have  its  abettors,  and  therefore 
organs;  The  collection  also  contains  specimens 
of  all  sorts  of  exploded  journals  and  periodicals,  a 
great  many  in  numbers  (!) ;  data,  however,  for 
the  histoty  of  the  periodical  press  of  England  at 
that  time.  Although  I  have  given  to  the  eollectiori 
a  bud  name,  yet  the  Quisquilince  Literariee  Lon- 
dinenses  will  be  a  fertile  source  for  the  searchers 
into  the  mind  of  the  English  and  Londoti  people 
at  the  period  referred  to  ;  in  fine,  whatever  might 
have  been  right  in  those  exertions,  will  expaiid  in 
future,  according  to  the  axiom  of  the  younger 
Coleridge  : 

"  Whatever  is  to  be — is."  .  ,       . 

Dr<  3.  Lotskt; 
i§.  Qower  Street,  London. 

P;S;-^A  collection  of  the  Vienna  Revolutiori 
prints  of  1848  and  1849,  containing  some  very 
scarce  street  lampoons,  has  been  purchased  by  the 
Berlin  Library. 

^itAj  bt  fttcflAftfi  illflGAfeD. 

The  following  will  may  probably  be  initeresting 
to  some  of  the  readers  of  "N.  &  Q."  Tbe  tes- 
tator was  a  rhan  of  learning  and  reputation,  and 
his  testameht  is  an  extremely  curious  documents 
It  was  proved  in  the  Registry  at  York. 

•'  tteiidihSAiUid  Richdrdi  Lingard  nuper  de  Rismore  in 
regno  Hwernia. 

"  The  plate  alid  furniture  of  the  Chamber,  and  six  scofe 
poufids  in  money,  aS  itt  becomes  due,  1  bequeath  to  my 
sistet;  sind  the  rerhnant  of  that  I  bequeath  to  myselfe. 
For  the  recovery  of  my  right  1  appoint  Captaine  Nicliolas, 
Sir  Francis  Brewstef.  1  desire  to  be  buried  where  the 
parish  of  St.  Andrewe's  sdall  appoint.  I  desire  the  hun- 
dred pounds  lyeing  in  the  hands  of  Sir  Francis  Brewster 
to  be  left  in  the  hands  of  the  exectitOTs  6f  -WnOme  hee 

2M  S.  N«  32.,  Alja.  9.  '56.] 



is  one.  I  desltfe  that  tlie  dbtilor  fellowes  of  the  CoUedge 
shall  have  moitrnfeing  rings.  Mr.  Clarke  of  ClarindoQ 
House,  my  Lord  of  Ormond's  servant,  to  have  twenty 
pounds  as  a  legacy,  and  what  I  owe  him  to  be  paid. 
Fifty  pound  I  leave  Mr.  Roberts.  I  recommend  my  ser- 
vant Arthur  to  the  Deane  of  Corke's  designes.  I  desire 
my  Lord  Chancellor  for  the  recovery  of  those  arreares, 
I  desire  that  twenty  of  my  choicest  bookes  may  be  given 
to  the  library.  The  rest  I  desire  my  executors  to  dis- 
pose, but  that  my  cozen  John  Piilsent  shall  chuse  a 
third  part.  My  watch  and  thirty  pounds  to  be  given 
to  Mr.  Story.  To  my  servant  Arthur  twenty  pounds 
and  mourning ;  and  to  Patrick  tenn  pounds  and  mourn- 
ing. I  desire  that  Mr.  Ward  msty  be  joined  with  Mr. 
Styles  in  the  disposeing  of  my  bookes.  I  desire  that 
Mr.  Crookes  be  paid,  and  to  hd,ve  a  mourneing  ring.  I 
forgive  Patricke  Sheridan  and  William  Sheridan,  the 
Deanes  of  Dome  (Derry  or  Dromore  ?)  and  Corke,  if  ever 
I  did  them  any  injury. 

"  The  Goods.  —  A  rent  due  to  mee  in  Cumberland 
(vizt.)  a  tenem'ent  in  the  Island  sold  to  George  William- 
son, the  whole  sum  me  of  one  hundred  and  seaventy  five ; 
of  which  I  received  forty  five.  I  beleive  some  money  is 
due  to  mee  in  Cornett  Deanes  hand.  I  desire  my  notes  to 
be  perused  by  Dr.  Styles,  and  not  above  six  of  my 
sermons  to  be  used,  the  rest  to  be  burned.  I  bequeath  to 
the  Provest  twenty  pounds  as  a  symbole  of  my  love. 
Twenty  pounds  to  his  Lady.  I  trust  my  man  Arthur  in 
the  setting  downe  of  these  particiilers,  and  I  allow  this  to 
be  my  hasty  will. 

"Ri.  LiNGARD,  November  the  10th,  1670." 

The  extraordinary  character  of  this  docutaent 
may.  be,  perhaps,  accounted  for  by  the  fblldwing 
memoranduin  which  is  appended  to  the  will : 

"  Memorandum,  that  Mr.  Joice  Scale  and  Arthur  Brinan, 
wittnesses  produced,  sworne,  and  examined,  in  a  cause 
depending  in  his  Majesties  Court  of  Prerogative  concern- 
ing the  profe  of  the  last  will  and  testament  of  Dr.  Richard 
Lingard,  In  speciall  forme  of  law  did  depose  that  Dr. 
Henry  Stiles  w£ls  nominated  by  the  said  Dr.  Richard  Lin- 
gard one  of  his  executors,  but  his  name  was  not  inserted 
in  the  said  will  by  reason  of  the  hast  and  negligence  of 
the  said  Arthur  Brinan  whoe  did  write  the  said  will." 


The  Great  Comet  of  1556.— The  great  comet 
of  1556,  the  probable  return  of  which  in  the 
course  of  the  present  summer,  had  been  predicted 
by  Paul  Frtbricius,  and  more  recently  by  Hel- 
ler, the  Niirnberg  Elstronomer,  as  shown  by  Dr. 
LoTSKT  in  the  last  volume  of  "  N.  &  Q."  (2"'>  S. 
i.  272.  391.)  would  seem  by  The  Times  of  Aug.  5, 
to  have  made  its  re-appearance.  In  the  paper  of 
that  day  is  a  long  extract  from  the  Limerick  Ob- 
server of  the  preceding  Saturday,  from  which  the 
following  ektract  sefems  to  me  to  deserve  trans- 
ferring to  your  columns : 

"  A  gentleinan  of  the  highest  tespectability  has  just 
informed  us  that  he  saw  last  night,  for  the  third  time, 
what  appears  from  his  description  to  be  the  long-ex- 
pected comet  of  1556,  the  te-appearance  of  which  this 
year  has  been  so  long  foretold ;  astronomers,  however, 
guarding  their  calculations  by  the  proviso  that  a-difi'er- 
ence  of  three  j^ears  might  possibly  occur,  although  there 

was  every  reason  to  expect  that  the  great  comet,  which 
takes  three  centuries  tO  comjilete  its  orbit,  would  be 
visible  about  the  month  of  Augdst  1856.  Our  informant 
thus  describes  the  object  which  attracted  his  attention  for 
the  first  time  last  Wednesday  iilght :  —  He  Was  standing 
near  the  salmon-weir,  on  the  platform  before  the  mills  of 
Corbally,  about  half  past  10  o'clock,  when  his  attention 
was  attracted  by  what  appeared  to  be  a  fire  rising  on  the 
top  of  Keeper  mountain,  due  east  of  his  position.  He 
remarked  the  object  to  a  gentleman  who  was  with  him, 
but,  as  the  fire  rose  and  cleared«the  top  of  the  mountain, 
his  friend  suggested  that  it  must  be  a  lanterfa  Suspended 
to  a  kite.  It  had  then  the  appearance  of  a  globe  of  fire 
as  large  as  a  good-sized  orange,  with  a  broad  tail  of  light 
extending  about  l8  inches  from  the  body.  The  two 
gentlemen  watched  it  for  an  hour,  and  the  watchman  on 
the  weir  observed  it  also.  On  Thursday  night  they  all 
saw  it  again.  It  rose  a  few  moments  later,  presenting 
the  same  appearances,  and  was  high  in  the  heavens  at 
half-past  11  t)'clock,  when  they  went  home.  At  that 
hour  one  of  the  gentlemen  pointed  it  out  to  his  sister. 
Last  night,  from  the  same  place,  the  same  persons  again 
saw  it  rise  about  20  minutes  before  11  o'clock,  and  then  it 
first  occurred  to  one  of  them  (our  informant)  that  it 
might  be  a  comet.  He  ceased  to  watch  it  about  midnight, 
but  the  watchman  observed  it  up  to  half-past  1  o'clock 
this  morning.  It  did  not  seem  so  large  as  on  the  previous 
nights,  but  still  far  exceeded  the  most  brilliant  form  in 
which  the  planet  Jupiter  has  ever  been  beheld.  As  the 
greatest  comet  on  record  is  really  due  about  this  time, 
and  as  the  extreme  sultriness  of  the  weather  would  seeiix 
to  warrant  the  belief  that  such  a  celestial  visitor  is  near 
at  hand,  we  shall  be  glad  to  hear  if  any  other  persons 
have  observed  the  appearance  which  has  thrice  risen 
upon  our  astonished  friends." 

R.  R.  S. 

"  Deep-mouthed." — I  have  heard  many  profane 
readers  of  Don  Juan  descant  with  rapture  on  the 
beauty  of  the  lines  (Catito  1,  v.  123.)  : 

"  'Tis  sweet  to  hear  the  watch-dog's  honest  bark. 
Bay  deep-mouthed  welcome  as  we  draw  near  home." 

The  epithet  deep-mouthed,  as  applied  to  the 
watch-dog's  bark  of  welcome,  being  especially 
designated  as  "  fine."  And  fine  it  is  ;  but  Byron 
found  it  in  Shakspeare  and  in  Goldsmith,  and  1 
dare  say  in  many  places  else  : 

<*  And  couple  Clowder  with  the  deep-lhouthed  bracb.'* 
Taming  of  the  ^hrew,  Introduction,  Sc.  1. 

•'  The  laborers  of  the  day  were  all  retired  to  rest :  the 
lights  were  out  in  every  cottage ;  no  sounds  were  heard 
but  of  the  shrilling  cock,  and  the  deep-mouthed  watch- 
dog at  hollow  distance."  —  Vicar  of  Wakefield,  ch.  xxii; 

A  Dbsdltoet  Rbadbb. 

Last  Words  of  the  Great.  —  A  collection  of  thd 
last  words  of  great  and  famous  men  would,  I  ven- 
ture to  suggest,  be  interesting,  and  not  unfit  for 
the  pages  of  "  N.  &  Q."  I  beg  to  annex  a  few 
such  dying  speeches,  each  eminently  characteristic, 
it  will  be  seen,  of  the  several  men : 

"  Head  of  the  army."    (Napoleon.) 

"  I  must  sleep  now."    (Byron.) 

"  Let  the  light  enter."    (Goethe.) 

« 1  thank  God  I  havfe  done  my  duty."    (Nelson.) 



L2nd  s.  No  32.,  Aug.  9.  '56. 

"It  is  well."     (Washington.) 
«  Valete  et  Plaudite ! "    (Augustus.) 
"  Give  DayroUes  a  chair."    (Chesterfield.) 
"  It  matters  little  how  the  head  lieth."     (Raleigh.) 
« I'm  shot  if  I  don't  believe  I'm  dying."    (Thurlow.) 
"  God  preserve  the  Emperor ! "    (Haydn.) 
"  Be  serious."    (Grotius.) 
"  The  artery  ceases  to  beat."    (Haller.) 
«  What,  is  there  no  bribing  Death  ?  "    (Cardinal  Beau- 
"I  have  loved  God,  my  father,  and  liberty."     (De 

"  I  pray  you,  see  me  safe  up,  and  for  my  coming  down, 

let  me  shift  for  myself."     (Sir  Thomas  More.) 
"  Don't  let  that  awkward  squad  fire  over  my  grave." 

"  A  dying  man  can  do  nothing  easy."     (Franklin.) 
"  Let  me  die  to  the  sounds  of  delicious  music."    (Mira- 

"  We  are  all  going  to  heaven,  and  Vandyke  is  of  the 
company."     (Gainsborough.) 

Some  of  your  correspondents,  I  have  no  doubt, 
could  greatly  enlarge  this  collection.       H.  E.  W. 

A  Real  "  Skimpole:'  —  The  tales  of  Charles 
Dickens  are  distinguished  for  queer  characters 
with  queer  names.  Some  of  his  critics  have  said 
that  such  names  and  such  characters  never  ex- 
isted. However,  in  a  former  number  of  "  N.  & 
Q.,"  "■  an  attempt  was  made  to  trace  the  cogno- 
mina  of  some  of  the  Pickwickians  to  a  book  of  a 
very  different  kind,  the  Annual  Register. 

If  it  be  true  that  the  novelist  borrows  his  proper 
names  from  books,  may  he  not  be  indebted  to  the 
same  sources  for  at  least  the  elements  of  his 
characters  ?  In  reading  Marmontel's  Memoirs, 
I  have  stumbled  upon  what  seems  to  me  the  very 
prototype  of  Harold  Skimpole  in  Bleak  House. 
The  biographer  is  describing  a  pair  of  worthies 
called  Galet  and  Panard.     Of  the  latter  he  says : 

"  Le  bon  homme  Panard,  aussi  insouciant  que  son  ami, 
aussi  oublieux  du  passe  et  negligent  de  I'avenir,  avoit 
plutot  dans  son  infortune  la  tranquillite  d'uu  enfant,  que 
I'indifFerence  d'un  philosophe.  Le  soin  de  se  nourrir,  de 
se  loger,  de  se  vetir,  ne  le  regardoit  point :  c'etoit  I'affaire 
de  ses  amis,  et  il  en  avoit  d'assez  bons  pour  meriter  cette 
confiance,"  &c.  —  Memoires  de  Marmontel,  livre  vi. 

'  All  he  (Skimpole)  asked  of  society  was  to  let  him  live. 
That  wasn't  much.  His  wants  were  few.  Give  him  the 
papers,  conversation,  music,  mutton,  coffee,  landscape, 
fruit  in  the  season,  a  few  sheets  of  Bristol-board,  and  a 
little  claret,  and  he  asked  no  more.  He  was  a  mere  child 
in  the  world,  but  he  did  not  cry  for  the  moon.  He  said 
to  the  world, '  go  your  several  waj'S  in  peace,  ....  only 
let  Harold  Skimpole  live ! ' 

"  All  this,  and  a  great  deal  more,  he  told  us  with  a 
certain  vivacious  candour,  speaking  of  himself  as  if  it  were 
not  at  all  his  own  atfair,"  &c.  —  Bleak  House,  pp.  49,  50. 


Passage  in  "  The  Widkirh  Miracles." — In  The 
History  of  Dramatic  Poetry,  Mr.  Collier  quotes 
that  remarkable  farce  which  forms   the  twelfth 

•  1»'  S.  xi.  443. 

pageant  of  the  Widkirk  Series  of  Miracles  at  con- 
siderable length,  and  helps  the  reader  by  eluci- 
datory notes.  In  the  course  of  the  play  the 
following  passage  occurs  : 

"  Whilk  catell  bot  this 
Tame  nor  wylde 
None,  as  have  I  blys, 
As  lowde  as  hesmylde." 

To  which  Mr.  Collier  appends  this  note  : 

"  This  is  one  of  the  expressions  I  am  unable  to  inter- 
pret. Possibly  we  should  read  '  as  lewde  as  he  smelde,' 
i.  e.  as  wicked  as  he  smelt.'  " 

May  not  the  following  provincialism  throw  some 
light  on  this  obscure  phrase?  Something  more 
than  a  month  ago,  I  overheard  part  of  a  conver- 
sation in  a  street  of  a  midland  town.  The  inter- 
locutors were  labourers;  and  their  subject,  the 
one  theme  of  the  day,  Palmer's  trial.  The  one 
having  dwelt  upon  the  difficulties  of  conviction, 
the  other  replied :  "  I'll  never  believe  he's  not 
guilty ;  his  life  stinks  aloud  of  murder."  I  at 
once  thought  of  this  passage,  and  made  a  note  for 
reference,  having  never  before  heard  the  phrase 
used  in  this  manner  ;  although  "  aloud"  is  the  ad- 
verb generally  used  by  the  uneducated  of  this 
district  to  strengthen  very  emphatically  the  verb 
"  to  stink." 

I  suppose  the  line  quoted  to  be  correct  as  it 
stands,  "lowde"  being  the  true  reading.  And  in 
accordance  with  the  first  use  of  the  words,  the 
passage  would  mean  "  strong  as  were  the  suspi- 
cions attending  Mak's  conduct,  he  does  not  appear 
to  be  guilty."  Or  accepting  the  more  common, 
and  less  metaphorical  use  of  the  phrase,  "  though 
the  smell  of  slaughtered  meat  in  Mak's  cottage 
was  very  strong,"  we  can't  find  any.  C.  M. 


Dr.  Forster  on  Periodical  Meteors.  —  Can  you 
find  space  for  the  following  extract  from  The 
Times  of  Tuesday  the  5th  ?  It  forms  a  part  of  a 
letter  calling  the  attention  of  astronomers  and 
meteorologists  to  the  probability  that  Sunday 
next,  the  10th  August,  will  be  marked  by  an  un- 
usual number  of  those  remarkable  meteors  which 
caused  that  day  to  be  called  "  dies  meteorosa  "  in 
the  old  calendars;  and  records  the  writer's  cor- 
rection of  what  he  believes  an  erroneous  opinion 
formerly  advanced  by  him  as  to  their  origin. 

"As  I  was  the  first  person  who  called  the  attention  of 
astronomers  to  the  apparently  planetoid  and  periodical 
nature  of  the  meteors  of  the  10th  of  August  and  13th  of 
November,  in  a  paper  in  the  Philosophical  Magazine,  as 
long  ago  as  1824,  I  think  it  right  and  honest  now  to  de- 
clare that  I  was  wrong  in  then  supposing  that  these 
bodies  might  have  revolving  periods.  I  am  convinced  hy 
all  my  subsequent  observations  that  they  are  either  mere 
electrical  phenomena,  as  Pliny  and  Aratus  thought,  and 
indicate  only  the  autumnal  fall  of  temperature,  or  else 
that  they  are  columns  of  inflammable  vapour  set  on  fire 
iu  the  higher  regions  of  the  air,  as  M.  De  Luc  used  to 

2n<»  S.  No  32.,  Aug.  9.  '56.1 



think,  and  which  he  has  illustrated  in  his  works  on  '  M^- 
te'orologie.'  The  question  may  be  solved  if  meteorologists 
will  take  the  trouble  of  making  accurate  observations  on 
Saturday,  Sunday,  and  Monday  next,  when,  judging  from 
former  experience,  these  meteors  may  be  expected  in 
great  numbers.  With  this  view,  I  hope  your  valuable 
journal  will  be  the  means  of  calling  the  attention  of  ob- 
servers to  this  approaching  phenomenon  all  over  the 
world.  "  T.  FoKSTEE. 

"  Brussels,  August  3." 

By-the-bye,  is  not  the  writer,  Dr.  Forster,  the 
author  of  the  curious  Floral  Works  described  in 
"  N.  &  Q ,"  P*  S.  ix.  569.,  X.  108.,  and  by  some  of 
your  contributors  supposed  to  be  dead  ? 

R.  R.  S. 



I  have  just  made  a  careful  examination  of  four 
different  editions  of  the  poems  published  under 
the  name  of  this  individual.     First : 

"  Killamey,  a  descriptive  Poem,  by  Pat.  O'Kelly.  'Ah ! 
sure  no  Pencil  can- like  Nature  paint.'  Tompson.  Dublin : 
printed  for  the  author  by  P.  Hoey,  No.  33.  Upper  Ormond 
Quay,  1791."    Pp.  136. 

In  this  collection  we  have  "  Killamey,  and  Po- 
etical Miscellanies.'  Second :  The  edition  of 
1824,  pp.  110  (the  copy  I  saw  had  no  title-page), 
which  contains  "  The  Ronian  Kaliedoscope,  the 
Eldophusicon,  the  Manoscope,  the  Eidouranium, 
the  Deodad,"  &c.  &c.     Third  : 

"  The  Hippacrene ;  a  collection  of  Poems  by  Patrick 
O'Kelly,  Esq.    •  Exegi  monumentum  aere  perennius.' 

'  E'en  Magerton  himself  shall  pass  away, 
Ere  the  production  of  the  Muse  decay.' 

Dublin:  F.  and  T.  Courtney,  Printers,  18.  Whitefriars 
Street,  1831."    Pp.  128. 

In  this  we  find  several  of  his  old  pieces  repub- 
lished, with  some  novelties.  Among  the  last  the 
"  Lines  to  a  Plagiarist,  or  the  Daw  deplumed," 
deserves  particular  attention.  We  quote  the 
opening  lines  : 

"  Hail  Mickey  Carty  !  !  Prince  of  Pirates  hail ! 
Hail  pedmit  poetaster  of  Kinsale ; 
Hail  poacher  pedagogue  !  and  once  more  hail 
Prime  peerless  plagiarist  of  poor  Kinsale  !  ! 
Proud,  perking  Daw,  the  peacock's  painted  tail 
Lent  plumes  to  deck  the  chatt'rer  of  Kinsale  !  ! 
Poor  purblind,  putid  pseudo-poet  tell 
Do  Giants'  garbs  suit  puny  pigmies  well  ?  "  &c.  &c. 

Third.  A  part  of  a  compilation  of  some  of  the 
old  poems  with  additional  matter,  no  date,  which 
begins  at  page  105,  and  ends  with  page  132. 
From  the  character  of  the  type  used  in  this  edi- 
tion I  should  suppose  it  was  published  subsequent, 
or  at  all  events  but  a  very  few  years  previous,  to 
the  edition  of  1831  just  noticed. 

To  return  to  the  edition  of  1824.  In  this  we 
find  the  following  poem  (page  45)  : 

"  The  Simile, 
Written  on  the  beautiful  beach  of  Lehinch,  in  the  county 
of  Clare :  this  romantic  spot,  so  long  admired  by  many,  is 
the  property  of  Andrew  Stackpool,  Esquire. 

"This  erudite  gentleman  is  admired  by  a  numerous 
circle  of  friends,  and  caressed  by  a  grateful  tenantry, 
being  one  of  the  most  lenient  landlords  in  this  land  of 
aristocratic  peculation." 

"  My  life  is  like  the  Summer  Rose 
That  opens  to  the  morning  sky, 
But  ere  the  shade  of  evening  close 
Is  scatter'd  on  the  ground  to  die. 

"  But  on  the  Rose's  humble  bed 
The  sweetest  dews  of  night  are  shed : 
As  if  she  wept  such  waste  to  see, 
But  who  ?  alas  !  shall  weep  for  me  ? 

"  My  life  is  like  the  autumn  leaf 
That  trembles  in  the  noon's  pale  ray ; 
Its  hold  is  frail  —  its  date  is  brief, 
Restless,  and  soon  to  pass  away : 

"  Yet  ere  that  leaf  shall  fall  and  fade 
The  parent  tree  shall  mourn  its  shade  ! 
The  winds  bewail  the  leafless  tree ; 
But  who  shall  then  bewail  for  me  ? 

"  My  life  is  like  the  print  which  feet 
Have  left  on  Lehinch  desert  strand : 
Soon  as  the  rising  tide  shall  beat, 
The  track  shall  vanish  from  the  sand : 

"  Yet,  as  if  grievous  to  efface 
The  vestige  of  the  human  race  ! 
On  that  fond  shore  loud  roars  the  sea ; 
Who,  but  the  Nine,  shall  roar  for  me?  " 

This  poem  also  appears  in  the  edition  without 
date,  page  118,  with  sundry  corrections  and  im- 

Now  this  poem,  taken  either  as  it  originally  ap- 
peared, or  as  it  afterwards  was  corrected,  I  have 
good  reasons  to  suppose,  was  pilfered  by  O'Kelly 
from  another.  The  following  lines  were  published 
in  Philadelphia  in  1815  or"l6  (perhaps  some  of 
your  Philadelphia  correspondents  may  help  me  to 
the  title  and  exact  date  of  the  paper  in  which  they 
first  appeared),  with  the  name  of  my  late  father, 
the  Hon.  Richard  Henry  Wilde,  attached  as  the 
author  of  them : 

"  My  life  is  like  the  summer  rose 
That  opens  to  the  morning  sky, 
And  ere  the  shades  of  evening  close 
Is  scattered  on  the  ground  to  die. 
Yet  on  that  rose's  humble  bed 
The  softest  dews  of  night  are  shed, 
As  if  she  wept  such  waste  to  see  — 
But  none  shall  drop  one  tear  for  me  ! 
"  My  life  is  like  the  autumn  leaf 
That  trembles  in  the  moon's  pale  ray ; 
It's  hold  is  frail  —  it's  date  is  brief. 
Restless,  and  soon  to  pass  away ; 
Yet  when  that  leaf  shall  fall  and  fade 
The  parent  tree  will  mourn  its  shade. 
The  wind  bewail  the  leafless  tree, 
But  none  shall  breathe  a  sigh  for  me  ! 
"  My  life  is  like  the  print,  which  feet 
Have  left  on  Sampa's  desert  strand, 
Soon  as  the  rising  tide  shall  beat, 
Their  track  will  vanish  from  the  sand ; 



[2°^  S.  No  32.,  Acq.  9.  '6§, 

Yet  as  if  grieving  to  efface 

All  vestige  of  the  human  race, 

On  that  lone  shore  loud  moans  the  sea, 

But  none  shall  thus  lament  for  me  ! " 

I  have  been  furnished  with  the  character  of 
Mr.  O'Kelly  by  my  friend  R.  Shelton  Mackenzie, 
Esq.,  of  New  York,  who  knew  him.  If  anything 
is  wanting  to  this,  I  have  it  in  the  poet's  edition 
of  his  works,  without  date,  page  131,  where  I  find 
a  poem  entitled  "  The  Tear,"  precisely  similar 
(excepting  some  few  corrections  necessary  in 
making  the  appropriation)  to  a  piece  of  the  same 
name  written  by  the  late  Tom  Moore.  To  this 
poem  O'Kelly  has  had  the  impudence  to  affix  a 
date  — 1768  —  twelve  years  before  Moore  was  horn! 

Mr.  Crofton  Croker  in  his  Popular  Songs  of 
Ireland,  p.  184.,  mentions  two  editions  of  O'Kelly's 
poems  between  1791  and  1824.  An  edition  of 
1808,  entitled  — 

"  Poems  on  the  Giant's  Gauaeway  and  Killarney,  with 
other  Miscellanies  "  — 

and  an  edition  of  1812,  which  contained  "  The 
Eudoxologist,  or  an  Ethicographical  Survey  of  the 
West  Parts  of  Ireland."  In  the  first  of  these  edi- 
tions appeared  that  elegant  effusion,  "  The  Litany 
of  Doneraile,"  which  I  find  is  repeated  in  the 
edition  without  date,  page  116.  I  quote  the 
opening  of  this  piece : 

"Alas!  how  dismal  is  my  tale, 
I  lost  my  watch  in  Doneraile ; 
My  Dublin  watch,  my  chain  and  seal, 
Pilfer'd  at  once  in  Doneraile. 
May  Fire  and  Brimstone  never  fail 
To  fall  in  show'rs  on  Doneraile ; 
May  all  the  leading  fiends  assail 
The  thieving  town  of  Doneraile,"  &c.  &c. 

Now  the  object  of  this  Note  is  to  ascertain  when 
O'Kelly  first  published  the  poem  entitled  "  The 
Simile  "  as  his  own.  I  have  not  been  able  to  trace 
it  in  his  works  beyond  1824.  Will  some  of  your 
correspondents  who  have  the  editions  mentioned 
by  Mr.  Croker,  or  other  editions  of  O'Kelly's 
Works,  be  good  enough  to  inform  me  on  this  sub- 
ject? William  Gumming  Wilde. 

New  Orleans,  June  28. 


A  person  engaged  in  the  study  of  the  history  of 
New  England  in  America  would  be  greatly 
obliged  by  information  relating  to  the  following 

A  copy  of  the  Records  of  the  Virginia  Company, 
established  in  1606  by  letters  patent  of  James  I., 
was  in  the  hands  of  Stith,  the  historian  of  Vir- 
ginia. It  was  perhaps  the  same  copy  which  is 
mentioned  in  the  Life  of  Nicholas  Ferrar.  Is  the 
original,  or  a  copy  of  those  records,  to  be  found  in 
England  ? 

Is  anything  known  of  the  early  history  of  Ed- 
ward Randolph,  employed  by  the  British  govern- 
ment from  1675  to  1684  in  an  agency  for  vacating 
the  charters  of  Massachusetts,  and  afterwards  as 
secretary  and  collector  in  that  colony  ?  He  had, 
perhaps,  been  previously  a  clerk  in  one  of  the 
public  offices  in  London. 

Where  are  the  papers  (if  extant)  of  Sir  Ferdi- 
nando  Gorges,  Governor  of  Plymouth  about  1620, 
described  as  "  Sir  Ferdinando  Gorges,  of  Ashton 
Phillips,  in  Somerset  ?  " 

Does  the  will  of  John  Cabot,  the  voyager  to 
North  America,  exist  in  the  Will  Office  at  Wor- 
cester, or  elsewhere  ? 

Are  there  any  unpublished  materials  of  a  nature 
to  illustrate  the  connexion  of  Sir  Henry  Rogwell, 
of  Ford  Abbey,  with  the  Massachusetts  Com- 
pany ? 

During  the  first  sixty  or^^seventy  years  of  the 
New  England  settlements,  many  conspicuous 
Englishmen  must  have  held  large  correspondence 
with  the  leading  men  of  those  colonies,  the  dis- 
covery of  which  would  be  of  the  highest  historical 
value.  Has  any  such  correspondence  survived  ? 
The  following  names  immediately  occur  in  con- 
nexion with  this  question,  viz.  Richard,  Earl  of 
Warwick,  Lord  Say  and  Sele,  Lord  Brooke,  Sir 
George  Downing,  Sir  Henry  Vane,  Hugh  Peters. 

[In  the  British  Museum  will  be  found  the  following 
MSS.  relating  to  Sir  Ferdinando  Gorges:  "  His  Declara- 
tion, A.D.  1600-1,"  Birch  and  Sloane  MS.  4128;  "An 
Answer  to  certain  Imputations  against  Sir  Ferd.  Gorges, 
as  if  he  had  practised  the  Ruin  of  the  Earl  of  Essex, 
written  in  the  Gatehouse,"  Cotton  MS.  Julius,  F.  VI.  art. 
183 ;  "  Warrants  to  him  from  the  Earl  of  Essex,  Jan. 
1597,"  Addit.  MS.  6752,  ff.  104-110  ;  "  Letter  to  T.  Har- 
riott," Ibid,  6789 ;  "  Letter  to  Sir  J.  Davis,  concerning 
his  Confession,"  a.d.  1603,  Ibid,  6177,  p.  387.  Also, 
"  Papers  relating  to  the  Virginia  Companj',  Jac.  I.,"  and 
"  Notes  by  Sir  J.  Caesar  of  the  Patents  granted  to  the  said 
Companj',"  Jb.  12,496.  "  Forms  of  Patents,  Grants,  &c., 
by  the  Virginian  Company,"  lb.  14,285.  "William 
Strachey :  The  History  of  Travaile  into  Virginia  Britan- 
nica,  expressing  the  Cosmography  and  Commodities  of  the 
Country,  together  with  the  Manners  and  Customs  of  the 
People,  with  several  figures  coloured,"  Birch  and  Sloane 
MS.  1622.  "  Answer  to  Capt.  Nath.  Butler's  unmasked 
face  of  Virginia,  as  it  was  in  the  winter  of  1622,"  Ibid, 
1039.  "  The  Declaration  of  the  People  of  Virginia  against 
Sir  William  Berkeley  and  others,"  Ibid,  4169.] 

Husbands  authorised  to  beat  their  Wives. — There 
exists  what  I  conceive  to  be  a  popular  error, 
namely,  a  belief  that  a  husband  is  by  the  common 
law  of  England  authorised  to  chastise  his  wife  ; 
and  Judge  Buller  is  often  quoted,  ^s  having  given 
it  as  his  judgipent  that  the  husband  is  justified  in 
administering  personal  chastisement  to  his  better 
half,  provided  he  uses  a  gtick  no  thicker  than  his 
little  finger,  or,  as  some  severer  discipliqariaiis 

2'"i  S.  N»  32.,  Ada.  9.  ?§6.] 



say,  his   thumb.      Is   there  any  foundation   for 
either  pf  these  statements?  Henpeckej). 

Dr.  Brays  Libraries  in  4^erica,  ^c._ — The 
inquiry  made  throi;gh  your  pages  respecting  pa- 
rochial libraries  in  England,  haying  met  with 
much  attention  from  many  valuable  correspond- 
ents, permit  me  to  extend  the  Query  originally- 
made  in  "  N.  &  Q."  from  England  to  America, 
where,  we  are  informed  *,  Dr.  Bray  "  begun  and 
advanced  libraries  more  or  less  in  all  the  pro- 
vinces on  the  Continent  (of  America),  as  also  in 
the  factories  in  Africa."  Some  of  your  American 
correspondents  will  no  doubt  be  hi^ppy  to  reply  to 
an  inquiry  which  will  show  the  present  state  of 
these  libraries,  and  their  good  effects  in  promoting 
i-eligion  and  learning.  I  find  tlie  following  places 
mentioned  as  having  had  libraries  established  in 
them  by  the  care  and  exertions  of  Dr.  Bray,  who 
received  thanks  on  account  of  them ;  Maryland, 
Boston,  Baintree,  Newfoundland,  Rhode  Island, 
New  York,  Piiiladelphia,  North  Carolina,  Ber- 
mudas, Annapolis,  the  Factories  in  Africa. 

J.  M. 


"  Antonio  Foscarini.''^  —  Who  is  the  author  of 
Antonio  Foscarini,  a  historical  drama,  published  in 
1836  ?  R.  J. 

James  Stringer. — Could  any  of  your  Cambridge 
readers  give  me  information  regarding  James 
Stringer,  author  of  A  CantaVs  Leisure,  prose  and 
verse,  published  at  London  in  1829  ?  I  think  the 
author  was  of  Emmanuel  College.  R.  J. 

Queen  Charlotte  s  DriTfiking  Glass. — Can  any  of 
your  readers  {authenticate  the  following?  It  is 
extracted  from  a  letter  from  one  J£fmes  Heming, 
containing  an  account  of  George  III.'s  coronation : 

"  Our  friend  Harry,  who  was  upon  the  scaffold,  at  the 
return  of  the  procession,  closed  iu  with  the  rear;  at  the 
expence  of  half  a  guinea  was  admitted  into  the  hall ;  got 
brimfull  of  his  majesty's  claret,  and  in  the  universal 
plunder,  brought  off  the  glass  her  majesty  drank  in,  which 
is  placed  in  the  beaufet  as  a  valuable  curiosity." 

C.  J.  Douglas. 

Inscription  for  a  Watch. — 

''  Could  but  our  tempers  move  like  this  ijjachiqfi, 
Not  urg'd  by  passion  nor  delay'd  by  spjeej}} 
And  true  to  nature's  regulatirig  power. 
By  virtuous  acts  distinguish  every  hour : 
Then  health  and  joy  would  follow,  as  they  ought. 
The  laws  of  motion  and  the  laws  of  thought ; 
Sweet  health  to  pass  the  present  pioifleijts  o'ep, 
4-nd  eyerlastfiig  joy,  when  tiijie  sliall  be  np  pioce." 
Scots'  Magazine,  Oct.  1747. 

WbQ  \s,  lil^e).y  t»  t>e  tlje  ^utbpF  of  thesp  fine 
verses  ?  G".  N. 

f  Think  of  me.'*  —  Who  is  the  author  of  the 
lines  "  Think  of  me,"  givefn  in  iSir  Roland  Ashton, 

*  Siog.  Britan. 

and  where  were   they  originally  published  ?     I 
give  the  first  stanza  : 

"  Go  where  the  water  glideth  gently  ever, 
Glideth  by  meadows  that  tlie  greenest  be ; 
Go  forth  beside  our  own  beloved  riv^r 
And  think  of  me." 


Charles  Verral.  —  Could  any  of  your  readers 

give  me  any  inforr^atipn  regarding  Charles  Verral, 

.author  (besides  other  works)  of  a  poem  called  The 

Pleasures  of  Possession,  published  in  1810  ?    R,  J. 

Early  Memoirs  of  Dn.  Johnson,  —r  Is  it  known 
who  was  the  authov  of  a  small  12mo.  yolume,  pub- 
lished within  a  few  months  of  Johnson's  death, 
under  the  title  of  — 

"Memoirs  of  tjie  hifQ  and  Writings  of  the  late  Dr.  Sf^r 
muel  Johijsop,  containing  many  valuable  original  Letters, 
and  several  interesting  Anecdotes  both  of  his  Literary  and 
Social  Connexions.  The  whole  authenticated  by  living 
Evidence.    London,  1785." 

J.  E.  M. 

Prayer  for  Unity.  —  Is  it  known  who  wrote  the 
touching  "  Prayer  for  Unity,"  which  appears  in 
our  present  office  for  the  20th  of  June,  being  the 
day  01}  which  Her  Majesty  began  her  happy  reign  ? 
It  is  not  contained  in  the  form  of  1704,  as  printed 
in  Reeling's  Liturgies  Britannicce.  A.  A.  D. 

Dream-Books.  —  Dr.  Mackay  tells  us,  in  his 
Popular  lifl^sions,  that  the  maxiips  of  the  pseudo- 
science  of  oneirology  have  been  so  imperfectly  rer 
membered,  that  at  the  present  day  they  differ  in 
different  countries,  and  the  same  dream  which 
delights  the  peasant  in  England  terri^es  him  in 
France  or  Switzerland;  Can  your  readers  put- 
me  in  the  way  of  obtaining  a  few  of  the  dream- 
books  in  circulation  p^mong  the  credulous  on  the 
Continent  ? 

Notes  are  desired  on  the  bibliography  of  dream- 
books  during  the  lasl;  two  centuries,  to  link  the 
works  of  Artemidorus,  Astampsychus,  and  Ach- 
niet,  with  the  Seven  Dials'  publications  of  the 
presept  day. 

Communications  through  the  medium  of  "  N.  & 
Q.,"  or  privately  to  the  care  of  the  editor,  will 
oblige  R.  T.  Scott. 

Instrument  of  Torture.  — 

"  Late  heavy  rains  at  Jamaica  have  exposed  an  instrur 
ment  of  torture  made  of  iron  hoops,  with  screws,  and  so 
constructed  as  to  fit  the  largest  or  smallest  person ;  atr 
tajshpd  to  it  are  njanacjes  for  the  hands.  The  inside  of 
the  kneerbars,  apd  the  resting-place  for  the  soles  of  tk& 
feet,  are  stijdded  with  spikes.  When  found,  the  perfect 
siieleton  of  a  negress  Avas  enclosed  in  the  instrument." 

The  ^bove  statement  comipg  frqpi  a  reliable 
source,  it  ifl^y  be  asked  )f  at  any  tiflae  in  the  Ei}.- 
gljs'h  West  Indj^  Islapd^  jnsfriijueftts  pf  ^torture 
lyere  app^jed  fp  playes?  Apd  \f  so,  for  what 
crimes  ?  '  W-  W- 




[2nd  s.  N"  32.,  Aug.  9.  '56. 

Merthyr  Tydvil.  —  What  is  known  of  the  his- 
tory of  Merthyr  Tydvil  prior  to  1740  ?  Was  it 
an  insignificant  village  immediately  before  Bacon 
commenced  iron-making  there  ?  A  friend  in- 
forms me  that  a  hundred  years  ago  letters  were 
brought  to  Merthyr  by  an  old  woman  from 
Brecon,  Can  any  correspondent  of  "N.&_Q." 
give  the  old  mail  routes,  naming  the  principal 
post  towns  at  that  period,  1700  to  1740  ? 


Autlior  of  the  "  Voice  of  the  Rod."  —  Can  any 
of  the  readers  of  "  N.  &  Q."  favour  me  with  the 
full  reading  of  the  initials  "  L.  N."  of  the  following 
work  : 

"  The  Voice  of  the  Rod,  or  God's  Controversie  pleaded 
with  Man,  being  a  plain  and  brief  Discourse  on  Mich.  vi. 
9.,  by  L.  N.,  philomathes.  London :  printed  for  Walter 
Dight,  Bookseller  in  Exeter,  1668.     12mo.,  pp.  288." 

There  are  prefixed  a  "  Dedication  to  the  In- 
finite, Eternal,  and  All  wise  God,"  &c.,  and  an 
"  Address  to  the  Readers,"  dated  "  Ab  Eremis 
meis,  Aug.  28,  1666." 

The  discourse  is  a  very  serious  one,  and  appears 
to  have  reference  to  the  Plague  in  London,  1665, 
and  to  the  Fire,  1666.  By  these  dreadful  ca- 
lamities the  progress  of  the  author's  work  in  some 
of  its  departments  had  been  impeded,  as  at  the 
end  of  it,  he  adds  a  "  Postscript  to  the  Readers : " 

"  Sirs,  —  If  anything  in  these  sheets  s^^  to  be  bom 
out  of  due  time,  know  that  they  have  had  a  hard  Travail. 
Tliey  were  at  first  prepared  for  1665,  but  through  the  as- 
tonishing difficulty  of  our  late  Junctures,  the  Author's 
unbefriended  Obscurity,  and  want  of  those  Minerval 
powers  which  are  now  become  essentially  requisite  in  such 
cases,  they  have  lingered  hitherto,"  &c. 


Hogarth's  Folly.  —  Hogarth,  about  the  time  of 
his  marriage,  painted  a  very  spirited  representa- 
tion of  "  Folly." 

The  subject,  says  Hinckley,  "  was  composed  of 
twelve  figures  :  six  of  males,  and.  a  like  number 
of  females.     The  landscape  gorgeous." 

Is  anything  known  of  this  painting,  or  has  it 
been  engraved  ?  Peto. 

The  Elms. 

Arnold  of  Westminster. — In  1680,  July  17, 
one  John  Giles  was  convicted,  the  government 
having  offered  a  reward  of  lOOZ.  for  his  apprehen- 
sion, of  assaulting  and  wounding  dangerously  on 
the  previous  April  17,  in  Bell  Yard,  Temple  Bar, 
John  Arnold,  Esq.  In  1688,  one  Arnold,  the 
king's  brewer,  was  of  the  jury  on  the  trial  of  the 
bishops  ;  and  in  one  of  the  Letters  of  the  Herbert 
Family,  he  is  called  Captain  Arnold ;  and  is  said 
to  have  a  considerable  party  to  support  him  in 
his  wish  to  represent  Westminster  in  parliament. 

In  1692,  John  Arnold,  Esq.,  was  member  for 
Southwark ;  and  Nicholas  Arnold  was  a  gentle- 
man pensioner. 

In  1708,  Nehemia  Arnold  was  paymaster  of 
malt  tickets.  In,  or  previously,  and  perhaps  sub- 
sequently to  1722,  Nehemia  Arnold,  Esq.,  was 
living  in  Westminster. 

Can  any  reader  of  "  N.  &  Q."  inform  me  if  any 
and  what  family  connexions  exist  amongst  these 
Arnolds,  or  give  me  any  particulars  of  any  of 
them  ?  N.  N. 

New  York  Murder  —  Congrelaticosualists.  — 
Permit  me  to  ask,  if  you  or  any  of  your  readers 
can  satisfy  my  curiosity  on  either  of  the  two  fol- 
lowing points  ? 

1.  You  are  probably  acquainted  with  the  Tales 
of  Mystery  and  Imagination,  by  the  late  American 
poet,  Edgar  Allan  Poe.  In  one  of  these,  entitled 
"  The  Mystery  of  Marie  Roget,"  the  author,  under 
pretence  of  describing  the  murder  of  a  Parisian 
grisette,  analyses  the  particulars  of  the  murder 
of  a  New  York  cigar  girl.  It  is  stated  in  a  note 
that  the  subsequent  confessions  of  two  people  con- 
nected with  the  New  York  murder  completely 
verified  the  conclusion  to  which  Poe,  by  analysis, 
had  come. 

Can  anybody  tell  me  where  I  can  find  an  ac- 
count of  the  New  York  murder ;  or  tell  me  the 
real  names,  dates,  and  fate  of  the  murderers  ? 
The  murder  was  committed  before  November 
1842,  as  that  is  the  date  of  Poe's  tale  in  Marie 

2.  Secondly,  you  will  find  in  one  of  Sydney 
Smith's  Essays  on  America  (p.  240.  of  the  8vo. 
edition,  in  one  volume),  in  a  list  of  the  places  of 
worship  in  Philadelphia,  one  mentioned  as  belong- 
ing to  a  sect  called  "  the  Congrelaticosualists." 
I  have  never  met  with  this  word  anywhere  else. 
It  is  not  to  be  found  in  any  dictionary.  Nor  can 
I  conceive  what  its  derivation  can  be,  or  from  the 
words  of  what  language  it  can  be  compounded,  if 
it  be  a  compound.  The  best  scholars  with  whom 
I  have  had  the  opportunity  of  conversing  can 
give  me  no  information.  If  the  meaning  or  de- 
rivation be  not  known,  can  any  one  give  me  in- 
formation as  to  the  peculiar  tenets,  &c.,  of  the 
sect  ?  T.  H.  D. 

The  Kalends  or  Calends  at  Bromyard.  —  In  a 
short  visit  to  Herefordshire  I  was  struck  with  the 
name  which  the  inhabitants  of  Bromyard  gave  to 
a  long  narrow  footpath  enclosed  with  high  walls, 
and  leading  to  the  churchyard ;  they  called  it  the 
Kalends  or  Calends.  I  could  not  find  out  the 
precise  spelling  of  the  word,  and  no  one  seemed  to 
know  much  about  it.  Can  any  of  your  readers 
enlighten  me  on  the  subject,  or  as  to  the  origin  of 
the  word  ?  Perhaps  it  is  a  mere  provincialism, 
but  it  struck  me  there  might  be  some  connection 
between  this  singular  name  and  the  Calendar  (or 
Kalandar)  ;  in  what  way  I  would  not,  however, 
presume  to  say.  R.  Pattison. 

Torrington  Square. 

2°^  S.  N<»  32.,  Aug.  9.  '66.] 



Letter  of  Charles  JI.  to  the  Queen  of  Bohemia. 
—  I  have  in  my  possession  a  letter  in  the  auto- 
graph of  Charles  II.,  of  which  the  following  is  a 

copy : 

"Paris,  Aprill  16. 
"  Madame, 
"  T  could  not  lett  this  bearer  my  Ld.  Wentworth  gee, 
without  giueing  your  Ma^'^  the  trouble  of  a  letter,  and  to 
lett  your  Ma"»  know  that  I  send  him  to  the  K.  of  Den- 
marke  to  desire  his  assistance,  and  recommendation  to  the 
States  on  my  behalfe,  I  will  not  say  any  more  at  present, 
because  I  haue  commanded  the  beai-er  to  giue  your  Ma"« 
an  account  of  all  that's  a  doeing  heere,  only  to  desire 
your  Ma''«  to  giue  credite  to  him,  and  to  me  that  I  am, 
"  Madame, 

"  Your  Ma**«»  most  bumble 

and  most  affectionate 
nephew  and  seruant, 

"  R." 

The  letter  bears  a  small  seal,  and  is  endorsed, 
"  For  the  Queene  of  Bohemia  my  Deare  Aunt." 

Queries.  Can  any  of  your  readers  determine 
or  conjecture  the  year  in  which  this  letter  was 
written  ?  Is  there  any  account  of  Charles  apply- 
ing to  the  "  K.  of  Denmarke,  to  desire  his  as- 
sistance ?  "  Who  is  meant  by  "  the  bearer  my 
Ld.  Wentworth?"  An  early  answer  would  be 
very  acceptable.  Vox. 

Were  Charles  I.  and  Oliver  Cromwell  distant 
Cousins  ?  —  What  authority  has  the  writer  of  the 
amusing  and  interesting  article  on  the  "  Causes  of 
the  Civil  War,"  in  the  newly  published  number  of 
the  Quarterly  Beview,  p.  109.,  for  the  assertion  of 
the  relationship  which  forms  the  subject  of  this 
Query,  and  is  declared  in  the  following  passage  ? 

"In  addition  to  Sir  Oliver  the  'Golden  Knight'  (Sir 
Henry  Cromwell)  left  five  sons  and  five  daughters.  It  is 
a  singular  circumstance  that  from  his  children  should 
have  sprung  the  two  most  famous  leaders  in  the  great 
rebellion,  for  his  second  daughter  was  the  mother  of 
Hampden,  as  his  second  son  Robert  was  the  father  of  the 
Protector.  Another  curious  circumstance  is  that  Robert 
married  a  widow,  Mrs.  Lynne,  whose  maiden  name  was 
Steward,  and  who  came  of  the  royal  race.  The  fact  is 
now  established  beyond  question  that  Charles  I.  and 
Oliver  Cromwell  were  distant  cousins.  The  Protector 
certainly  did  not  exaggerate  his  descent  when  he  said  in 
a  speech  to  his  first  Parliament,  '  I  was  by  birth  a  gen- 
tleman ;  living  neither  in  any  considerable  height,  nor 
yet  in  obscurity." 

C.  o.  c. 

"  Ohnoxious." — What  is  the  meaning  of  the 
word  obnoxious?  Walker  says  "liable."  Why 
then  do  almost  all  modern  authors,  including 
Macaulay  and,  I  think,  Dickens,  use  it  in  the 
sense  of  "  disagreeable"  or  "  disgusting  ?"*   S.  B. 


"  Titan's  Goblet."  —  Will  you,  or  some  one  of 
your  readers,  oblige  me  with  the  locus  in  quo  I  can 
find  anything  relative  to  the  "Titan's  goblet?" 

[*  The  various  senses  in  which  obnoxious  is  used  has 
been  incidentally  noticed  in  our  1"  S.  viii.  439.] 

I  am  possessor  of  a  remarkable  picture  of  this 
title  and  subject,  painted  by  the  late  Thomas 
Cole,  whose  classic  reading  may  have  furnished 
the  subject,  but  whose  own  poetic  capacity  was  so 
large,  that  he  (artistically  speaking)  invented  his 
own  subjects  and  painted  them,  epic,  fanciful,  and 

Should  this  Query  find  answer  I  will  gladly 
send  you  a  Note  of  the  treatment  of  the  subject. 

J.  M.  F. 

New  York. 

William  the  Conqueror's  Joculator.  —  In  Speci- 
mens of  early  English  Metrical  Romances,  chiefly 
written  during  the  early  part  of  the  14th  Century, 
by  George  Ellis,  Esq.,  speaking  of  the  minstrels, 
he  says  : 

"  They  were  obliged  to  adopt  various  modes  of  amusing, 
and  to  unite  the  mimic  and  the  juggler,  as  a  compensation 
for  the  defects  of  the  musician  and  poet.  Their  rewards 
were  in  some  cases  enormous,  and  prove  the  esteem  in 
which  they  were  held ;  though  this  may  be  partly  as- 
cribed to  the  general  thirst  after  amusement,  and  the 
difficulty  of  the  great  in  dissipating  the  tediousness  of 

He  then  states  that  William  the  Conqueror  as- 
signed three  parishes  in  Gloucestershire  as  a  gift 
for  the  support  of  his  Joculator,  and  adds  : 

"  This  may,  perhaps,  be  a  less  accurate  measure  of  the 
minstrel's  accomplishments  than  of  the  monarch's  power, 
and  of  the  insipidity  of  his  court."  —  Ellis,  vol.  i.  p.  19., 

"Three  parishes  in  Gloucestershire"  must  at 
any  time  have  been  an  immense  donation  for 
almost  any  services  one  can  imagine ;  and  I  should 
be  much  obliged  to  any  reader  of  "  N.  &  Q."  to 
point  out  which  were  these  three  parishes,  and  the 
name  of  the  fortunate /ocztZa^or,  if  it  has  descended 
to  posterity.  A. 

"  Wheel  for  the  Borough  of  Milborn  Port"  —  I 
have  a  small  old  print,  of  which  the  following  is  a 

The  figure  of  a  wheel,  about  three  inches  in 
diameter,  round  the  edge  of  which  is  the  follow- 
ing :  "  (ix)  Antient  (viii)  Wheel  (vii)  for  (vi) 
the  (v)  Borrough  (irii)  of  (iii)  Milborn  (ii) 
Port  (i)."  Nine  names,  representing  the  spokes 
of  the  wheel,  commence  opposite  the  numerals, 
each  meeting  in  the  centre,  and  each  divided  by 
a  wave  line.  The  names,  commencing  with  No.  1., 
are,  "  William  Carent,  William  Raymond,  Robert 
Gerrard,  William  Caldecut,  John  Huddy,  James 
Hannam,  Roger  Saunders,  George  Millborn." 

Milborn  Port  (Somerset),  to  which  this  figure 
probably  refers,  was  formerly  one  of  the  principal 
towns  in  the  southern  part  of  the  county,  and  for 
a  very  long  period  sent  two  members  to  parlia- 
ment. It  was  one  of  the  "rotten  boroughs" 
swept  away  by  the  Reform  Bill. 

Queries.    What  is  the  meaning  of  this  "an- 



[8''dg.Np82,,Au0.  9.'66. 

tient  wheel,"  and  has  it  any  reference  to  the 
election  of  officers  for  the  borough  ?  From  the 
appearance  of  this  curioijs  figure,  it  seems  to  have 
been  printed  aboyt  the  close  of  the  seventeenth 
century.  Perhaps  one  of  your  Somersetshire 
readers  can  throw  light  on  the  subject,  and  also 
state  whether  any  of  the  above-named  persons 
have  descendants  now  living  in  JNJilborn  Port  ? 


Minat  (^utviti  Inttlb  ^nSiatvA. 

What  is  their   origin   and 

Apostle   Spoons, 
history  ? 

[We  believe  the  earliest  notice  of  the  apostle  spoons 
occurs  in  an  entry  on  the  books  of  the  Stationers'  Com- 
pany in  the  year  1500,  "  A  spoyne  of  the  gyfte  of  Master 
Reginoli  Wolfe,  all  gylte  with  the  pycture  of  St.  John." 
Mr.  Pegge  in  his  Preface  to  A  Forme  of  Cary,  a  Roll  of 
Ancient  Cookery,  has  offered  the  following  conjecture  as 
to  the  origin  of  this  baptismal  present.  He  observes, 
that  "  the  general  mode  of  eating  must  either  have  been 
with  the  spoon  or  the  fingers;  and  this,  perhaps,  m&y 
have  been  the  reason  that  spoons  became  the  usual  present 
from  gossips,  to  their  god-children  at  christenings."  The 
practice  of  sponsors  giving  spoons  at  christenings  seems 
to  have  been  first  observed  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth ; 
previously  it  was  the  mode  to  present  gifts  of  a  different 
kind.  Hall,  ■yvho  has  written  a  minute  account  of  the 
baptism  of  Elizabeth,  1558,  informs  ns  that  the  gifts  pre- 
sented by  thp  sponsors  were  a  standing  cup  of  gold,  and 
six  gilt  bowls,  with  covers.  But  in  the  first  year  of 
Queen  Elizabeth,  Howes,  the  continuator  of  Stow's  Chro- 
nick,  says  that  "  at  this  time,  and  for  many  yceres  before, 
it  was  not  the  use  and  custome,  as  now  it  is  [1631]  for 
godfathers  and  godmothers  generally  to  give  plate  at  the 
Ibaptisip  of  children  (as  spoones,  cups,  and  such  like),  but 
only  to  give  christening  shirts,  with  little  hands  and  cuffs 
wrought  either  with  silk  or  blue  thread;  the  best  of 
them  for  chief  persons  weare  edged  with  a  small  lace  of 
blacke  silke  and  golde ;  the  highest  price  of  which  for 
great  men's  children  were  seldom  above  a  noble,  and  the 
pommon  sort  two,  three,  or  four  and  five  shillings  a-piece." 
An  allusion  to  apostle  spoons  occurs  in  a  collection  of 
anecdotes,  entitled  "  Merry  Passages  and  Jeasts,"  quoted 
by  Malone  from  Harl.  MS.  6395 :  "  Shakspeare  was  god- 
father to  one  of  Ben  Jonson's  children,  and  after  the 
christening,  being  in  deepe  study,  Jonson  came  to  cheer 
him  up,  and  ask'd  him  why  he  was  so  melapcholy.  '  No 
'faith,  Ben,'  says  he,  '  not  I ;  but  t  have  b^en  considering 
a  great  while  what  should  be  the  fittest  gift  for  me  t^ 
bestow  upon  my  godchild,  and  t  have  resolv'd  at  last.' 
*  I  pr'ythee,  what  ?  '  says  he.  f  I'feith,  Ben,  I'll  give  him 
a  douzen  good  Lattea  [Latin]  spoons,  ^ndi  thou  shalt 
translate  them.?"] 

Clergy  buried  with  ^pice  toward^  thfi  West.  — 
The  other  day,  pn  visiting  thp  chapel  of  St.  Ed- 
mund Hall,  Oxford,  J  observed  that  the  lozenge- 
shaped  stones,  on  which  were  ipscfibed  the  names 
of  former  principals,  were  placed  facing  the  ^e^t, 
instead  of  towards  tfae  east,  the  j^su^l  custom. 

A  friend  tells  me  tlaat  it  is  by  no  means  an  un- 
usual practice  in  tjie  ^Torth  of  Englj^nd  to  bury 
tlje  clergy  ^it};t  t}}e  face  jtpwand^  the  we§t,  ia  the 

manner  above-mentiorjed,  iq  order  that  they 
may  meet  their  flocks  on  the  morning  pf  the  great 
day,  and  conduct  them  to  the  tribunal.  Is  this  a 
custom  peculiar  to  the  North  of  England  ? 


[This  custpm  has  been  noticed  in  our  !'*■  S.  ii.  403. 
452.,  where  our  correspondent  wil}  find  that  it  is  not  pe- 
culiar to  the  North  of  England,  but  has  been  observed  in 
various  parts  of  Christendom  since  the  seventeenth  cen- 

St.  Paneras.  —  Can  you  inform  me  in  what 
church  in  Exeter  there  is  a  brass  of  St.  Paneras  ? 
Also,  in  what  church  in  Lewes,  Sussex,  there  is  a 
painted  window  of  St.  Paneras  ?  What  church  in 
France  contains  a  brass  of  this  saint  ?  Is  there  an 
engraving  of  any  of  them  ?  The  Rev.  Edward 
White,  M.A.,  of  St.  Paul's  Chapel,  Kentish  Town, 
gave  a  lecture,  "  The  Life  and  Times  of  St.  Pan- 
eras,  the  Boy  Martyr  under  Diocletian."  I  want 
to  procure  an  engraving  of  that  saint  ?  R. 

[Perhaps  the  best  representation  of  St.  Paneras  is  in 
the  magnificent  brass  of  Prior  Nelond,  in  the  church  of 
Cowfold  in  the  neighbourhood  of  West  Grinstead,  of  which 
a  lithographic  drawing  is  given  in  Horsfield's  JSistory  of 
Ijcwcs,  vol.  i.  p.  239.  St.  Paneras,  the  patron  saint  of  the 
Lewes  priorj',  is  represented  standing  upon  a  pinnacle 
with  a  palm  branch  in  his  right  hand,  a  book  in  his  left, 
and  treading  on  a  warrior  with  his  jirawn  sword.] 

Arms  in  Severn  Stoke  Church.  —  To  what  fa- 
mily does  the  following  coat  of  arras  belong  ? 
Gules,  a  fess  between  six  cross  crosslets,  or.  They 
are  from  an  old  painted  wjndow  in  the  parish 
church  of  Severn  Stoke,  Worcestershire.  This 
church  has  what  I  think  must  be  a  very  rare 
thing,  an  original  stone  altar  as  used  before  the 
time  of  the  Reformation.  Cervus. 

[The  above  coat  of  arms  belongs  to  the  Beauchamps, 
Earls  of  Warwick.  In  Atkyns's  Gloucestershire  we  find 
that  Richard  de  Beauchamp  married  for  his  first  wife 
Elizabeth,  heiress  of  Thomas  Lord  Berkeley.  He  died 
17th  Henry  VI.,  1439,  and  was  buried  in  the  Collegiate 
Church  of  Warwick.  The  cross  crpsslets  are  the  arms  of 
Berkeley,  which  he  added  to  his  own.  The  same  arms 
are  in  a  window  of  Kingsbury  Church,  Warwickshire. 
See  Dugdalp's  If^arwickshire,  pp.  391.  and  1061.,  edit. 


(2°a  S.  i,  491.) 

I  have  taken  it  for  granted,  upon  the  e^uthority 
of  more  writers  th^ti  one,  that  what  is  now  called 
the  pound  and  mil  scheme  was  originated  by  the 
anonymous  Mercator,  in  The  Pamphleteer  for 
1814.  I  had  never  seen  this  work,-  but,  learning 
from  Me.  Yates's  communication  to  you  that 
Mr.  Slater  had  reprinted  Mercator  in  his  Inquiry, 
&c.,  I  examined  th.e  feprint,  and  I  found  that 
Mercator^S  scl^giup  is  t}pt  what  ig  npyy  ftdypcated 

2°d  §.  No  32.,  Auc>.  9.  '66.] 



by  the  great  n)»jority  of  those  whp  are  trying  to 
decimalise  our  coinage.  It  is  true  that  Mercator 
has  a  pound  in  bis  system,  and  a  mil  for  its  thou- 
sandth part.  But  his  pound  is  not  our  pound. 
Now  if  there  be  any  one  character  of  the  current 
pound  aifd  mil  scheme  which  is  more  its  distinc- 
tive constituent  than  another,  it  is  the  doctrine 
that  the  present  sovereign  is  to  be  unaltered  in 
value.  Consequently,  if  Mercator  advocated  a 
sovereign  or  pound  of  anything  but  twenty  parts 
out  of  twenty-one  of  the  guinea  current  in  his 
time,  he  did  not  propose  our  present  pound  and 
mil  scheme.  Now  without  any  arithmetic  at  all, 
except  an  eye  to  see  which  is  the  greater  and 
which  the  less  of  two  sums,  it  can  be  made  ap- 
^  parent  that  Mercator  proposed  a  smaller  pound 
than  we  now  have.  His  ounce  troy  is  the  common 
one  ;  and  his  proposition  is  to  coin  this  ounce  troy 
into  pounds  at  the  rate  of  4^.  Is.  4^c?.  to  the  ounce. 
Now  we  coin  the  ounce  into  3Z.  17s.  lO^d.  Con- 
sequently, Mercator  gives  a  lighter  sovereign  than 
that  we  now  have.  But  it  has  also  more  alloy  in  it. 
Our  standard  gold  has  one  twelfth  part  of  alloy : 
and  his  has  one  tenth.  In  both  ways,  then,  he  de- 
preciated the  pound.  And  not  oi)Jy  did  he  do 
this,  but  he  gave  a  reason  for  it,  as  follows  : 

"  There  are  various  other  points  and  arguments,  poli- 
tical as  well  as  commercial,  on  this  subject,  which  are 
not,  however,  necessary  to  be  discussed  at  present ;  suf- 
fice it  to  say  that  they  are  all  in  favour  of  the  proposed 
standard,  &c.  &c.,  which,  indeed,  must  of  necessity  take 
place  to  enable  government  to  resume  the  coinage,  and 
also  because  our  coin  in  its  present  proportions  and  re- 
lative values  of  Mint  prices  with  those  of  the  Continent 
will  be  constantly  drained  as  soon  as  issued.  Therefore 
the  absolute  necessity  of  a  new  standard,  &c.,  to  restore 
the  permanency  of  circulating  medium  in  the  legal  coin 
of  the  realm." 

Mercator,  then,  is  a  writer  whose  etceteras  are 
very  significant.  They  include  nothing  less  than 
a  depreciation  of  the  gold  coin,  and  an  alteration 
in  the  relative  Mint  prices  of  gold  and  silver. 
But  your  readers  should  remember  that  the  creed 
of  the  present  advocates  of  pound-and-mil  decimali- 
sation is,  There  is  no  pound  but  the  pound,  and 
the  mil  is  its  thousandth  part.       A-  ^^  Mokgaij. 

UOIXY,   THE   mist  ZiroiGBNOnS  EVEB6BEBN   TBEE. 

(2"*  S.  i.  399.  443.  502. ;  ii.  56.) 

Mb.  Frere  and  H,  J.  have  brought  forward  a 
host  of  authorities  to  b^ck  their  opinions ;  but  if 
they  are  satisfied,  with  all  due  deference,  I  ^qi 
not.  Let  me  for  the  present  confine  jny  case  to 
the  bo2f  alone.  I  will,  if  necessary,  on  fipother 
occasion  defend  ipy  position  as  to  the  ypw.  I  give 
a  long  extracji  from  one  of  my  grandfather's 
papers  in  the  Oent.  Mag.  (p.  666.),  in  the  year 
1787.  As  |kl#.  Frere  says  he  has  been  qbje  to 
see  this  volume,  I  am  at  a  loss  to  understand  how 

it  is  he  so  easily  puts  aside  the  authorities  th^t 
satisfied  my  grandfather,  and  that  years  since  con- 
vinced me,  that  the  box  is  not  an  indigenous  tree. 
Dr.  Lindley,  also,  will  now,  I  hope,  know  that 
the  box  has  ere  this  "  been  suspected  of  being  a 
foreigner."  I  have  great  respect  for  the  modern 
authorities  quoted ;  Ibut  in  this  c^se,  not  less  is 
njy  respect  for  the  older  ones  here  produced  by 
my  grg,ndfather.  Omitting  sonje  remarks  on  the 
box  not  relevant  to  this  question,  he  says  : 

"  Asserius  Menevensis  observes,  in  his  Life  of  Alfred, 
that  '  Berrocscire  (Berkshire)  taliter  vocatur  a  Berroc 
silva  ubi  Buxus  abuudantissime  nascitur.'  This  writer, 
perhaps,  remembered  the  Hebrew  word  Berosch,  which  is 
the  name  of  a  tree  often  mentioned  in  the  Bible,  but  it  is 
of  very  doubtful  signification.  It  hath  been  by  some 
translated  a  box-tree;  by  others,  an  ash  or  larch;  and 
the  Sept^agint,  in  their  vague  manner,  render  it,  in 
various  places,  by  no  less  than  six  different  kinds  of  trees 
(JHiUerii  Hierophyticon  de  Arbor,  cap.  39.).  We  strongly 
suspect  this  wood  of  box-trees  in  Berkshire  to  be  ima- 
ginary ;  for  we  have  not  hitherto  been  able  to  discover  this 
tree  in  any  place  where  there  was  the  least  doubt  of  its  not 
being  planted ;  probably  one  reason  why  it  is  not  so  much 
dispersed  as  the  yew  is,  because  the  seeds  are  not  eaten 
and  disseminated  by  birds,  A  remarkable  instance  of  its 
confined  state  appears  at  the  extensive  plantation  of  this 
tree  at  Box  Hill,  in  Surrey,  where  not  a  plant  is  to  be  seen 
in  any  of  the  adjoining  fields ;  and  after  close  inspection, 
we  could  scarcely  find  a  young  seedling,  but  the  succes- 
sion supports  itself,  when  cut,  by  rising  again  from  the 
old  stems,  like  a  coppice.  Tradition  attributes  this  noble 
work  to  an  Earl  of  Arundel.  How  few  possessors  of  such 
useless  wastes  have  left  behind  them  so  valuable  an  ex- 
ample of  their  patriotic  pursuits 

"  bur  oldest  botanists  agree  with  us  in  supposing  this 
tree  not  to  be  a  native.  *  Ther  groweth,'  says  Turner, '  in 
the  mountains  in  Germany  great  plenty  of  boxe  wild, 
without  any  setting,  but  in  England  it  growet1\  not  alone 
by  itself  in  any  place  that  I  know.^  "  —  Jierbal,  1586. 

"  Boxe  delighteth  to  grow  upon  high  cold  mountains, 
as  upon  the  hils  and  deserts  of  Switzerland,  and  Savoye, 
and  other  like  places,  where  it  groweth  plentifully.  In 
this  countrie  they  plant  both  kinds  in  some  gardens."— hytB^s 
Herball,  1586. 

"  Gerard  would  have  done  well  to  have  specified  those 
*  sundry  waste  and  barren  hils  in  England,'  on  which  he 
asserts  it  grew  in  his  time,  Evelyp  affirnis,  '  that  these 
trees  rise  naturally  at  Boxley,  in  Kent,  in  abundance ; '  and 
succeeding  writers  have  too  hastily  followed  him :  for  in 
a  tour  thro'  that  county,  we  called  at  this  village,  and, 
on  examination  of  the  neighbouring  woods,  and  strictest 
enquiry  of  those  who  were  best  acquainted  with  them, 
^e  were  thoroughly  conyinced  that  his  assertion  was 
totally  groundless.*  To  say  the  truth,  we  were  not 
greatjy  disappointed,  as  we  recollected  what  Lambarde 
had  said  long  before  Evelyn's  time :  'Boxky  may  take  the 
name  of  the  Saxqn  word  Bospeleage,  for  the  store  of  box- 
trees  t\xni  peradpwture  sam^tim  greip  there-'— -fergviilmlq- 
tipn  of  Kent,  1576." 

My  grandfather  concludes  with  an  arguRjent 
that  I  think  is  a  souud  one,  namely,  that  all 
trees  and  shrubs  whoge  nsfpes  arp  derived  from 
the  Latin  are  not  with  us   indigenous,   because 

*  The  names  of  places  beginning  with  bo.v  may  full  as 
probably  be  derived  fron)  the  Saxon  hoc,  qr  bocce,  a.  beech 
tree,  or  ^om  b/K,  a  buckj  ^s  fropi  tlje  bpy  tree. 



[2nd  s.  No  32.,  Aug.  9.  '56. 

the  others,  which  are  undoubted  natives,  still 
keep  their  Teutonic  or  Saxon  names ;  as  the  oak, 
ash,  beech,  maple,  hazel,  birch,  holly,  &c.  The 
trees  probably  brought  from  Italy,  he  says,  are 
the  box  (Buxus),  the  elra  ( Ulmus) ;  the  indige- 
nous having  a  Saxon  name,  Wych  hazel;  service 
(Sorbus),  poplar  (Populus)^  &c. 

I  hope  I  have  now  given  good  reasons  for  my 
first  assertion,  that  the  box,  at  any  rate,  is  in  all 
probability  not  indigenous.  A.  Holt  White.  filled  by  pressure  op  the  sea. 

(2"^  S.  i.  493.) 

Your  correspondent  John  Husband,  who 
wishes  for  information  respecting  the  statements 
of  the  Rev.  John  Campbell  in  his  Travels  in  South 
Africa  in  1815,  and  also  the  account  given  by 
Captain  S.  Spowart  of  the  "  Wilberforce,"  of  ex- 
periments made  by  him  in  1855,  will  find  allusions 
to  the  phenomenon  by  various  writers ;  among 
others  I  beg  to  refer  him  to  vol.  i.  Bridgewater 
Treatises,  page  345,  where  Dr.  Buckland,  treating 
of  the  pressure  at  different  depths  of  the  sea,  says 
that  — 

"  Captain  Smyth,  R.N.,  found  on  two  trials  that  the 
cylindrical  copper  air-tube  under  the  vane  attached  to 
Massey's  log  collapsed  and  was  crushed  quite  flat  under 
the  pressure  of  about  300  fathoms  (1800  feet).  A  claret 
bottle  filled  with  air  and  well  corked  was  burst  before  it 
descended  400  fathoms.  He  also  found  that  a  bottle 
filled  with  fresh  water  and  corked  had  the  cork  forced  in 
at  about  180  fathoms." 

He  also  refers  to  a  personal  statement  made  to 
him  by  Sir  Francis  Beaufort,  who  had  often  made 
the  experiment  with  corked  bottles,  some  of  them 
being  empty,  and  others  containing  some  fluid. 
But  the  result  was  various  : 

"  The  empty  bottles  were  sometimes  crushed,  at  others 
the  cork  was  forced  in,  and  the  fluid  exchanged  for  sea 
water.  The  cork  was  always  returned  to  the  neck  of  the 
bottle ;  sometimes,  but  not  always,  in  an  inverted  posi- 

Let  me  also  refer  your  correspondent  to  that 
magnificent  book.  The  Geological  Observer,  by 
Sir  Henry  de  la  Beche,  where  he  will  find  obser- 
vations respecting  differences  of  pressure  at  dif- 
ferent depths  of  the  sea,  which  will  satisfy  him 
that  the  statements  respecting  the  bottles  are  not 
at  all  incredible.  Sir  Henry  computes  the  pres- 
sure at  a  depth  of  100  feet  to  be  60  pounds  to 
the  square  inch,  including  that  of  the  atmosphere, 
while  at  4000  feet  the  pressure  would  be  about 
1830  pounds  to  the  square  inch. 

Speaking  of  animals  which  inhabit  very  deep 
seas  he  says : 

"  It  has  been  observed  that  the  air  or  gas  in  the  swim- 
ming bladders  of  those  brought  up  from  a  depth  of  about 
3300  feet  (under  a  pressure  of  about  100  atmospheres),  in- 
creased so  considerably  in  volume  as  to  force  the  swim- 

ming bladder,  stomach,  and  other  adjoining  parts,  outside 
the  throat  in  a  balloon-formed  mass." 

Thus  we  see  that  the  claret  bottle  collapses  in 
the  deep  sea,  while  the  air-bottle  of  the  deep  sea 
fish  expands  until  it  bursts  when  it  reaches  the 
upper  regions. 

The  author  of  the  Geological  Observer  refers  to 
Pouillet,  Elemens  de  Physique  Experimentale, 
vol.  i.  p.  188.  confirmatory  of  the  above  fact,  and 
adds  that  Dr.  Scoresby  in  his  Arctic  Regions, 
vol.  ii.  p.  193.,  relates  that  in  a  whaling  expedition 
on  one  occasion  a  boat  was  pulled  down  to  a  con- 
siderable depth  by  a  whale,  after  which  the  wood 
became  too  heavy  to  float,  the  sea  water  having 
forced  itself  into  the  pores.  He  then  refers  to  the 
Reports  of  the  British  Association,  vol.  xii.,  in 
which  the  researches  of  Professor  E.  Forbes  are 
recorded.  Before  concluding,  let  me  add  that 
some  have  supposed  the  porousness  of  the  glass 
would  sufficiently  account  for  the  phenomenon  of 
the  empty  bottle  becoming  filled  with  water  and 
yet  the  cork  remaining  in  the  same  position,  and 
even  the  wax  which  covered  It  unbroken.  But 
it  seems  to  me  more  probable  that  the  pressure, 
when  not  sufficient  to  break  the  bottle,  might  yet 
be  enough  to  reduce  by  compression  the  size  of 
the  cork  and  the  covering  of  wax,  thus  giving 
space  for  the  water  to  enter,  which  would  readily 
under  such  pressure  rush  through  the  minutest 
inlet :  the  wine  would  keep  the  cork  in  its  original 
position,  and,  on  being  drawn  up,  expansion  to  its 
former  bulk  would  be  instantaneous.  But  this  is 
only  a  guess.  E.  Flood  Woodman. 



(2»'l  S.  ii.  49.) 

The  origin  of  this  temple  is  involved  in  ob- 
scurity ;  the  present  structural  remains  are  of 
the  Corinthian  Order  chiefly,  including  probably 
the  church  erected  by  Constantino  (Eusebius, 
Const.,  iii.  58.*;  Eusebius,  Orat.  Const.,  c.  18.; 
Sozomen,  v.  10.,  vii.  15. ;  Greg.,  Abulpharagii 
Hist.  Compend.  Dynast,  p.  85.).  There  is  no 
evidence  of  its  erection  by  Solomon,  as  "  the 
house  of  the  forest  of  Lebanon  "  (1  Kings,  vii.  2.) 
or  Baalhamon  (Sol.  Song,  viii.  11.).  "When  we 
consider,"  says  Volney  (v.  ii.  c.  29.),  "  the  extra- 
ordinary magnificence  of  the  Temple  of  Balbek, 
we  cannot  but  be  astonished  at  the  silence  of  the 
Greek  and  Roman  authors."  John  of  Antioch 
(Malala)  says  that  "  JElius  Antoninus  Pius  built 
a  great  temple  to  Jupiter  at  Heliopolis,  near  Li- 
banus  in  Phoenicia,  which  was  one  of  the  wonders 
of  the  world  "  {Hist.  Chron.,  lib.  xi.). 

*  GIkov  tvKrqpiov  e»c(c\ij(7io?  t«  iiiyitrrov  koX  napa.  roitrSe 
KaTo/3aAAd>A€i'0s'  <os  to  ixtj  €k  tou  jtovtos  ttov  ailavos  aitofj  yva- 
<r6ev  vvv  tovto  npiaTov  ipyov  Tv\elv. 

2nd  s.  N"  32.,  Aug.  9.  '56.] 



Here  is  the  tomb  of  Saladin  (Nugent,  ii.  197.). 
It  is  mentioned  by  Pliny  QNat.  Hist.,  v.  20.),  by 
Ptolemy  {Geog.,  pp.  106.  139.),  and  in  the  Itine- 
rary  of  Antoninus,  as  Diospolis  and  Heliopolis. 
Notices  are  to  be  found  also  in  Pococke's  Travels 
in  Syria,  Maundrell's  Journey,  De  la  Roque's 
Travels,  Rennell's  Oe»g.  W.  Asia,  Wood  and 
Dawkins'  Ruins  of  Balbec,  Wilson's  Lands  of 
the  Bible,  and  Herbelot's  Bibliotheque  Orientale. 
From  the  last  it  appears  that  the  evidence  of 
coins  is  in  favour  of  the  constitution  of  Heliopolis 
into  a  colony  by  Julius  Ctesar. 

The  name  of  the  place,  Baalbec,  means  "  the 
Lord's,  or  Governor's,  city."  The  worship  of  Baal 
is  repeatedly  referred  to  in  Scripture.  Baal  forms 
a  constituent  of  the  words  Ithobal,  Jerubaal,  Han- 
nibal, Hasdrubal,  Baal-berith,  Beelzebub,  Baal- 
Peor,  Beelsamen,  &c.  Freytag's  explanation  of 
the  word  "  Baal "  is  — 

"  Maritus  et  Uxor.  Omne  id  quod  datur  propter  pal- 
marum  rigationem ;  Palma  mas ;  Onus,  res  gravis ;  Terra 
elatior  a  pluvia  semel  anni  spatio  irrigata,  opposita  iis 
regionibus  quae  arte  tantuin  irrigantur.  Nomea  idoli. 
Item  dialect.  Arabics  felicis  Dominus,  herus,  possessor." 

This  etymology  brings  Baalbec  into  connection 
with  Tadmor  or  Palmyra  in  reference  to  the 
palm  tree,  from  which  Phoenicia  and  the  fabulous 
Phoenix  also  derived  their  names. 



(2°'J  S.  i.  477.) 

I  feel  much  obliged  to  Jos.  G.  of  the  Inner 
Temple  for  pointing  out  to  my  attention  the  three 
articles  in  the  Numismatic  Chronicle  on  this  sub- 
ject ;  and  I  also  take  this  opportunity  of  thanking 
an  anonymous  correspondent,  who  communicated 
the  same  information  to  me  by  letter,  shortly 
after  my  first  inquiry  in  "  N.  &  Q." 

If  Jos.  G.  will  refer  to  that  article,  he  will  find 
that  the  complaint  against  Peter  de  Beau  voir, 
bailiff"  of  Guernsey,  is  supposed  by  me  to  have 
been  written  about  the  year  1655,  not  "  1665," 
as  quoted  by  Jos.  G.  The  exact  date  I  am  at 
present  unable  to  give,  as  the  original  document 
bears  none;  but  on  reference  to  the  records  of 
the  Royal  Court  of  this  island,  I  find  that  Thomas 
Simon  had  a  lawsuit  in  that  year  (1655)  with 
John  Fautrart,  Jun.,  his  wife's  uncle,  arising  out 
of  a  claim  which  she  made  to  a  share  of  the  per- 
sonal estate  of  her  grandfather,  John  Fautrart, 
Sen.  In  January  and  February,  1653-4,  Thomas 
Simon,  in  the  right  of  his  wife,  was  party  con- 
jointly with  the  other  co-heirs  in  actions  against 
John  Fautrart,  Jun.,  concerning  the  division  of  the 
real  property  of  John  Fautrart,  Sen.,  deceased,  in 
the  islands  of  Guernsey  and  Serk.    The  parties 

are  thus  described  in  the  preamble  to  the  sen- 
tences rendered  by  the  Court :  — 

"  Monsieur  Jaa  Fautrart,  aisn^  de  feu  Monsieur  Jan 
Fautrart,  son  p^re,  amercy  vers  Monsieur  Pierre  Careye, 
procureur  du  Sieur  Tliomas  Simon,  h,  cause  de  sa  femrae, 
fille  et  seule  heritifere  de  feu  le  Sieur  Cardin  Fautrart,  et 
les  Sieurs  Thomas  de  Sausmarez,  principal  b^ritier  de 
feue  Dame  Bertraune  Fautrart,  sa  mfere,  et  Jan  Renouf, 
procureur  d'Isaac  Gibault,  Jun'',  aisne  de  feue  Dame  Jane 
Fautrart,  sa  mfere,  les  dits  Cardin,  Bertranne  et  Jane 
Fautrart,  enfants  du  dit  feu  Sieur  Fautrart,  leur  pfere." 

It  is  rather  singular  that  none  of  these  docu- 
ments gives  us  the  Christian  name  of  Thomas 
Simon's  wife ;  but  this  is  supplied  by  a  contract 
registered  in  the  Greffe  or  Record  Office  of  the 
island,  on  Feb.  10,  1635-6,  by  which  John  Fau- 
trart, Jun.,  as  guardian  of  his  niece  Elizabeth, 
daughter  of  Cardin  Fautrart,  buys  in  her  name  a 
field  and  certain  wheat-rents. 

Since  my  first  communication  to  "  N.  &  Q.,"  a 
careful  search  among  the  records  of  the  Royal 
Court  of  Guernsey  has  put  it  into  my  power  to 
explain  how  Thomas  Simon  and  Peter  de  Beauvoir 
stood  to  each  other  in  the  relationship  of  cousins- 
german,  and  has  also  revealed  the  facts  that 
Simon's  mother  was  a  Guernsey  woman,  and  his 
father  a  native  of  London. 

On  October  5,  1613,  "  Monsieur  Pierre  Simon, 
fils  Pierre,  natif  de  la  cite  de  Londres,  au  droit  de 
sa  femme,  fille  de  feu  Gilles  Germain"  sells  certain 
wheat-rents.  Another  contract  of  the  same  date 
gives  the  Christian  name  of  his  wife,  which  was 
Anne ;  and  we  also  gather  from  it  that  Gilles 
Germain  had  five  other  daughters.  One  of  these 
was  Judith,  wife  of  James  de  Beauvoir ;  another 
was  Marie,  wife  of  Peter  Careye ;  and  another 
Marguerite,  who  died  unmarried.  The  names  of 
the  other  two  are  as  yet  unknown  to  me.  The 
following  pedigree  will  make  the  relationship  be- 
tween Thomas  Simon  and  Peter  de  Beauvoir 
clear :  — 

Gilles  Germain. 

wife  of  James  de  Beauvoir. 

wife  of  Peter  Simon. 

Peter  de  Beauvoir.  Thomas  Simon. 

Whether  Peter  Simon  belonged  to  any  branch 
of  the  Guernsey  family  of  that  name  may  be  still 
considered  doubtful.  He  may  have  been  de- 
scended from  some  French  refugee ;  but  I  think 
that  the  fact  of  his  being  styled  in  the  contract 
above  referred  to,  "  son  of  Peter,"  in  addition  to 
"  native  of  the  city  of  London,"  affords  a  strong 
presumption  that  his  father  was  known  in  Guern- 
sey, and  very  probably  belonged  to  the  island. 
In  legal  documents  of  that  date  strangers  are 
usually  described  in  general  terms  as  "  natif  des 
parties  d'Angleterre,"  or  "  de  Normaadie,"  as  the 
case  may  be. 



[2°^  S.  N«  32.,  Aug.  9.  '66. 

As  to  Tbomas  Simon's  silence  in  Iiis  wilt  as  {o 
any  property  in  Guernsey  or  claim  thereto,  it  is 
easily  explainefd  by  the  fact  that  at  that  tiitie  the 
law  of  the  island  did  not  permit  of  bequests  of 
real  property  to  children,  and  the  claim  to  the 
personal  property  of  John  Fautrart,  Sen.,  bad 
been  settled  long  before. 

Is  the  date  of  Abrahatn  Simoti's  death  knowti? 
May  ndt  Pegge  have  confounded  him  with  bis 
brother  Thomas  ?  especially  as  he  also  was  a 
modeller  and  engraver.  Ano:n. 


(2"^  S.  ii.  79.) 

I  am  requested  by  )8.  7,  S.  to  give  the  editions, 
datesj  &c.,  of  the  Catholic  catechisms  used  by  ati- 
thority  in  this  country,  in  which  the  Command- 
ments are  taught  at  length.  There  are  only  two 
authorised  catechisms  in  use  in  England.  These 
are  the  abridged  Douay  Catechism,  and  th^ 
Abridgment  of  Christian  Doctrine^  usually  called 
the  First  or  the  Little  Catechism.  The  original 
Douay  Catechism  indeed  bore  the  title  of  An 
Abridgment  of  Christian  Doctrine,  and  was  printed 
early  in  the  seventeenth  century.  I  have  a  copy 
of  the  third  edition,-  printed  in  the  reign  of  James 
II,,  by  "  Henry  Hills,  Printer  to  the  King's  most 
excellent  majesty,  for  his  household  and  chapel ; 
and  are  to  be  sold  &t  his  Printing-House  on  the 
Ditchside,  in  Black-fryers."  But  as  this  was  too 
long  for  children  to  learn,  there  was  published, 
with  approbation,  An  Abstract  of  the  Douay  Cate- 
chism. Of  this  I  have  an  edition  :  "  London  : 
Printed  in  the  year  1782;"  but  without  any 
printer's  name.  It  was  printed^  however,  by 
J.  Marmaduke,  in  Oreat  Wild  Street,  near  Queen 
Street,  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields.  This  is  the  Douay 
Catechism  in  general  use  among  Catholics  all 
over  England  and  Wales,  often  designated  as  the 
Second  Catechism,  because  it  is  usually  learned 
after  the  First  or  Little  Catechism.  The  editions 
of  it  are  innumerable;  but  in  182'7,  the  four 
Vicars  Apostolic  approved  and  sanctioned  a  cor- 
rected edition,  and  required  that  all  future  edi- 
tions should  be  conformable  to  it ;  which  has  been 
carefully  adhered  to  ever  since. 

The  First,  or  Little  Catechism,  entitled  An 
Abridgment  of  Christian  Doctrine,  was  compiled 
more  than  a  century  ago  by  Bishop  Challoner. 
It  has  in  like  manner  passed  through  countless 
editions  ;  but  a  standard  edition  was  approved  in 
1826,  by  the  four  Vicars  Apostolic,  and  all  sub- 
sequent editions  have  been  required  to  be  con- 
formable to  the  one  so  authorised.  This  catechism, 
being  shorter  and  more  simple,  is  usually  learnt 
before  the  Douay  Catechism.  But  these  two  are 
the  only  catechisms   used  by   authority   among 

Catholics  In  this  country.  In  all  editions  of  both 
these,  the  First  Commandment  is  given  at  full 
length,  including  what  by  Protestants  is  called 
the  Second,  and  in  the  Douay  Catechism  the 
reasons  for  this  arrangement  are  given  in  answer 
to  the  Q.  Why  put  you  al^ff^s  in  one  command- 
ment? ^  F.G.U. 

Mollerus  (2"'^  S.  i.  133.)  — t  cannot  say  where 
the  entire  poem  of  Mollerus  is  now  to  be  found, 
but  a  large  sample  of  it  is  in  Herbinius  de  Cata- 
ractis,  Amstelod.,  1678.  On  p.  224.  is  a  vignette 
of  Hatto's  Tower,  apparently  as  it  was  three  years 
ago.  The  bishop  is  on  the  rock,  watching  the 
rats  which  are  crossing  the  Rhine.  Herbinius 
having  described  the  rapids,  adds  : 

"  Sequitur  jam  ligata  etiam  oratione,  '  Historia  de 
Tragico  Hattonis  Episcopi  Moguntinensis  fato ; '  quam 
Befnhardus  Mollerus  Monasteriensis,  in  sua  Rheili  De- 
scriptione,  Colonic  Agrippinae,  mdxcvi.,  carmine  caetera 
egregio  tradit.  Quia  enim  Uhellus  iste,  prmterquam  in 
Bibliothecd  SereniSsimi  Holsatice  Dilcis,  vix  iisjndm  alibi 
reperitur,  apponolibetis  versus  istos  in  gratiam  lectoris." 

Then  follows  the  story  of  Hatto  in  162  very 
tedious  and  antimetrical  lines.  That  the  original 
contained  many  more  may  be  inferred  from 
several  "  &c."s  at  the  close  of  the  pentameters.  If 
Southey  did  rob  MoUeriis,  he  must  have  had 
access  to  the  original :  for  in  this  extract  there  is 
nothing  diffeting  fi-oin  the  ordinary  version  of  the 
story,  which  is  dressed  up  iri  tawdry  rhetoric. 
Compare  the  opening  of  each  :  — 

"  The  summer  and  autumn  had  been  so  wet 
That  in  winter  the  corn  was  growing  vet: 
'Twas  a  piteous  sight  to  see  all  around 
The  grain  lie  rotting  on  the  ground. 
And  every  day  the  starving  poor 
Crowded  around  Bishop  Hatto's  door/'  &c. 

"  Messis  erat  raro  segetum  dotata  favore; 

Paupere  nil  potuit  villus  esse  viro. 
Panpere  paupertas  languescit  frigida  lino^ 

Verminat  esuriens  paupere  moesta  penu. 
Auget  egestatem  morbus,  contempta  movetur 

Pauperies :  omni  cassa  favore  perlt. 
In  rigldis  passim  miseri  jacuere  plateis 

Quos  miserfe  letho  vovit  acredo  famis. 
Vita  quibus  restat,  vitam  mutare  volentes^ 

Sanguinea  fatum  prseripuere  manu. 
Est  dolor  in  vita  truculens,  in  funere  terror : 

Conditio  sortis  nulla  placere  valet, 
Qiiis  stadium  vitaa  letho  mutare  peroptet  ?  _ 

Ciim  miser  baud  potefit  tivere,  fata  cupit,"  &c. 

The  "  &c."  leaves  us  in  uncertainty  as  to  tne 
amount  of  common-place  expended  before  reach- 
ing Hatto. 

Though  Mollerus  may  not  be  a  poet,  any  in- 
formation as  to  so  scarce  a  book  as  his  lihem 
Descriptio  will  be  acceptable.  H.  B.  C^ 

U.  U.  Club. 

•2*"*  S.  N"  32;i  AtG.  9.  '56.] 

NOT'fiS  And  QUERlfi^. 


Walpole  and  WhitUrigtm  (2"*  S.  ii.  S8.)_— Nd 
account  of  the  (JiscussiOn  respectint»  IVhittingtoH 
and  his  Cait  is  given  in  tlie  ArchcBologia ;  but  we 
have  the  following  fibtice  of  it  ih  a  letter  ff-Ora 
Richard  Goiigh  to  Michael  Tyson,  dated  Dec.  27, 
1771,  preserved  in  Nichols's  Literary  Anecdotes, 
vol.  viii.  p.  575. : 

"  Mr.  Pe^ge  gave,  us  next  tjie  History  of  Whittington, 
but  could  maltfe  nothing  at  all  of  his  cat,  though  she  is 
his  constant  compaiiidh  ill  all  statues  and  pictured! :  and 
I  firmly  belifeve,  if  not  a  rebus  for  some  ship  which  mad6 
his  fortune,  she  was  the  companion  of  his  arm-chair^  like 

Cole,  in  his  unpublished  letters  to  Walpole, 
designates  the  members  of  the  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries "  Whittinjitonian  Antiquaries."  Foote, 
in  his  comedy  of  The  Nabob,  makes  Sir  Matthew 
Mite,  with  much  humour,  thus  address  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries  : 

"  The  point  I  mean  to  clear  up,  is  an  error  crept  into 
the  life  of  that  illustrious  magistrate,  the  great  Whit- 
tington,  and  his  no  less  gmirierit  cat :  and  in  this  disqui- 
sition four  material  points  are  in  question :  —  1^.  Did 
Whittington  ever  exist?  2nd.  Was  Whittington  Lord 
Mayor  of  London  ?  3d.  Was  he  really  possessed  of  a  Cat  ? 
4th.  Was  that  Cat  the  source  of  his  wealth?  That  Whit- 
iington  lived,  no  doubt  can  be  made ;  that  he  vfas  Lord 
Mayor  of  London,  is  equally  true ;  but  as  to  his  Cat,  that, 
gentlemen,  is  the  Gordian  knot  to  utitie.  Aitd  hcrei,  gen- 
tlemen, be  it  permitted  me  to  define  what  a  Cat  is.  A 
Cat  is  a  domestic,  whiskered,  four-footed  animal,  whose 
emplo3'merit  is  catching  of  mice ;  but  let  puss  have  been 
ever  so  subtle,  let  puss  have  been  ever  so  successful,  to 
what  could  puss's  captures  amount  ?  No  tanner  ,  can 
curry  the  skin  of  a  mouse,  no  family  make  a  meal  of  the 
meat ;  consequently,  no  Cat  could  give  Whittington  his 
wealth.  From  whehce  then  doCs  this  ertOr  proceed  ?  lie 
that  my  catfe  to  point  odt.  The  comttietfce  this  Tfrorthy 
merchant  carried  on  was  fchiefiy  confined  to  our  coasts : 
for  this  purpose  he  constructed  a  vessel,  which,  for  its 
agility  and  lightness,  he  aptly  christened  a  Cat.  Nay,  to 
this  our  day,  gentleimen,  all  our  c^als  from  Newcastle  are 
imported  in  nothing  but  Cats.  From  thence  it  appears, 
that  it  was  not  the  whiskered,  four-footed,  mouse-killing 
Cat,  that  was  the  source  of  the  magistrate's  wealth ;  but 
the  coasting,  sailing,  coal'carrying  Cat:  that,  gentlenieii, 
was  Whittington's  Cat." 

J.  Y. 

,  Germination  of  Seeds  (2°'^  S.  ii.  lO.  58.)  — 
£.  M.  notices  the  above  in  those  seeds  long  buried; 
Perhaps  the  following  may  interest  him  and  other 
botanical  readers :  — 

Some  years  agOj  a  portion  of  the  park  at 
Hampton  Court  was  ploughed  up;  and  to  the 
surprise  of  every  one  a  quantity  of  flowers  made 
their  appearance.  An  account  of  tliis  Wfent  the 
"round  of  the  papers"  sOme  years  back,  I  forget 
the  date :  upon  inquiry  being  instituted,  it  was 
found  that  that  identical  spot  bad  been  the  flower- 
garden  in  King  Charles  I.'s  time. 

One  of  the  most  temarkable  caseS  of  the  titalltj^, 
and  therefore  the  germination  of  ttie  seeds,  oc- 
curred to  Mr.  Martin  F.  Tupper,  the  well-kilbWn 
author ;  a  friend  of  his  gave  him  ttvelv6  grains  of 

tvh^ai;  taken  out  of  a  vase  in  a  mummy  pit  at 
Thebes.  Mr.  Tupper  planted  these  in  garden- 
pots  ;  and  fouP  of  the  seeds  grew,  and  brought 
forth  fruit.  A  mOst  interesting  account  of  this 
wonder  tvas  published  in  The  Gardeiiers'  Chronicle, 
Saturday,  ifTovSmber  11,  1843;  together  with  a 
woodcut  of  the  ear  of  wheat  produced  from  one 
of  these  grains.  One  of  my  intimate  friends  saw 
these  four  plants  growings  and  there  can  be  nd 
doubt  of  their  genuine  authenticity.  Centceiok. 

Under  the  head  of  "  Spontaneous  Plants,"  I 
have  the  following  note  from  a  paper  of  the 
date :  — 

"  On  boring  for  water  lately  [June  1832],  at  Kingstori- 
upon-Thames,  some  earth  was  brought  up  from  a  depth 
of  360  feet ;  this  earth  was  carefully  covered  over  with  a 
hand-glass,  to  prevent  the  possibility  of  any  other  seed 
being  deposited  on  it :  yet,  in  a  short  time,  plants  vegetated 
from  it.  If  quick-lime  be  put  upon  l^nd  which  frorii 
time  immemorial  has  produced  nothing  but  hfeather,  the 
heather  will  be  killed^  and  white  clover  spring  up  in  its 

Is  this  latter  asset-tiori  a  fact  ?    . 
The  following  on  the  same  subject  is  given  in 
the  Magazine  of  Science,  1839  :  — 

"  After  the  great  fire  of  London,  1666,  the  entire  sur- 
face of  the  destroyed  city  was  covered  with  such  a  vast, 
profusion  of  a  cruciferous  plant,  the  Sisymbrium  irio  of 
LinuEfeus,  that  it  was  calculated  that  the  whole  of  the 
rest  of  Europe  could  hot  contain  so  many  plants  of  it.  It 
is  also  known,  that  if  a  spring  of  salt  water  makes  its 
appearance  in  a  spot,  even  at  a  great  distance  from  the 
sea,  the  neighbourhood  is  soott  cpvered  with  plants  pecu- 
liar to  a  maritiine  locality,  which  plants  have  previously 
been  qiiite  strangers  to  the  country.  -u  ■ 

"  In  a  Work  iipon  the  Useful  Mosses,  by  M.  de  Brebis- 
soh,  this  botanist  states  that  a  pond,  in  the  neighbour- 
hood 6f  Faiairi,  having  been  rendered  dry  during  many 
weeks  in  the  height  of  siimmer,  the  mud,  ih  drying;  was 
immediately  covered,  to  the  extent  of  many  square  yards, 
by  a  minute,  compact  green  leaf,  formed  by  ati  almost 
imperceptible  moss  (the  Phaseum  axillare),  the  stalks  of 
which  were  so  close  to  each  other,  that  upon  a  square 
inch  of  this  new  soil  might  be  counted  more  than  five 
thousand  individuals  of  this  minute  plant,  which  had 
never  previously  been  observed  in  the  country." 

As  slightly  connected  with  this  subject,  may  I 
ask  if  there  is  any  foundation  for  the  followingy 
quoted  from  St.  Pierre,  by  Sir  R.  f  hillips  ? 

"  Barley,  in  rainy  years,  degenerates  into  oats ;  and 
oats,  in,  dry  seasoiis,  changes  into  barley.  These  facts, 
related  by  Pliny,  Galen,  and  Mathiola,  have  been  con- 
firiKed  by  the  experiments  of  naturalists. ' 

R.  W.  Hackwooi). 

Coffhr  (2"^  S.  ii.  69.)— In  the  Glossary  of  Air ^ 
chitectutei  vol.  i.,  I  find  the  ftlllbwing  explanation 
of  this  word  :  "  Coffer,  a  deep  panel  in  a  ceiling  ; 
the  same  as  si  caisson"  Cbisson  was  a  term 
adopted  from  the  Ft-ehch  for  the  Sraiall  panels  of 
flat  and  drched  ceilirigS.  F.  M.  MibDi-BTOW. 

Ellastone,  Staffordshire. ' 



[2nds.  N0  32.J  Aug.  9. '56. 

Aristotle's  Logic  (2"'»  S.  ii.  81,  82.)  —  Tliere  is 
an  edition  of  Aristotle's  Organon  in  two  volumes 
bj  Theod.  Waitz,  Ph.  Dr.,  Lipsise,  Hahnii,  1844 
— 46.  It  contains  the  Greek  Testament,  with 
various  readings  at  the  foot  of  the  page ;  and  at 
the  end  of  each  treatise  are  some  Latin  notes. 

H.  A.  C. 

Aristotle's  Proverbs  (2"'^  S.  ii.  48.)  —  Diogenes 
Laertius,  in  his  Catalogue  of  Aristotle's  writings, 
mentions  a  Book  of  Proverbs.  Zeus. 

Benjamin  Franklin  (2"''  S.  ii.  76.)  —  For  the 
sake  of  accuracy  I  may  be  permitted  through  the 
editor's  indulgence  to  correct  an  error  into  which 
I  have  fallen  by  trusting  too  much  to  memory,  in 
stating  Franklin  to  have  been  "  the  minister  pleni- 
potentiary from  the  American  Congress  to  the 
court  of  London,"  in  1779,  instead  of  to  the 
court  of  France  ;  and  to  atone  for  this  mistake  I 
shall  give  an  amusing  extract  from  the  French 
Louse  (formerly  quoted),  depicting  the  philosopher 
at  this  important  time  of  his  political  career  : 

"In  order  better  to  observe  him  (says  the  Louse,  p.  19.) 
I  fastened  upon  a  flower  which  adorned  my  mistress's 
hair.  By  good  fortune  I  found  myself  placed  directly 
opposite  to  monsieur  ambassador,  and  here  I  must  ac- 
knowledge that  I  was  not  able  to  forbear  laughing  heartily 
when  I  contemplated  the  grotesque  figure  of  this  original, 
who  with  a  vulgar  person  and  a  mean  appearance  affected 
the  air  and  gestures  of  a  fop.  A  sun  burnt  complexion, 
a  wrinkled  forehead,  warts  in  many  places  which  might 
be  said  to  be  as  graceful  in  him  as  the  moles  that  dis- 
tinguished the  sweet  face  of  the  Countess  of  Barry.  With 
these  he  had  the  advantage  of  a  double  chin,  to  which 
was  added  a  great  bulk  of  nose,  and  teeth  which  might 
have  been  taken  for  cloves  had  they  not  been  set  fast  in  a 
thick  jaw.  This,  or  something  very  like  this,  is  the  true 
picture  of  his  excellency.  As  for  his  eyes  I  could  not 
distinguish  them  because  of  the  situation  I  was  in,  and 
besides  a  large  pair  of  spectacles  hid  two-thirds  of  his 

A  portrait  of  Franklin  (said  to  be  an  original) 
which  may  be  seen  in  the  Glasgow  Athenceum 
Reading  Room  corroborates  in  several  of  its  details 
the  above  description.  G.  N. 

Parish  Registers  (2"'^  S.  ii.  66.)  — It  will  be 
very  necessary  for  any  Member  who  brings  before 
Parliament  a  project  for  printing  parish  registers 
to  be  able  to  give  some  idea  of  the  expense.  I 
suggest,  therefore,  that  only  registers  prior  to 
1700  should  be  printed,  and  that  they  should  be 
printed  verbatim.  If  one  of  your  correspondents 
would  have  the  register  of  a  small  parish  printed, 
and  keep  an  account  of  the  expense,  it  would 
assist  the  object  very  much  ;  he  might  dispose  of 
copies  to  many  of  your  subscribers  to  reimburse 

I  possess  several  printed  pamphlets  containing 
"  extracts  "  from  registers,  but  I  believe  that  the 
only  entire  register  printed  verbatim  is  that  printed 
by  me  in  1831  (the  Livre  des  Anglois  a.  Geneve^ 

pp.  18.),  from  a  copy  examined  with  the  original 
by  the  late  Sir  Egerton  Brydges. 

The  greatest  difficulty  in  effecting  this  im- 
portant object  will  be  the  copy  for  the  printer,  as 
many  of  the  early  registers  are  only  legible  by 
those  accustomed  to  the  character  and  abbrevia- 
tions of  the  sixteenth  century.  It  was  only  last 
month  that  I  was  requested  by  a  rural  dean  to 
pay  him  a  visit  and  decipher  some  early  registers 
in  his  deanery.  As  the  parishes  must  have  a 
period  of  two  or  three  years  to  carry  out  the 
measure,  should  it  pass  into  a  law,  it  will  afford 
time  for  the  incumbents,  where  necessary,  to  pro- 
cure the  assistance  of  some  antiquarian  friend  to 
collate  the  obscure  portions  of  their  register. 

J.  S.  Burn. 

Grove  House,  Henley. 

"Pence  a  piece"  (2°'^  S.  ii.  66.)  —  I  can  in- 
form your  correspondent  W.  (1.)  that  this  form 
of  expression  is  not  confined  to  Herefordshire, 
but  is  in  constant  use  here,  as  in  other  parts  of 
Ireland,  to  the  entire  exclusion  of  the  legitimate 
"  penny  a  piece."  As  to  its  etymology  I  cannot 
give  him  any  certain  information,  but  it  seems  to 
me  probable  that  it  is  a  modification  of  two,  three, 
four,  pence,  &c.,  the  numeral  being  omitted  in  the 
case  of  a  single  penny.  H.  Draper. 


In  answer  to  the  Query  of  W.,  as  to  the  an- 
tiquity and  locality  of  this  mode  of  expression,  I 
have  to  observe  that  it  prevails  in  Staffordshire, 
where  fifty  years  ago  I  remember  a  familiar  ex- 
pression of  a  woman  who  sold  gingerbread,  fruit, 
&c.,  and  being  asked  the  price  of  some  of  her  com- 
modities, used  to  answer,  "  They  are  halfpence  a 
piece."  F.  C.  H. 

In  answer  to  the  Query  as  to  the  locality  of  the 
phrase  "Pence-a-piece,"  I  can  give  my  mite  of 
information,  that  a  similar  expression,  "  Pennies- 
a-piece,"  is  common  in  Scotland.         E.  E.  Btng. 

Plunkett's  ''Light  to  the  Blind"  (1"  S.  vi.  341.) 

This  MS.  is  in  the  possession  of  the  Earl  of 

Fingall,  and  is  the  work  of  a  zealous  Roman 
Catholic  and  a  mortal  enemy  of  England.  The 
date  on  the  title-page  is  1711.  Large  extracts 
from  it  are  among  the  Mackintosh  MSS.  ;  and 
it  is  frequently  referred  to  by  Mr.  Macaulay. 


Rubrical  Query  (P'  S.  x.  127.)  —  Looking  over 
the  past  numbers  of  "  N.  &  Q.,"  I  met  with  the 
following  Query  by  the  Rev.  Wm.  Fraser  : 

"  The  rubric  to  the  versicles  that  precede  the  three 
collects  at  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer  states,  '  Then 
the  priest  standing  up,  shall  say,'  &c.  After  this  rubric, 
on  what  authority  does  the  priest  kneel  down  again  ?  " 

This  question  is  at  once  disposed  of  by  refer- 
ence to  the  following  rubric  which  intervenes  be- 


2nd  s.  N*  32.,  Aug.  9.  '56.] 



tween  the  versicles  above-named  and  the  "  Second 
Collect,  for  Peace,"  in  the  Morning  Service  : 

«  Then  sshall  follow  three  collects ;  the  first  of  the  day, 
■which  shall  be  the  same  that  is  appointed  at  the  Com- 
munion ;  the  second  for  Peace ;  the  third  for  Grace  to 
live  well.  And  the  two  last  collects  shall  never  alter, 
but  daily  be  said  at  Morning  Prayer  throughout  all  the 
year,  as  foUoweth  ;  all  kneeling." 

The  corresponding  rubric  in  The  Order  for 
Evening  Prayer  runs  thus  : 

"Then  shall  follow' three  Collects;  the  tirst  of  the 
Dav ;  the  second  for  Peace ;  the  third  for  Aid  against  all 
Perils,  as  hereafter  followeth ;  which  two  last  collects 
shall  be  daily  said  at  Evening  Prayer  without  alteration." 

It  was  unnecessary  to  repeat  in  the  rubric  pre- 
fixed to  the  collects  in  the  Evening  Service 
what  had  been  explicitly  stated  in  the  correspond- 
ing rubric  in  the  Morning  Service,  namely,  that 
the  collects  should  be  said,  all  kneeling.        M.  A. 

Galilee  (2"^  S.  i.  131.  197.  243.)  —  In  the  In- 
dex to  the  First  Vol.  of  the  New  Series  of  "  N.  & 
Q."  the  word  "  Galilee "  is  set  down  as  being 
synonymous  with  "  porch."  According  to  Mabil- 
lon  it  is  synonymous  with  "  nave,"  as  the  following 
extract  will  testify : 

"  Idem  Willelmus  eodera  anno,  ordinationis  sua3  secundo, 
teloneum  in  fluvio  Ligeris  ad  castrum  Langey  recuperasse 
dicitur:  cujus  rei  charta  primaria  facta  est  in  Galilaa 
monasterii,  id  est  navi  Ecchsue,  et  transcripta  in  libro 
notitiarum."  —  Mabillon,  Annales  Benedictini,  a.  1105. 
§  100.  vol.  V.  p.  477.    Paris,  1713. 

W.  B.  MacCabb. 

Device  of  Crescent  and  Star  on  Ecclesiastical 
Seals  (S""*  S.  ii.  89.)  —  The  seal  of  the  Dean 
and  Chapter  of  Waterford  referred  to  by  the 
Rev.  James  Graves,  has  been  engraved  by  Mr. 
Rich.  Caulfield,  in  his  Sigillai  Ecclesia  Hibernicce 
Illustrata,  Part  ii.  pi.  3.,  and  described  at  p.  18.  In 
an  explanation  of  the  Crescent  and  Star,  he  refers 
to  p.  8.,  where  it  says  that  the  "  Star  is  the  symbol 
of  the  Epiphany,  and  that  the  Crescent  signifies 
the  increase  of  the  Gospel."  Z. 

English  Words  terminating  in  "z7"  (2"'*  S.  ii. 
47.)  —  Your  correspondent  E.  C.  H.  remarks  on 
the  small  number  of  English  words  having  the 
termination  27,  and  gives  the  five  words  yjenZ,  civil, 
council,  evil,  devil,  as  the  only  ones  occurring  to 
him  at  the  time.  He  may  wish  to  be  reminded  of 
the  fifteen  following  words  in  addition,  all  having 
the  termination  il :  codicil,  pencil,  lentil,  until, 
cavil,  stencil,  pistil,  tendril,  tumbril,  tranquil,  tonsil, 
vigil,  basil,  jonquil,  nostril.  T.  J.  E. 

Human  Leather  (2"'i  S.  ii.  68.)  — The  human 
leather  nailed  on  some  of  our  old  church-doors  is 
suid  to  have  been  originally  the  skins,  or  portions 
of  the  skins,  of  Danes.  The  old  Bohemian  leader, 
Ziska,  ordered  that  his  body  should  be  flayed 
after  his  decease,  and  the  skin  be  converted  into 

the  head  of  a  drum.  These  instances,  however, 
of  making  leather  or  parchment  of  human  skin 
are  well  known.  With  respect  to  specimens  of 
skin  in  museums,  I  know  of  only  one  example.  In 
the  museum  of  the  Philosophical  Institution  at 
Reading,  there  was,  some  years  ago,  and  perhaps 
there  still  is,  a  small  portion  of  the  skin  of  Jeremy 
Bentham.  I  remember  that  it  bore  a  close  re- 
semblance to  a  yellow  and  shrivelled  piece  of 
parchment.  J.  Doran. 

Ornamental  Hermits.  —  Some  of  your  earlier 
volumes  (P'  S.  v.  vi.)  contained  Queries  on  this 
subject.     Is  this  note  worth  adding? 

"  Archibald  Hamilton,  afterwards  Duke  of  Hamilton 
(as  his  daughter,  Lady  Dunmore,  told  me),  advertised  for 
•  a  hermit'  as  an  ornament  to  his  pleasure  grounds;  and 
it  was  stipulated  that  the  said  hermit  should  have  his 
beard  shaved  but  once  a  vear,  and  that  only  partially." — 
Rogers's  Table-Talk,  p.  77". 

A.  A.  D. 

Fairies  (2"''  S.  i.  393.)  —  It  may  interest  some 
to  know,  that  the  July  number  of  the  Spiritual 
Herald  contains  an  account  of  the  fairy-seership 
of  an  educated  lady  of  our  own  time,  not  less  re- 
markable than  that  mentioned  in  "N.  &  Q."  of 
an  untaught  Cornish  girl  of  200  years  ago.  I 
transcribe  a  few  lines  relating  the  commencement 
of  this  fairy-seership,  and  also  a  curious  mention 
of  Shakspeare : — 

"  I  used  to  spend  a  great  deal  of  my  time  alone  in  our 
garden,  and  I  think  it  must  have  been  soon  after  my 
brother's  death,  that  I  first  saw  (or  perhaps  recollect 
seeing)  fairies.  I  happened  one  day  to  break  (with  a 
little  whip  I  had)  the  tlower  of  a  buttercup ;  a  little 
while  after,  as  I  was  resting  on  the  grass,  I  heard  a  tiny, 
but  most  beautiful  voice,  saj'ing,  'Buttercup,  who  has 
broken  your  house?  '  Then  another  voice  replied,  'That 
little  girl  that  is  lying  close  by  you.'  I  listened  in  great 
wonder,  and  looked  about  me,  until  I  saw  a  daisy,  in 
which  stood  a  little  figure  not  larger,  certainly,  than  one 
of  its  petals. 

"  When  I  was  between  three  and  four  years  old,  we 
removed  to  London,  and  I  pined  sadly  for  my  country 
home  and  my  fairy  friends.  I  saw  none  of  them  for  a 
long  time ;  I  think  because  I  was  discontented ;  I  did  not 
try  to  make  myself  happy.  At  last  I  found  a  copy  of 
Shakespeare  in  mj'  father's  study,  which  delighted  me  so 
much  (though  I  don't  suppose  I  understood  much  of  it), 
that  I  soon  forgot  we  were  living  where  I  could  not  see 
a  tree  or  a  tlower.  I  used  to  take  the  book,  and  my  little 
chair,  and  sit  in  a  paved  yard  we  had  (I  could  see  the 
sky  there).  One  day,  as  I  was  reading  the  Midsummer 
Night's  Dream,  I  happened  to  look  up,  and  saw  before 
me  a  patch  of  soft,  green  grass,  with  the  fairy  ring  upon 
it;  whilst  1  was  wondering  how  it  came,  my  old  friends 
appeared,  and  acted  the  whole  play  (I  suppose  to  amuse 
me).  After  this,  they  often  came,  and  did  the  same  with 
some  of  the  other  plavs." 

A.  R. 

Council  of  Lima  (2""^  S.  i.  510.)  —  Clericxjs 
(D.)  will  find  some  account  of  the  decrees  of  the 
Council  of  Lima  in  the  Continuation  of  Fleury's 
Hist.  Eccles.,  vol.  xxiv.  1.  176.  ch.  72.         F.  C.  fl. 



[2nd  s.  No  32.,  4,BG.  9.  '58. 

Mrs.  Siddons  (2-"*  S.  ii.  89.)  —  With  regard  to 
IVfrs.  Siddons  pif^king  her  first  appearance  on  the 
stage  at  Stourbridge,  I  have  heard  from  an  pld 
relatiqn  who  knev  the  circun>stances,  that  the 
occasion  was  for  the  benefit  of  the  company,  which 
was  but  indifferent  in  their  profession,  and  very 
poor.  Some  attractions  they  doubtjess  had,  ^and 
the  officers  of  a  regiment  stationed  in  the  towi^ 
yolunteered  thpir  assistance.  Mrs.  Siddons,  then 
a  lively  girl  of  fifteen  years  of  age,  enacted  the 
heroine  of  the  piece,  and  having  to  faint  in  the 
hei'o's  arms,  she  burst  out  laughing,  and  ran  off 
the  stage  to  the  great  annoyance  of  the  officei', 
who  afterwards  declared  he  felt  "  so  provoked  that 
he  could  almost  have  stabbed  her."  I  think  the 
play  lyas  the  Grecian  f)aughter,  but  of  this  I  am 
no);  quite  sure,  as  J  do  not  Isnow  that  play. 

E.  S.  W. 


_  Wolves  (2"'^  S.  i.  96. 282.)  —  The  following  par- 
ticulars, which  form  a  note  to  Macaulay's  History 
of  England,  vol.  iii.  p.  136.,  are  interesting : 

"  In  a  very  full  account  of  the  British  isles  published  at 
Nuremberg  in  J.690,  Kerry  js  described  as  '  an  vielen 
Often  unwegsam  und  voller  Walder  und  Geburge.' 
Wolves  still  infested  Ireland.  'BLein  schadlich  Thier  ist 
da,  ausserhalb  Wolff  und  fiichse.'  So  late  as  the  year 
1710  money  was  levied  on  presentuients  of  the  Grand 
Jury  of  Kerry  [  ?]  for  the  destruction  of  wolves  in  that 
county.  See  Smith's  Ancient  and  Modern  State  of  the 
County  of  Kerry,  1756.  [p.  173.]  I  do  not  know  that  I 
have  ever  met  with  a  better  book  of  the  kind  and  of  the 
size.  In  a  poem  published  as  late  as  1719,  and  entitled 
Macdermot,  or  the  Irish  Fortune  Hunter,  in  six  cantos, 
wolf-hunting  and  wolf-spearing  are  represented  as  common 
sports  in  Munster.  In  William's  reign  Ireland  was  some- 
times called  by  the  nickname  of  Wolfland.  Thus  in  a 
poem  on  the  battle  of  La  Hogue,  called  Advice  to  a 
Painter,  the  terror  of  the  Irish  army  is  thus  described : 

'  A  chilling  damp, 
'  And  Wolfland  howl  run§  thro'  the  rising  camp.' " 


Medal  of  Charles  I.  (2°'^  S.  ii.  29.)  —  It  may 
interest  G.  H.  C.  to  know  that  I  have  a  comme- 
morative medal  of  Charles  I.  It  is  of  bronze,  two 
inches  in  diameter.  On  the  obverse  is  the  profile 
of  that  ill-fated  sovereign,  with  the  inscription, 

"  Carol,  p.  G.  M.  B.  F.  ET.  H.  BEX.  ET.  GLOK.  MEM." 

On  the  reverse  a  landscape,  a  naked  arm  issuant 
from  the  clouds,  and  extending  a  martyral  crown, 
with  the  legend,  "  virtvtem.  ex.  me.  fobtvnam. 
EX.  ALjis."  I  should  like  to  compare  "  notes  "  with 
your  trinitial  Querist  G.  H.  C.  on  our  Carolinian 
relics.  E.  L.  S. 

Deans,  Canons,  and  Prebendaries  of  Cathedrals 
(2'«>  S.  ii.  89.)  — ScRiPSiT  will  find  the  sought-for 
information  in  Report  of  the  Commissioners  ap- 
pointed by  King  William  the  Fourth  to  inquire  into 
the  Ecclesiastical  Benenues  of  England  and  Wales, 
(dated  June  J6,  1835)  ;  presented  to  both  Houses 

of  Parliament  by  Command  of  His  Majesty.  Vide 
Hansard's  sale  list  of  Parliamentary  Papers,  from 
Session  1836  to  1853,  title,  "Papers  presented  by 
Command,"  year  1836-(67).  Ecclesiastical  Re- 
venues, England  and  Wales,  Report  of  Commis- 
sioners, Us.  Henry  Edwards. 

In  Mr.  Hardy's  edition  of  Le  Neve's  Fasti,  and  in 
the  Clergy  List,  the  names  of  the  prebendal  stalls 
are  given.  In  the  Clergy  List  will  also  be  found 
the  various  parishes  forming  rural  deaneries. 

Mackenzie  Walcott,  M.A. 

*'  To  call  a  spade  a  spade"  (2""^  S.  ii.  26.)  —  In 
P'  S.  iv.  456.  a  note  of  Scaliger  is  cited,  in  which 
this  saying  is  traced  to  Aristophanes.  The  verse 
in  question  appears  from  the  quotation  of  Lucian, 
Quom.  Hist,  sit  conscrib.,  to  have  been  — 

"  Ta  <rvKa  (TVKa,  rrfv  <TKa.<^T]v  <rKaif>rjv  Kiyiav." 

See  also  Lucian,  Jov.  Trag ,  32.  Other  references 
to  this  verse,  which  is  nowhere  ascribed  by  name 
to  Aristophanes,  are  given  in  the  note  of  C.  F. 
Hermann,  in  his  edition  of  the  former  treatise, 
p.  248.  The  proverb  is  inserted  in  the  Adagia  of 
Erasmus,  under  the  head  of  "  Libertas,  Veritas." 




Strickland's  Qukens  of  England.    Vol.  I.    8vo.    Edit.  1853. 

»«»  Letters,  atating  particulars  and  lowest  price,  carriage  free,  to  be 
sent  to  Messrs.  Bell  &  Daldv,  Publishers  of  "  NO'JCES  AND 
QUERIES,"  186.  Fleet  Street. 

Particulars  of  Price,  &c.  of  the  following  Books  to  be  sent  direct  to 
the  gentlemen  by  whom  they  are  required,  and  wliose  names  and  ad- 
dresses are  given  for  that  purpose  : 

Stkvpe's  Cranmer.    Vol.  III. 

The   Prayer   Boos  accobdino  to  the   Text  of  the  Seaud  Books. 

Vol.  III. 
Field  of  the  Chdbch.    Last  Vol. 

AH  published  by  the  Ecclesiastical  History  Society. 
Wanted  by  Rev.  J.  Bleasdell,  Macclesfield,  Cheshire. 

fiaiitti  ta  (Hatvti^axiHtwii. 

We  are  compelled  to  postpone  until  next  weeh  many  interesting  papers 
and  our  iisual  Notes  on  Books. 

T.  O.  F.  The  Biographical  Memoirs  of  Extraordinary  Painters  was 
one  of  the  very  original  works  produced  by  Becliford,  the  author  of 

The  Trusty  Servant  at  Winchester.  A  Wyccammite  will  find 
this  curious  Middle-Age  Memorial  fuUy  illustrated  in  our  "  N.  &  Q.," 
V.  417.  i  vi.  12. 417.495. 

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2°'»S.  No33.,Aua.l6. '56.] 





In  the  church  at  this  place  thei'e  is  a  massive 
oak  chest,  apparently  at  least  three  hundred  years 
old,  Avhich  contains  various  books  relative  to  pa- 
rochial affairs,  in  pretty  good  preservation,  and 
from  which  the  following  particulars  have  been 
selected : 

"  Anno  Dn'  1579  et  in  Anno  Regnl  Dne  y^°  xxi  Elisa- 
betheo  Dei  Gracia  Anglie  Francie  et  Hibernie  regine, 

"  A  Boke  intituled  the  boke  of  accounte  for  the  store 
liousse  ffor  the  provissione  for  the  pore,  withe  the  entries 
of  rccorde  of  tlie  givers  of  all  suclie  somes  of  monye  as  to 
the  same  to  belonge,  and  the  order  appoynted  for  the 
same,  with  a  remembrance  of  the  Charters  and  Libertie  of 
this  towne  of  East  Bergholt,  and  the  coppies  of  the  store 
housse  and  other  housses  belonging  to  the  pore,  wh"  are 
kept  in  a  cheste  in  the  belfrye,  under  the  locke,  whereof 
the  one  kye  remayneth  withe  the  churchwardens,  one 
other  withe  the  minister,  and  the  other  with  the  provider 
ffor  the  pore  ffor  the  tjmie  beinge,  and  wretten  the  sea- 
venthe  daie  of  November  and  in  the  year  above  said. 

"Iilemorand.  whereas  these  giftes  hereafter  recyted, 
and  all  such  as  hereafter  shall  be  geven  and  Avreten  in 
this  boke  which  somes  and  evry  p.cell  thereof  ys  geven 
to  the  iiitente  and  purpose  that  the  same  shoulde  be 
yerely  and  every  yere  imployed  and  bestowed  uppon 
corne,  chese,  butter,  and  other  necessarie  vittales  to  be 
boughte  ffor  ready  monye,  or  the  same  monye  or  such  p'« 
thereof  to  be  laide  oute  aforhande  by  the  disscresious  of 
the  p.vider  for  the  tyme  beinge.  To  the  intente  to  buye 
the  same  corne  and  other  vittales  at  the  reasonablest 
pryce  that  the  same  maie  be  hadd,  and  the  same  to  be 
soullde  agayne  by  the  saide  p.vider  for  the  tyme  beinge 
to  such  -pore  ffoike  as  shall  be  yerely  named  by  the 
p.viders  disscression  that  shall  take  the  same  ffor  the 
yere  then  to  come,  and  the  p.vider  whiche  shall  geve 
upp  his  accounte  for  the  yere  past,  withe  the  consent  of 
two,  three,  or  ffower  of  the  chefest  of  the  p.rish,  that  ys 
or  tiien  shall  be  at  suche  reasonable  prj^ses  as  the  same 
maye  convenientlye  be  afforded  at  the  disscression  of  the 
saide  p.vider  for  the  tyme  beinge.  So  as  the  saides  whole 
stocke  may  be  reserved  and  kept  whole  with  some  in- 
crease of  the  saide  stocke,  yf  the  same  maj'e  conveniently 
be  taken  ffor  the  better  performance  of  and  gocinge  for- 
Avard  in  this  good  intente  and  purpose,  yt  is  agreed  by 
consent  of  the  moste  of  the  chefest  of  the  inhabitants  of 
this  towne  of  East  Bergholt  whose  names  are  here  under 
Avreten,  that  there  shall  be  chosen  and  named  yerely  and 
everj'-  j-ere,  on  Easter  mundaj-e  or  tuesdaye,  by  the  con- 
sent of  the  churchwardens  for  the  tyme  beinge,  and  ten, 
aight,  six,  or  ffour,  or  three  at  the  leaste  of  the  chefest  of 
the  towne,  one  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  saide  towne  to  be 
named  the  p.vider  for  the  pore  for  the  yere  then  next  to 
come,  and  to  begynne  his  yere  at  the  ffeaste  of  Pentecost, 
which  saide  p.vider  withe  the  churchwardens  then  beinge 
and  the  other  townsmen,  aight,  six,  four  or  three,  the 
saide  p.vider  for  the  yere  then  ended  shall  geve  upp  his 
account,  and  deliver  such  monj'e  as  he  shall  have  re- 
cevyed  of  the  same  stocke,  with  the  corne  and  vittales 
whiche  shall  then  remayne,  yf  any  be,  beinge  good, 
sweete,  and  murchanta^le,  such. as  shall  be  accepted  by 

the  newe  p.vider.  The  churchwardens,  and  ten,  ai^ht, 
sixe,  ffouer  or  three  other  at  the  leaste  shall  like  of  to  be 
worthe  the  same  pryce  as  he  shall  rate  the  same  at,  or 
ells  to  make  whole  the  saide  stocke  which  he  shall  have 
recyved,  and  the  same  p.sentlye  to  delyver  to  the  p.vider 
then  newlye  chosen. 

"  Item,  yt  is  agreed  by  cure  consente  whose  names  are 
hereunder  wreten,  that  the  p.vider  ffor  the  tyme  and  yere 
to  come  iihall  enter  bonde  to  the  churchwardens  then 
beinge,  in  tenn  pounde  of  good  and  lawful  monye,  more 
than  the  some  which  he  shall  recyve,  to  make  a  trewe 
account  of  the  saide  stocke,  or  to  paye  the  saide  stocke  to 
the  saide  newe  p.vider,  churchwardens,  and  other  of  the 
townsmen,  and  the  same  bonde  to  be  made,  sealled,  and 
delivered  accoi'dinge  to  such  effecte  as  new  p.vider  bathe 
alredye  begonne.  The  whole  Bonde  shall  be  and  re- 
mayne in  the  sayed  cheste  provided  for  these  causes. 
AUso  yt  is  agreed  by  the  saide  p.ties  whose  names  are 
hereunder  wreten,  that  yf  it  happen  anyc  of  the  saide 
p.ties  who  maye  be  chosen  and  named  to  be  p.vider  for 
anye  yere  to  come  shall  refuse  to-  doo  the  same,  and  to 
accomplishe  this  good  order  in  every  poynte  accordinge 
to  the  good  intente  begonne,  then  the  said  p.tie  so  rcfus- 
inge  shall  loose  and  paye  twenty  shillings  of  lawful 
monye  for  his  discharge  of  that  j-ere  onlye,  to  be  and  re- 
mayne to  the  increase  of  this  stocke.  And  there  shall  be 
chosen  one  other  bj"  the  like  consente  as  for  the  same 
cause  ys  p.vided  and  appoynted.  Itm.,  yf  it  shall  happen 
that  this  good  order  and  purpose  be  not  observed  and 
kept,  but  that  the  same  stocke  lye  deade  by  the  space  of 
one  whole  yere  and  be  not  imploj'ed,  bestowed,  and  or- 
dered according  to  the  trewe  meanyinges  of  the  sayd 
givers  of  the  same,  as  in  the  saide  severall  giftes  are  re- 
hersed,  that  then  the  same  stocke  shall  be  and  remayne 
unto  the  same  persons  againe  their  executors  or  assigns, 
or  the  executors  of  suche  as  by  Will  have  geven  the 
same  or  suche  p.tye  as  ys  by  them  geven,  to  be  and  re- 
maj'nc  as  in  their  ftormer  estate  at  the  tyme  of  the  deli- 
verye  of  the  same  p'^  of  the  sayed  stocke." 
[Here  follow  the  signatures.] 

"  Here  folio  weth  a  trewe  rehersall  or  declaration  of  all 
such  several  somes  of  monye  as  hathe  been  geven  by 
certen  of  the  inhabitants  of  this  towne  by  tlieire  owne 
hands,  or  willed  by  there  last  wills,  to  be  geven  for  the 
increasinge  of  a  stocke  of  monye  to  be  used  and  imployed 
to  the  buyenge  of  corne  and  other  victualls  for  the  benefite 
of  the  pore,  with  the  names  of  all  suche  as  hath  geven  or 
willed  the  saide,severall  somes  of  money  to  be  geven. 

"1608.  An  extreme  sharpe  frost,  wh°  so  moch  foulk 
and  fvsh  dyed  by  the  frost. 

"1637.  Collected  the  6*  of  June  of  the  inhabitants  of 
East  Bergholt  for  and  towards  a  vollentary  gift  for  the 
releife  of  the  poore  of  Hadlygh,  which  was  vissited  with 
the  plague,  and  was  payed  to  Mr.  T.  Bretton  of  Hitcham. 
The  some  of  monye  so  collected  was  twentie  pounds, 
eygtheen  shillings  and  twopence. 

"  The  sixteenth  day  of  September,  1650,  att  the  house 
of  Abraham  Newton  then  niett,  itt  was  agreed  as  follows. 
That  Captaine  Goff  doe  speake  unto  the  Churchwardens 
to  repaire  the  church  speedily,  and  that  Goodman  James 
Haj'ward  speeke  unto  Goodman  Turner  to  riugo  the  ser- 
mon bell  a  longer  distance  of  time  than  usually  he  hath 
done  before  the  little  bell,  and  a  longer  season  to  ringe  it 
out,  that  the  inhabitants  afarr  off  may  well  heare  it.  The 
19th  of  May,  1651.  Imprimis,  it  is  agreed  that  there  shall 
be  but  foure  houses  licensed  for  drawinge  of  beere,  two 
in  the  Streete,  one  at  Gaston's  End,  and  the  other  at 
Baker's  End.  Anthony  Bunn  to  sell  beere  Avithout  doores 
at  Baker's  End.  Also  it  is  ordered  that  Goodman  Pira- 
merton  be  asked  to  go  to  a  Justice  and  renew  a  warrant 



[2nd  s.  isfo  33„  Aug.  16.  '56. 

for  preventing  a  shoemaker  from  making  a  settlement  in 
our  towne. 

"April  4*h,  1659,  being  Easter  Monday.  It  is  agreed  y' 
the  neighbours  of  the  towne  set  about  looking  what  mis- 
orders  be  in  the  said  towne,  and  take  care  for  the  pre- 
venting and  punishing  them,  as  of  Inmates,  Unlicensed 
Ale  houses,  strangers  roming  into  the  towne,  and  all  other 
misdemeanours.  11th  November,  1660.  Imprimis,  agreed 
y'  not  any  of  the  poore  but  such  as  take  Collection,  and 
are  verj'  poore  besides,  shall  have  any  coals  measured 
and  attnine  pence  a  bushel  to  be  sold.  The  2n<i  day  of 
September,  1661.*  Ordered  as  followeth  :  Imprimis,  y*  the 
officers  and  some  other  of  the  townsmen  do  goe  and  take 
notice  of  what  disorders  are  in  the  Alehouses,  and  of  what 
inmates  and  strangers  are  in  the  towne,  as  alsoe  to  exe- 
cute the  warrants  against  offenders  that  are  already 
taken  out.  Memorand.  July  3'"<',  1670.  Collected  by  the 
Churchwardens  of  East  Bergholt,  by  vertue  of  his  Ma- 
jesty's letters  patent  for  the  redemption  of  several  ma- 
riners out  of  slavery  in  the  galleys,  the  juste  sum  of  three 
shillings  and  eight  pence.  1671.  The  monye  that  hath 
been  gathered  for  y^  slavery  in  Turkey  is  £6.  12.  2^. 
1681.  Feby  27.  Imp».  It  is  ordered  that  all  inmates  shall 
have  kindly  notis  by  the  churchwardens  and  overseers  to 
clean  their  houses  before  our  Lady  day  next  insuing,  or 
els  they  will  be  prosecuted  and  proceeded  against  accord- 
ing to  law.  March  y"  2°'',  1684.  It  is  ordered  and  agreed 
y'  all  y"  weights,  scales,  and  measures  belonging  to  y" 
alefounders,  alias  ale-tasters,  be  sufficiently  repaired  and 
amended  fitting  for  their  use,  and  the  charges  thereof  to 
be  disbursed  by  y'' present  treasurer  for  y"  town  lands  and 
stock,  and  if  y"  said  alefounders  at  present  or  y"  succeed- 
ing ones  shall  neglect  to  execute  their  office  according  to 
their  oaths,  that  then  y"  said  treasurer  M""  W™  Ellis  pre- 
sent or  indite  them  at  y^  next  assizes  w"^*^  seem  most 
convenient  to  him.  April  20">,  1G85.  It  is  ordered  and 
agreed  that  if  any  person  lets  a  house  to  a  foreigner,  y" 
tenant  of  which  proves  a  charge  to  y"  town,  that  then  y*' 
landlord  shall  be  double  rated.  Item,  it  ordered  that  M'' 
Kich"!  Michell  and  M"^  Edward  Clark  fetch  a  warrant  for 
any  person  or  persons  that  shall  set  up  any  stall  or  booth 
for  the  pretended  fiiir  this  present  year.  May  3''<i,  1686. 
Collected  by  the  Minister  and  Churchwardens  by  vertue 
of  his  Majestv's  letters  pattent  for  the  releif  of  the  French 
Protestants,  £08.  17.  6.  May  24'^,  1686.  Imprimis.  That 
■whereas  M''  Raj',  Chirurgeon,  did  cure  y"  hand  of  Henry 
Newman,  it  is  left  to  the  discretion  of  y'=  present  overseers 
to  pay  v'=  same.  1690.  Collected  for  the  Irish  Protest- 
ants, £05.  03.  07.  1692,  June  26«\  Collected  towards 
the  redemption  of  500  Christians  in  Turkish  slavery, 
£04  12.  02.  1693.  Grace  Granger,  a  vagabond  sent  to 
Maidstone  in  Kent,  5"^  April,  hath  a  child  w"*  her,  al- 
lowed 40  dales  to  pass.  Dec  13'\  P^  for  2  bottles  of 
sack  to  heel  the  women,  14'  00^.  1694.  Whereas  com- 
plaint was  made,  July  14,  against  the  Churchwardens 
and  overseers  of  the  Parish  of  East  Bergholt  in  Suffolk, 
before  the  Eight  WorshipfuU  Edmund  Bohun,  Esq.,  Jus- 
tice of  the  Peace  for  the  s'^  County,  by  John  Clarke,  La- 
bourer, that  bee  the  s<i  John  was  lame  and  aged,  and  stood 
in  need  of  greater  maintenance  than  was  allowed  him  by 
the  s*  Officers,  and  before  the  s*  Justice  Bohun  did  averr 
that  himselfe,  the  s<i  John  Clarke,  was  sixtj'  six  years  of 
age  and  unable  to  earn  his  living,  and  that  hee  had  like- 
wise two  children  unable  to  earn  their  liveing,  and  that 
the  s"!  officers  have  allowed  him  the  s<i  John  only  seven 
shillings  in  ten  weeks  past  for  and  towards  maintenance 

*  After  this  date  is  the  following :  "  1663,  It  is  agreed 
that  y"  next  towne  meetinge  be  at  Mr.  John  Clarke's,  on 
Whitsixn  munday  next,  and  that  every  man  bring  his 
wife  along  with  him." 

for  himself  and  family:  Wee  the  inhabitants  of  the  s"* 
Parish  have  met  together  and  made  diligent  search  into 
the  truth  of  this  complaint,  and  find  by  the  register  the 
s**  John  Clarke  is  about  58  years  of  age ;  that  he  have 
two  children  is  acknowledged,  both  of  them  daughters, 
but  the  eldest  is  soe  old  that  she  is  adjudged  marriage- 
able, the  youngest  daily  work  and  earn  more,  as  we  verily 
beleive,  than  will  and  doe  maintaine  a  poor  child  of  like 
age  in  another  family.  As  to  that  part  of  the  complaint 
stating  that  he  have  been  allowed  but  seven  shillings  for 
ten  weeks  past :  Wee  the  s*  officers  have  given  the  s* 
John  twelve  shillings  in  nine  weeks  past.  The  s^  John 
now  lives  in  a  town  house  and  pay  no  rent ;  and  that  the 
s<'  John  and  his  family  eat  and  drinke  as  well  and  wear 
as  good  habit  as  many  of  the  eminent  inhabitants  that 
pay  very  considerably  to  the  poor  of  our  s"^  parish.  And 
the  s*  John  Clarke  by  himselfe  or  his  wife  doe  boastingly 
affirm  that  hee  or  shee  have  lent  to  a  certain  clothier, 
who  at  their  house  put  out  spinning  worke,  and  doe  com- 
monly soe  doe  (if  need  require)  lend  him  the  s^  clothier 
three  pounds,  sometimes  Jess,  to  pay  the  spinners.  And 
wee  have  testimony  ready  to  be  made  that  the  wife  of 
the  s'J  John  did  vauntingly  speak  amongst  some  of  her 
poor  neighbours  in  his  hearing,  that  she  would  in  a  quar- 
ter of  an  hour  produce  thirty  pounds;  and  in  the  begin- 
ning of  March  last  past  the  s*  John  Clarke  and  his  wife 
made  complaint  before  the  Right  Worshipful  Sir  Adam 
Holton,  by  whom  they  were  not  credited.  The  present 
officer  sent  Clarke's  wife  eighteen  pence  to  buy  salve  to 
cure  his  legg,  of  which  legg  hee  complain  hee  is  so  lame. 
But  his  s^  wife  have  often  declared  that  for  six  pence  she 
can  cure  the  legg,  and  if  she  please  make  the]  same  leg 
very  sore  and  frightful,  to  move  the  Justice  to  whom  she 
complains  on  behalf  of  her  husband,  and  so  move  him  to 
pity  and  procure  an  order  for  larger  maintenance  than 
they  doe  stand  in  need  of.  Pursuant  to  the  advice  of 
the  s*  Justice  Bohun  we  have  caused  this  defence  to  be 
written  in  the  toun  book,  and  the  names  of  the  chief  in- 
habitants to  be  subscribed,  and  humbly  pray  that  the  s* 
John  Clarke  maj'  not  be  credited  against  us  in  such  fal- 
lacys,  wee  being  willing  to  allow  him  and  them  what 
maintenance  wee  judge  needful,  upon  just  application 
being  made.  July  18'h,  1694.  I  am  fully  satisfied  with 
this  certificate,  and  discharge  the  complaint  as  causeless. 

Edmund  Bohun. 

"  1709.  Mem*.  Mr.  Thomas  Cleer  was  nominated  to 
be  overseer,  he  proferring  to  be  excused  on  account  of  his 
infirmities,  and  agreeing  to  give  five  pounds  to  find  cloth- 
ing for  the  poor,  he  is  unanimously  excused  from  being 
overseer  for  the  present  year.  1711,  Dec^  Paid  for  3 
horses  journeys  to  Justice  Thurston's  for  a  warrant  for  y« 
2  tailors  and  2  shoemakers,  and  journey  to  Stoke,  3'  0''. 
1714,  July  18th.  For  beer  and  wine,  and  for  a  dinner  att 
y  cutting  out  of  ye  cloth  for  ye  poor,  Ol^  12'  00<i.  But  I 
only  charge  15»  for  beer,  wine,  and  y*  dinner.  1719, 
Jan.  27.  Imprimis.  Whenever  any  person  belonging  to 
the  parish  shall  come  to  ask  relief,  before  any  is  given 
the  officer  to  go  and  inventory  the  s*!  persons  goods. 
1720,  Nov""  30"\  Ordered  that  the  churchwardens  or 
overseers  do  directly  get  a  warrant  to  take  up  several 
straggling  wenches,  &c.  that  keep  about  our  town.  1721, 
Dec  27.  Ordered  that  the  Churchwardens  and  Overseers 
do  take  up  all  the  young  fellows  and  wenches  that  are  at 
their  own  hand,  and  make  them  shew  cause  before  a  Jus- 
tice why  they  dont  go  to  service.  1724.  Ordered  that  y" 
overseers  get  a  warrant  for  those  young  women  that  wont 
go  to  service.  1730,  April  15.  Ordered  that  the  Church- 
wardens for  the  time  being  do  pay  for  every  old  fox  or 
badger,  five  shillings,  and  for  every  young  one  that  is  a 
runner  half  a  crown,  excepting  for  a  litter,  and  for  them 
twelve  pence  a  piece.    Ordered,  May  28"^,  that  Mr.  Gul- 

2n'is.  N»33.,  Aug.  16. '56.1 



lifer  the  present  churchwarden  pay  John  Howgego  2'  6"* 
each  for  2  foxes  killed  by  him  since  our  order  dated 
April  15"»  last,  for  which  Sam.  Cooper  y"  late  church- 
warden paid  him  but  2'  G^  a  piece.  Whereas  it  hath  been 
an  antient  custom  in  the  parish  of  East  Bergholt,  in  the 
County  of  Suffolk,  for  the  Chief  Inhabitants  to  meet  once 
a  month  or  thereabouts  at  each  others  houses,  there  in  a 
friendly  manner  to  consult  and  advise  and  order  about 
the  poor,  and  the  school,  and  other  affairs  of  the  s^  parish, 
which  custom  has  of  late  been  laid  aside,  to  the  detriment 
of  the  poor  and  hindrance  of  parish  business,  and  lessen- 
ing that  love  and  unity  which  should  be  among  pa- 
rishioners and  neighbours :  In  order,  therefore,  to  revive 
the  s'l  laudable  custom,  for  the  good  ends  intended  by  it. 
The  chief  inhabitants  of  the  s<i  parish  have  agreed  to 
revive  these  neighbourly  meetings  at  each  others  houses  , 
as  heretofore,  upon  due  notice  given  in  the  church  on  the 
Sunday  before  the  s"!  meeting,  and  so  to  continue  succes- 
sively each  one  in  his  turn.  1722,  Sept^  19">.  Ordered 
that  an  enquiry  be  made  into  y«  cause  of  Abraham  Rey- 
nold's sory  death,  and  to  know  y<=  reason  why  the  Coroner 
exacted  so  much  money.  Sept^  24'^.  Ordered  that  the 
Coroner  be  prosecuted  according  to  law  at  the  next 

It  appears  from  the  above  that  this  coroner 
carried  out  "  Crowner's  quest  law "  in  a  manner 
that  was  disapproved  of  by  the  parishioners. 
How  he  passed  through  his  ordeal  at  the  assizes 
is  not  stated. 

♦'  1738,  Oct'  28.  Agreed  at  a  vestry  that  John  Perri- 
man  shall  be  allowed  2'  12'  to  keep  the  boy  Murgen  a 
j'ear  from  the  date  hereof,  he  to  provide  wearing  apparel 
for  the  s^'  boj-,  and  leave  him  in  good  repair  at  the  end  of 
the  year.  1740,  Jany  7*.  Agreed  at  a  vestry  that  Mr. 
J""  Cook  have  the  boy  J""  Cook  from  this  date  to  Mich' 
1742,  he  to  find  the  said  boy  with  meat,  drink,  washing, 
and  lodging,  with  apparele,  and  at  the  expiration  of  y« 
said  terme  to  leave  him  in  as  good  repair  as  he  found  him, 
which  is  veiy  good.  1748,  June  1".  Ordered  that  no 
parish  ofhcer  shall  be  allowed  to  pay  any  carpenter, 
Mason,  Plumber,  and  Glazier  more  than  two  pence  a  day 
for  lowance  for  a  man,  half  an  hour  allowed  at  breakfast 
and  one  hour  at  dinner. 

"  1748,  Oct"^  6">.  Samuel  Folkerd  hath  agreed  to  take 
the  girl  Kose  Cook  and  maintain  her  with  meat,  drink, 
washing,  and  lodging,  in  sickness  and  in  health,  till 
Mich'  next,  the  parishions  agreeing  to  put  her  in  neces- 
sary  repair  fit  to  go  into  his  house,  and  the  said  Samuel 
Folkerd  has  promised  to  leave  her  in  as  good  repair  as  he 
took  her.  1749,  May  S'*.  Agreed  that  Tho'  Hills's  boy 
shall  go  to  Df  Tanner's  to  have  his  head  looked  after. 
1752,  March  30"».  It  is  agreed  with  James  Vincent  that 
if  he  get  the  boy  Hill's  head  cured  by  next  Easter,  we 
will  pay  him  for  that  cure  fifteen  shillings,  besides  what 
we  pay  liim  for  his  board.  1753.  M'  John  Lewis  to  take 
Jos''  Kose  for  a  year,  M""  Rashbrooke  the  boy  Sam.  Wool- 
lard  for  ye  year.'  The  parish  to  find  both  those  boys  with 
ware  and  tare,  and  if  any  broken  limbs,  then  the  parish 
to  pay  all  expenses." 

These  extracts  were  made  by  Mr.  James  Tay- 
ler,  the  present  respected  churchwarden  of  the 
above  parish.  At  my  request  he  kindly  allowed 
me  to  transcribe  them  from  his  note- book,  and 
oiFer  them  for  insertion  in  "  N.  &  Q."  Here  it 
may  be  observed  that  there  are  many  items  of 
interest  to  antiquaries  and  others  to  be  found  in 
old  parish  books,  if  those  who  have  access  to  them 

-would  in   a  leisure  hour   look  them   over   and 
make  extracts  therefrom.  G.  Blbncowe, 



In  the  conversation  reported  by  Eckermann 
(March  28,  1827)  on  this  subject,  Goethe  objects 
to  the  expressions  of  Antigone  (v.  911.),  where 
the  Greek  is  thus  represented :  "  I  cannot  have 
another  brother ;  for  since  my  mother  and  father 
are  dead,  there  is  no  one  to  beget  one."  (Oxen- 
ford's  Trans.,  i.  372.)  This  is  certainly  putting 
the  case  strongly  against  a  tragedy  of  Sophocles. 
But  Goethe  was  either  ignorant  or  unmindful  of 
the  history  and  the  moral  principle  (jivos  vofj-ov) 
expressly  referred  to  by  Antigone.  This  is  found 
in  Herodotus  (iii.  c.  119.),  where  Darius  granting 
the  life  of  one  prisoner  to  the  wife  of  Intaphernes, 
she  selects,  not  her  husband  ov  children  —  much  to 
the  surprise  of  Darius  —  but  says,  after  some  de- 
liberation (jSouAeuo-a/tteVT?),  "  If  indeed  the  king  will 
grant  me  only  one  life,  I  select  my  brother  before 
all."  Darius  inquires  her  reason  for  preferring 
her  brother  to  her  husband  and  children.  She 
replies,  "  If  fortune  (Saifxtov)  permit,  I  may  have 
another  husband  and  other  children ;  but  as  my 
father  and  mother  are  no  longer  living,  I  can 
never  have  another  brother;  therefore  I  neces- 
sarily select  him."  (ravrri  rfi  yvti/xri  xpe^M^'''??  «Ae|a 
Tavra.)  Darius  was  so  pleased  with  this  answer, 
that  he  spared  the  life  of  her  eldest  son  as  well  as 
her  brother. 

If  we  object  with  Goethe  to  the  Greek  stand- 
point as  respects  this  yvci/xn,  we  must  also  reject 
the  motive  of  the  whole  tragedy,  which  involves 
the  necessity  of  covering  the  dead  corpse  with 
three  handfuls  of  earth  to  ensure  the  entrance  of 
its  spirit  into  Hades.  But  as  Goethe  did  not  ob- 
ject to  this,  the  greater  absurdity  to  the  moderns, 
neither  ought  he  to  object  to  the  minor  absurdity, 
both  being  equally  true  in  Greek  tragic  art.  So- 
phocles wrote  for  the  Athenian  stage:  had  he 
written  for  Weimar,  Paris,  or  London,  he  would 
not  have  been  guilty  of  either  of  these  absurdities. 
Therefore,  Goethe's  wish  that  some  apt  philologist 
might  prove  this  verse  to  be  interpolated  or 
spurious  is  nugatory. 

To  counteract  the  low  prose  of  Eckermann,  I 
add  Dr.  Thos.  Francklin's  translation  of  the  pas- 
sage referred  to  by  Goethe  : 

"  Another  husband  and  another  child 
Might  sooth  affliction  ;  but,  mi/  parents  dead, 
A  brother's  loss  could  never  be  repaired. 
And  therefore  did  I  dare  the  venturous  deed, 
And  therefore  die  by  Creon's  dread  command." 

But  as  Goethe,  who  had  read  largely  in  Greek, 
appears  surprised  at  this  passage  in  the  Antigone, 
others  may  entertain  the  like  opinion,  and  partly 



[2°*  S.  No  83.,  Aug.  16.  '56. 

from  deference  to  his  judgment.  It  is  therefore 
necessary  to  bear  in  mind  that,  whilst  in  modern 
Europe  the  marriage  tie  is  generally  held  to  be  of 
a  religious  character,  it  was  deemed  in  ancient 
Greece  little  more  than  a  mercantile  bargain ;  for 
there  the  married  women  were  not  so  much  the 
companions  of  their  husbands,  as  slaves  in  a  su- 
perior grade.  The  heteerce  were  almost  the  only 
accomplished  women  of  the  time,  and  they  were 
immoral ;  nevertheless,  Greeks  of  distinction,  and 
even  men  proud  of  their  ethics,  visited  these 
women.  (Xenoph.  Memor.,  iii.  11.)  With  respect 
to  affection  for  their  offspring,  the  Scriptores 
erotici  Grceci  make  the  exposure  of  infants,  from 
comparatively  slight  causes,  a  turning  incident  in 
their  novels.  A  view  of  the  ancient  Greek,  in  his 
domestic  aspect,  will  explain  very  clearly  the  com- 
paratively loose  hold  which  the  husband  and 
child  had,  in  fact,  on  the  aflfection  of  wife  and 
mother.  The  cause  of  the  strong  afi'ection  sub- 
sisting between  brothers  and  sisters  is  explained 
by  Aristotle.  (De  Moribus,  viii.  12.  14.;  Polit., 
vii.  7.)  T.  J.  BucKTON. 


KEV.   MR.   THOMAS   CRANE,   M.A. 

The  Puritans  of  England  holding  a  distinguished 
place  in  the  annals  of  her  liberties,  their  writings 
and  memories  ought  to  be  specially  cherished.  In 
their  works  will  often  be  found  an  account  of  those 
feelings  and  incidents  that  animated  them,  which 
convey  to  the  mind  a  much  more  striking  portrait 
of  their  characters  than  what  may  be  gathered 
from  the  illustrations  of  modern  commentators. 
I  dare  say  some  of  the  thick  massive  venerable 
tomes,  with  their  strong  rude  strapped  bindings, 
which  were  in  those  days  issued  from  the  press, 
and  greedily  bought  up  for  spiritual  consolation 
and  remembrance  of  the  dearly  beloved  pastor, 
may  now  be  considered  by  not  a  few  persons  as 
repulsive,  and  the  subjects  as  heavy,  elaborately 
treated,  and  quaint  in  style,  and  which,  when  com- 
pared with  the  present  flimsy  religious  literature, 
must  be  admitted  as  true;  yet  I  cannot  help 
thinking  that  in  general  a  patient  reading  of  those 
old-fashioned  records  will  be  adequately  recom- 
pensed by  a  valuable  addition  to  our  knowledge. 
1  might  adduce  many  examples  of  such,  were  it 
necessary;  in  the  meantime  I  may  mention  one 
book,  the  perusal  of  which  has  lately  given  me 
both  pleasure  and  instruction ;  in  size  it  is  but  a 
child  (8vo.  pp.  544.)  to  some  of  the  giants  belong- 
ing to  the  same  school  of  divinity,  and  I  suppose 
has  now  become  rather  a  rarity  : 

"  Isagoge  ad  Dei  Providentiam ;  or,  a  Prospect  of  Di- 
vine Providence.  By  T.  C,  M.A.  London :  printed  by 
A.  Maxwell  for  Edward  Brewster,  at  the  Sign  of  the 
Crane  in  St.  Paul's  Churchyard,  1G72." 

Having  been  pleased  with  an  author,  we  are 

naturally  inclined  to  know  as  much  of  his  history 
as  we  can  obtain,  and  disappointed  at  any  obstacle 
in  exploring  it.  It  may  be  remarked  as  not  a 
little  curious  the  practice  that  then  prevailed  of  so 
many  of  the  Puritan  divines  burying  their  names 
in  their  publications  under  initials,  while  their 
printers  and  booksellers  displayed  themselves  and 
their  addresses  on  the  title-pages  at  full  length. 
From  "  T.  C."  we  might  have  conjectured  long 
enough  to  whom  we  were  indebted  for  this  mas- 
terly exposition  of  Ood's  Providence.  The  benefit 
of  Captain  Cuttle's  advice  in  "  making  a  Note," 
may  here  be  Instanced.  A  contemporary  of 
Crane's,  and  who  had  likely  been  himself  one  of 
the  persecuted  brethren,  takes  up  the  volume  be- 
fore me,  and  probably, as  a  memorial  of  friendship 
inscribes  on  it  the  following,  which  at  once  eluci- 
dates the  point : 

"  The  Rev.  Mr.  Thomas  Crane,  M.A.  (the  Author  of 
this  Book)  was  Ejected  from  Rampisham  in  Dorsetshire. 
He  had  his  Education  in  y"  University  of  Oxford,  had 
been  assistant  to  the  Rev.  Mr.  Richard  Allein.  He  was  a 
learned  good  man,  and  a  great  observer  of  the  steps  of 
Divine  Providence  towards  himself  and  others.  He  was 
a  hard  Student,  and  had  a  penetrating  Genius,  and  his 
Composures  were  remarkably  Judicious.  He  was  a  good 
Textuary  and  an  excellent  Casuist.  After  his  Eject- 
ment he  settled  at  Bedminster,  where  he  was  a  constant 
Preacher,  at  which  place  he  Died  in  the  year  1714,  aged 
84  years." 

Feeling  anxious  to  be  acquainted  with  a  few 
more  particulars  respecting  this  divine,  I  have 
consulted  Neal  and  other  sources,  but  can  find  no 
traces  of  him,  and  I  am  disposed  to  think  he  has 
been  omitted  among  the  Puritan  worthies.  The 
editor's  kind  insertion  of  this  may  elicit  further 
notices  from  correspondents,  and  if  not,  he  will  at 
least  be  better  preserved  in  the  pages  of  "  N.  & 
Q."  than  by  a  fragile  piece  of  manuscript  in  a 
worm-eaten  volume,  till  some  future  historian 
enrol  him  in  his  lists-  G.  N. 

According  to  the  Chronicle  of  the  Quiche 
tribes  of  Guatemala,  when  Jepeu,  the  Creator,  be- 
gan the  creation  of  living  animals,  after  an  un- 
successful attempt  to  make  the  animals  bow  to 
the  deities,  tliey  were  destroyed;  wooden  men 
were  tried,  with  no  better  success,  and  also  de- 
stroyed. Various  other  attempts  at  creation  were 
made,  but  always  unsuccessfully. 

"  The  destruction  of  several  '  Criadores,'  arrogantly 
mutinj'ing  against  the  sun  and  moon,  though,  properly 
speaking,  neither  of  the  two  were  in  existence,  is  nar- 
rated at  some  length.  The  destruction  planned  for  these 
demi-gods  is  of  various  kinds.  Two  of  them  are  enticed 
into  the  infernal  regions,  where  they  are  treated  with  cigars 
by  the  Princes  of  Hell  (seiiores  del  inflerno).  At  all 
events,  the  smoking  of  tobacco  must  be  a  very  old  inven- 
tion, if  the  Central  Americans  considered  it  to  have  been 
indulged  in  at  the  time  of  the  creation  of  man." 

2"«  S.  No  33„  Aug.  16.  '56.] 



This  note  is  extracted  from  a  letter  by  Nicolaus 
Triibner  on  Central  American  archaeology,  in  The 
Athenmum  of  Saturday,  May  31,  1856  (p.  684,). 
The  Quiche  migrated  to  Guatemala,  and  founded 
their  state  about  the  twelfth  century ;  if  they 
came  from  Mexico,  it  is  likely  this  legend  came 
thence.  The  holy  city  of  Tula,  in  Mexico,  was 
founded  558  a.  d.  If  this  is  the  farthest  back 
point  ascertainable,  then  we  may  suppose  that  at 
the  beginning  of  the  Christian  era  the  custom  of 
smoking  tobacco,  and  using  it  in  the  shape  of  the 
cigar,  was  common  ;  and  had  been  perhaps  known 
and  used  time  immemorial.  If  this  be  too  great 
an  assumption,  at  the  building  of  Mexico  in  1141 
A.D.  this  was  true ;  and  it  certainly  was  so  in  1200 
A.D.,  when  the  Quiche  founded  their  empire.  In 
any  case,  this,  even  the  last  date,  is  the  farthest 
back-period  to  which  this  custom  can  be  traced 
as  yet.  And  this  note  is  well  worth  preservation, 
as  an  addition  to  the  existing  stock  in  "  N.  &  Q." 
Mr.  Triibner  says  of  the  Chronicle,  that  the 
legends  are  the  work  of  Indian  priests ;  and  are, 
upon  the  whole,  to  be  looked  upon  as  genuine. 
If  the  mixture  of  astronomy  with  the  Brahmanical 
religion,  and  of  the  compass  with  that  of  China, 
be  considered  the  most  undeniable  proofs  of  the 
very  remote  period  at  which  the  study  of  astro- 
nomy was  first  begun  in  India,  and  of  that  at 
which  the  polarity  of  the  magnetic  needle  was 
first  discovered  in  China,  the  existence  of  this 
tobacco-legend  in  the  sacred  books  of  the  Central 
American  Indians  must  impress  on  us  the  very 
remote  period  at  which  this  "Indian  weed"  was 
first  gathered  and  consumed  by  the  American 
tribes.  C.  D.  L. 


Prince  of  Orange^  Circular.  —  The  following 

are  extracted  from  the  Wells  Records,  and  may 

prove  of  some  interest  to  the  readers  of  "  N.  & 

Q.,"  in  further  illustration  of  Macaulay.  Ina. 

"  Wells  Civitas  she  Surgus. 

"  Convocaco.  generalii  tent'  undecimo   die  Januarii, 

«  Mr.  Nicholas  Paynter,  Mayor. 
Mr.  Coward,  Recorder. 
Mr.  Salmon,  Justice. 
Mr.  Jno  Davis. 
Mr.  Rob'tus  Thomas. 
Mr.  Watts. 
Mr.  jMerefield. 
Mr.  Broadbeard. 
Mr.  Jeale. 
Mr.  Hole. 
Mr.  Cooke. 
Mr.  Baron. 
Mr.  Phil.  Evans. 
Mr.  Cupper. 
Mr.  Hill. 

Mr.  Nich=  Thomas. 
Mr.  Brown,       }  „     .  „ 

"  This  day  Mr.  Mayor  produced  a  letter  by  him  re- 
ceived from  His  Royal  Highness  the  Prince  of  Orange, 
directing  the  choosing  (according  to  antient  custom)  two 
sufficient  Burgesses  of  the  City  to  represent  the  same  at 
the  general  Convocation  to  be  held  at  Westminster  the 
22nd  instant  (which  letter  being  publiquely  read),  This 
Convocation  in  obedience  thereto  proceeded  to  an  elec- 
tion, and  accordingly  elected  Edward  Berkeley  and 
Thomas  Wj'ndham,  Esquires,  two  of  the  discreetest  Bur- 
gesses of  this  said  City,  to  represent  this  City  at  the  said 

"A  true  Coppij  of  the  Circular  Letter  from  the  Prince 
of  Orange. 

"Whereas  the  Lords  Spiritual  and  Temporal,  the 
Knights,  Citizens,  and  Burgesses  heretofore  Members  of 
the  Commons  House  of  Parliament  during  the  reigne  of 
King  Charles  the  Second,  residing  in  and  about  the  Citty 
of  London,  together  with  the  Aldermen  and  divers  of  the 
Comon  Councill  of  the  said  Citty,  at  this  extraordinary 
juncture,  at  ourTequest  severally  assembled  to  advise  Us 
the  best  manner  how  to  attain  the  ends  of  our  Declaration 
in  calling  a  free  Parliament  for  the  preservation  of  the 
Protestant  religion,  and  restoring  the  rights  and  liberties 
of  the  Kingdom,  and  settling  the  same,  that  they  may 
not  be  in  danger  of  being  again  subverted;  —  Have  ad- 
vised and  desired  us  to  cause  our  letters  to  be  written 
and  directed  for  the  Counties,  to  the  Coroners  of  the  re- 
spective Counties  or  any  one  of  them,  And  in  default  of 
the  Coroners,  to  any  one  of  the  Clerks  of  the  Peace  of  the 
respective  Counties ;  And  for  the  Universities,  to  the 
respective  Vice-Chancellors ;  And  for  the  Citties,  Bo- 
roughs, and  Cinque  Ports,  to  the  chief  Magistrate  of  such 
Citty,  Borough,  or  Cinque  Port,  conteyninge  directions 
for  the  choosing,  in  all  such  Counties,  Citties,  Universi- 
ties, Boroughs,  and  Cinque  Ports  within  ten  days  after 
the  said  respective  Letters,  such  a  number  of  persons  to 
represent  them  as  from  every  such  place  is  or  are  of  right 
to  be  sent  to  Parliament,  of  which  election,  and  the  time 
and  place  thereof,  the  respective  officers  shall  give  notice : 
The  Notice  for  the  intended  election  for  the  Counties  to 
be  published  in  the  Markett  Towns  within  the  respective 
Counties  by  the  space  of  five  days  at  the  least  before  the 
said  election ;  And  for  the  Universities,  Citties,  Boroughs, 
and  Cinque  Ports,  in  every  of  them  respectivel}',  by  the 
space  of  three  days  at  the  least  before  the  said  election : 
The  said  letters  and  the  execution  thereof  to  be  returned 
by  such  officer  or  officers  who  shall  execute  the  same  to 
the  Clerk  of  the  Crown  in  the  Court  of  Chancery,  so  as 
the  person  so  to  be  chosen  may  meet  and  sit  at  Westmin- 
ster on  the  22nd  day  of  January  next. 

"  We,  heartily  desiring  the  performance  of  what  we 
have  in  our  said  Declaration  represented,  in  pursuance  of 
the  said  advice  and  desire  have  caused  this  our  Letter  to 
be  written  to  you,  to  the  intent  that  you  truly  and  right- 
fully, without  favour  or  affection  to  any  person  or  indirect 
practice  or  proceeding,  do  and  execute  what  of  your  part 
ought  to  be  done,  according  to  the  said  advice,  for  the 
due  execution  thereof;  —  The  elections  to  be  made  by 
such  persons  only  as,  according  to  the  antient  laws  and 
customs,  of  right  ought  to  choose  Members  for  Parliament. 
And  that  you  cause  a  Return  to  be  made  by  Certificate 
under  your  seal  of  the  names  of  the  persons  elected,  an- 
nexed to  this  our  Letter,  to  the  said  Clerk  of  the  Crown 
before  the  22nd  day  of  January. 

"  Given  at  St.  James's,  the  29th  day  of  December,  1688, 
«  Will"  Okangb. 

"  To  the  Chief  Magistrate  or  such  others 
of  the  Citty  of  Wells,  in  the  County  of 
Soinerset,  who  have  right  to  make  re- 
turns of  Members  to  serve  in  Pailla- 



[2nd  S.  No  33^  Aug.  16.  '56, 

ment,  according  to  the  antient  usage  of 
the  said  Citty  before  the  surrender  of 
Charters  made  in  the  time  of  King 
Cliarles  the  Second." 

Copy  of  the  return  : 

"  Wells  Civit.  sive  Burgus  in  Com.  Somersett. 

"  We,  the  Mayor,  Masters,  and  Burgesses  of  the  said 
City  or  Borough  do  hereby  humbU'-  Certify,  That  in  per- 
formance and  obedience  to'  the  Letter  hereunto  annexed 
from  His  Highness  tlie  Prince  of  Orange,  this  11th  day  of 
January,  1688,  have  truly  and  rightfully,  without  favour 
or  affection  to  any  person,  or  indirect  practice  or  proceed- 
ing, elected  and  chosen  Edward  Berkeley  and  Thomas 
Wyndliam,  Esquires,  two  of  the  discreetest  and  fittest  of 
the  Burgesses  of  the  City  aforesaid  to  represent  us  in  the 
Convencon  appointed  to  be  held  at  Westminster  the  two 
and  twentieth  day  of  this  instant  January,  the  said  Elec- 
tion being  made  according  to  the  antient  usage  and  cus- 
tomo  for  elections  for  Parliament  within  the  said  City, 
and  after  due  notice  of  the  time  and  place  of  such  election 
given  to  all  parties  therein  concerned." 


The  exquisite  little  poem  called  The  Retreate 
has  ever  been  my  favourite  among  Henry 
Vaughan's  compositions.  I  was  sorry,  therefore, 
the  other  day  to  find  one  of  the  most  beautiful 
ideas  in  it  contradicted  by  the  alleged  experience 
of  another  poet,  Samuel  Rogers. 

"  The  Retreate. 

"  Happy  those  early  daj'es  when  I 
Shined  in'my  angell-infancy ! 
Before  I  understood  this  place 
Appointed  for  ray  second  race. 
Or  taught  my  soul  to  fancy  ought 
But  a  white,  celestiall  thought ; 
When  yet  I  had  not  walked  above 
A  mile  or  two  from  my  first  love. 
And  looking  back,  at  that  short  space 
Could  see  a  glimpse  of  His  bright  face ; 
When  on  some  gilded  cloud  or  jiowre 
My  gazing  soul  would  dwell  an  houre. 
And  in  those  weaker  glories  spy 
Some  shadows  of  eternity  I 

Oh !  how  I  long  to  travel  back 
And  tread  again  that  ancient  track ! 
That  I  might  once  more  reach  that  plaine 
Where  first  I  left  ray  glorious  traine ; 
From  whence  the  Inlightened  Spirit  sees 
That  shady  City  of  Palme  trees !  " 

«  Table-Talk  of  Samuel  Rogers. 

"  One  afternoon,  at  court,  I  was  standing  beside  two 
intimate  acquaintances  of  mine,  an  old  nobleman  and  a 
middle-aged  lady  of  rank,  when  the  former  remarked  to 
the  latter  that  he  thought  a  certain  j'oung  lady  near  us 
ver3'  beautiful.  The  middle-aged  lady  replied,  '  I  cannot 
see  any  particular  beauty  in  her.'  '  Ah,  madam,'  he  re- 
joined, '  to  us  old  men  youth  always  appears  beautiful ! ' 
—  a  speech  with  which  Wordsworth,  when  I  repeated  it  to 
him,  was  greatly  struck.  The  fact  is,  till  we  are  about  to 
leave  the  world  we  do  not  perceive  how  much  it  contains 
to  excite  our  interest  and  admiration ;  the  sunsets  appear 

to  me  far  lovelier  now  than  they  were  in  other  years  ;  and  the 
bee  upon  the  flower  is  now  an  object  of  curiosity  to  me,  which 
it  was  not  in  my  early  days."  —  P.  138. 

Both  Vaughan's  and  Rogers's  sentiments  here 
are  so  striking  one  hardly  knows  which  to  be- 
lieve. Perliaps  both  are  true,  old  age  being  se- 
cond childhood.  Wordsworth  is  here  mentioned 
by  Rogers,  and  this  reminds  me  to  notice  the 
strong  parallel  between  The  Retreate  and  his  Ode 
to  Infancy.  Is  it  known  if  Wordsworth  admired 
Vaughan  ?  A.  A.  D. 


There  being  persons  who  seriously  lament  the 
good  old  time  of  coaches,  when  they  could  travel 
leisurely  and  securely,  see  the  counti'y  and  con- 
verse with  the  natives,  it  may  be  well  to  register 
some  of  the  miseries  before  they  are  altogether 
effaced  from  the  memory.  Antony  remarks 
that  — 

"  The  evil  that  men  do  lives  after  them ; 
The  good  is  oft  interred  with  their  bones." 

It  is  certainly  not  desirable  that  the  good  of 
coaches  should  be  interred  with  their  bones : 
neither  is  it  by  any  means  to  be  wished  that  the 
evil  should  entirely  cease  to  live  after  them,  so  as  to 
render  us  indifferent,  and  thankless,  and  insensible 
to  the  superior  advantages  of  modern  locomotion. 

First  Misery.  —  Although  your  place  has  been 
contingently  secured  days  before,  and  you  have 
risen  with  the  lark,  yet  you  see  the  ponderous 
vehicle  arrive  full  —  full — full.  And  this,  not 
unlikely,  more  than  once. 

2.  At  the  end  of  a  stage,  beholding  the  four 
panting,  reeking,  foamy  animals,  which  have 
dragged  you  twelve  miles :  and  the  stiff,  galled, 
scraggy  relay  crawling  and  limping  out  of  the 

3.  Being  politely  requested,  at  the  foot  of  a 
tremendous  hill,  to  ease  the  horses.  Mackintoshes, 
vulcanised  Indian  rubber,  gutta  percha,  and  gos- 
samer dust-coats,  then  unknown. 

4.  An  outside  passenger  resolving  to  endure  no 
longer  "  the  pelting  of  the  pitiless  storm,"  takes 
refuge,  to  your  consternation,  within  with  drip- 
ping hat,  saturated  cloak,  and  soaked  umbrella. 

5.  Set  down  with  a  promiscuous  party  to  a 
meal  bearing  no  resemblance  to  that  of  a  good 
hotel,  except  in  the  charge :  and  no  time  to  enjoy  it. 

6.  Closely  packed  in  a  box,  "  cabin'd,  crib'd, 
confined,  bound  in,"  with  five  companions  morally 
or  physically  obnoxious,  for  two  or  three  com- 
fortless nights  and  days. 

7.  During  a  halt  overhearing  the  coarse  lan- 
guage of  the  ostlers  and  tipplers  at  the  road- side 
pot-house  :  and  besieged  by  beggars  exposing  their 

8.  Roused  from  your  nocturnal  slumber  by  the 

2«<i  S.  N«  33.,  Aug.  IC.  '56,] 



horn  or  bugle,  the  lashing  and  cracking  of  whip, 
turnpike  gates,  a  search  for  parcels  under  your 
seat,  and  solicitous  drivers. 

9.  Discovering  at  a  diverging  point  in  your 
journey  that  the  "Tallyho"  runs  only  every  other 

,  day  or  so,  or  has  finally  stopped. 

10.  Clambering  from  the  wheel  by  various  iron 
projections  to  your  elevated  seat. 

11.  After  threading  the  narrowest  streets  of  an 
ancient  town,  entering  the  inn  yard  by  a  low 
gateway,  to  the  imminent  risk  of  decapitation. 

12.  Seeing  the  luggage  piled  "  Olympus  high," 
so  as  to  occasion  an  alarming  oscillation. 

13.  Having  the  reins  and  whip  placed  in  your 
unpractised  hands  while  coachee  indulges  in  a 
glass  and  a  chat. 

14.  When  dangling  at  the  extremity  of  a  seat 
overcome  with  drowsiness. 

15.  Exposed  to  piercing  draughts,  owing  to  a 
refractory  glass;  or,  vice  versa,  being  in  a  mi- 
nority, you  are  compelled,  for  the  sake  of  ventila- 
tion, to  thrust  your  umbrella  accidentally  through 
a  pane. 

16.  At  various  seasons,  suffocated  with  dust, 
and  broiled  by  a  powerful  sun ;  or  cowering  under 
an  umbrella  in  a  drenching  rain  —  or  petrified 
with  cold — or  torn  by  fierce  winds  —  or  struggling 
through  snow  —  or  wending  your  way  through 
perilous  floods. 

17.  Perceiving  that  a  young  squire  is  receiving 
an  initiatory  practical  lesson  in  the  art  of  driving, 
or  that  a  jibbing  horse,  or  a  race  with  an  opposi- 
tion, is  endangering  your  existence. 

18.  Losing  the  enjoyment  or  employment  of 
much  precious  time,  not  only  on  the  road,  but 
also  from  consequent  fatigue. 

19.  Interrupted  before  the  termination  of  your 
hurried  meal  by  your  two  rough-coated,  big- 
buttoned,  many-caped  friends,  the  coachman  and 
guard — who  hope  you  will  remember  them.  Al- 
though the  gratuity  has  been  repeatedly  calcu- 
lated in  anticipation,  you  fail  in  making  the  mutual 
remembrances  agreeable.  C.  T. 

Bolinglrohe's  Letter  to  Pope.— In  the  Illustrated 
London  News,  a  few  weeks  since,  appeared  an 
original  letter  from  Lord  Bolingbroke  to  Pope, 
supposed  to  have  been  never  before  published, 
the  authenticity  of  which  was  doubted  by  The 
Athenaum.  As  "  N.  &  Q."  is  an  authority  in  any- 
thing relating  to  Pope,  perhaps  I  may  be  allowed 
to  record  in  its  columns  that  this  letter  was  first 
published  more  than  ninety  years  ago,  viz.  in  the 
Annual  Register  for  1763,  p.  196.  No  authority 
is  there  given  for  its  authenticity,  and  it  is  un- 
dated. I  may  add,  that  in  the  Register  for  the 
year  1764,  p.  222.,  is  another  letter,  stated  to  be 

"  original,"  from  Pope  to  the  Duchess  of  Hamilton, 
which  is  not  printed  in  any  edition  of  Pope's 
Letters.  C.  J.  Douglas. 

[The  last  letter  noticed  by  our  correspondent  is  printed 
in  Roscoe's  edition  of  Pope's  Works,  vol.  viii.  p.  332.  The 
words  prefixed  to  it,  «  The  writer  drunk,"  are  omitted  by 

A  Military  Dinner-pui'ty.  —  As  banquets  to  our 
brave  soldiers  are  now  in  vogue,  and  it  is  proposed 
to  give  a  grand  dinner  to  the  Guards,  on  their  re- 
turn to  the  Metropolis,  the  readers  of  "  N.  &  Q." 
may  be  glad  to  learn  that  the  greatest  dinner  ever 
known  in  England  was  that  given  by  Lord  Kom- 
ney  to  the  Kent  volunteers  on  August  1,  1799, 
when  George  III.  reviewed  them  near  Maidstone. 
The  tables,  amounting  to  ninety-one  in  number, 
were  seven  miles  and  a  half  long,  and  the  boards 
for  the  tables  cost  1500Z.  The  entertainment,  to 
which  6500  persons  sat  down,  consisted  of  60 
lambs  in  quarters,  200  dishes  of  roast  beef,  700 
fowls  (3  in  a  dish),  220  meat  pies,  300  hams,  300 
tongues,  220  fruit  pies,  220  dishes  of  boiled  beef, 
220  joints  of  roast  veal.  Seven  pipes  of  port  were 
bottled  off,  and  sixteen  butts  of  ale,  and  as  much 
small  beer  was  also  placed  in  large  vessels,  to 
supply  the  company.  After  dinner  his  Mnjesty's 
health  was  given  in  a  bumper  by  the  volunteers, 
all  standing  uncovered,  with  three  times  three, 
accompanied  by  the  music  of  all  the  bands. 

J.  Yeowell. 

Shakspeare  and  his  Printers.  —  In  the  April 
number  (No.  210.)  of  the  Edinburgh  Review,  is 
an  article  on  the  "  Correctors  and  Corrections  of 
Shakspeare;"  in  the  course  of  which  the  vil- 
lanous  typographical  blundering  of  the  Heminge 
and  Condell  folio  is  the  subject  of  strong  repre- 
hension. But  qualis  ah  incceptu  with  the  me- 
chanical men  of  type.  In  that  same  Edinburgh, 
in  a  subsequent  article,  on  "  Body  and  Mind,"  the 
reviewer  has  occasion  to  quote  the  dagger-soli- 
loquy from  Macbeth ;  and  the  quotation,  in  a 
small  way,  is  worthy  of  the  old  folio  men :  ivork 
being  printed  for  worth,  the  for  thy,  and  eye  for 
eyes  !     "  Physician,  heal  thyself ! " 

A  Desdltort  Reader. 

A  Mission  of  the  Press.  — In  a  ^^imes'  leader  of 
June  30,  the  writer  indulges  in  some  pertinent 
remarks  upon  the  little  that  powerful  engine,  tlie 
Press,  has  yet  effected  towards  breaking  down  the 
legal  abominations  of  crabbed  MS.  and  cumbi-ous 
parchments,  by  substituting  readable  print  and 
tractable  paper  for  deeds  and  other  registered 
documents,  to  the  great  relief  of  the  purses  and 
brains  of  the  lieges  popularly  supposed  to  read 
and  understand  the  former. 

Warming  with  his  subject,  the  writer  predicts 
the  time  when  the  country  squire,  deprived  of  his 
out-of-door  recreation  by  a  rainy  day,  will  over* 



[2nd  s.  N«  33.,  Aug.  16.  '66. 

look  the  Quarterly  Review  and  County  Chronicle, 
and  betake  himself  for  amusement  to  the  morocco 
gilt  volume  which  contains  the  now  intelligible 
title  deeds  of  his  estate. 

As  all  men  will,  doubtless,  welcome  any  indica- 
tion of  the  advent  of  this  mission  of  the  Press,  it 
may  be  worth  while  recording  in  the  pages  of 
"N.  &  Q."  that  the  initiative  in  this  movement 
has  already  been  taken  in  a  very  appropriate 
quarter;  for  there  now  lies  before  me  a  very 
handsome,  thin  royal  8vo.,  entitled  Glenormiston, 
1849-50,  which  contains  the  history  of  the  acqui- 
sition of  that  estate,  with  plans,  title  deeds,  and  a 
variety  of  useful  information  thereanent,  expressly 
compiled  and  printed  "with  a  view  to  the  con- 
venient preservation  and  reference"  of  the  pro- 
prietor, Mr.  William  Chambers.  J.  O. 

Family  of  Pendrell.  —  The  following  brief  addi- 
tions to  the  notices  of  this  loyal  family,  which  are 
collected  by  Mr.  Hughes  in  his  edition  of  the 
Boscohel  Tracts  (1830),  may  not  be  unacceptable 
to  your  readers  :  — 

"  Frances  Jones  "J 

&  V  Daughters  of  "VVm.  Pendrel. 

Anne  Lloyd     J 

«  At  the  court  at  Windsor,  27«'  June,  1680. 

"  His  Majesty  is  graciously  pleased  to  refer  this  peti- 
tion to  the  right  hon^e  Lords  Com'''  of  the  Treasury  to 
take  such  course  as  they  shall  judge  most  ready  and 
expedient  for  the  Pet"  relief." 

Notes  of  Petitions,  in  Bodl.  MS.  Eawl.,  c.  421. 
fol.  182. 

"  Yesterday  the  Commons  in  a  Committee  received  a 
clause  to  oblige  all  papists  and  nonjurors  in  Great  Brit- 
tain  to  register  their  names  and  estates ;  alsoe  a  clause  to 
exempt  the  familyes  of  the  Pendrells  in  Staffordshire, 
■who  are  papists,  from  being  taxed  by  this  bill,  on  account 
of  their  eminent  services  to  the  crown  by  saving  King 
Charles  the  2,  in  the  Boyal  Oak." 

News-Letter  of  9  May,  1723.    Eawl.  MS.  C,  151. 
fol.  98. 

W.  D.  Macrat. 

Superstition  of  the  present  Day.  —  The  following 
cutting,  from  The  Tablet  of  July  26,  is  worth 
the  attention  of  the  readers  of  "N.  &  Q."  as  a 
specimen  of  the  worse  than  heathenish  supersti- 
tion of  many  of  our  people  : 

"  Will  it  be  credited  that  thousands  of  people  have, 
during  the  past  week,  crowded  a  certain  road  in  the  vil- 
lage of  Melling,  near  Ormskirk,  to  inspect  a  sycamore 
tree  which  has  burst  its  bark,  and  the  sap  protrudes  in  a 
shape  resembling  a  man's  head?  Rumour  spread  abroad 
that  it  was  the  re-appearance  of  Palmer,  who  '  had  come 
again,  because  he  was  buried  without  a  coffin ! "  Some 
inns  in  the  neighbourhood  of  this  singular  tree  reaped  a 
rich  harvest." 

K.  P.  D.  E. 

Mortgaging  the  Dead! — If  a  literal  be  also  a 
legitimate  use,  in  its  present  application,  of  the 
word  mortgage  (a  dead  pledge),  we  have  classical 
authority  for  stating  that  mortgaging  the  dead 

was  a  legalised  mode,  among  the  Egyptians,  of 
giving  security  for  money  borrowed :  a  poor  in- 
demnity to  the  creditor  in  case  of  non-payment. 
The  embalmed  body  of  the  deceased  relative  ac- 
companied a  guest  to  the  feast,  where,  if  money 
was  required,  the  sacred  possession  was  deposited 
by  the  borrower  in  pledge — it  was  a  strictly  legal 
transaction.  For  ?«o«-redemption  there  was  a 
severe  penalty,  which  one  might  imagine  the  pe- 
culiar doctrine  engrafted  on  that  of  the  soul's 
immortality  would  rarely  allow  an  Egyptian  to 
incur.  The  parties  not  redeeming  were  denied 
the  right  of  interment  themselves,  and  the  privi- 
lege of  giving  their  relatives  and  friends  burial. 
In  such  cases  the  coffin-less  body  was  carefully 
preserved  at  home,  without  turial ;  but  the  de- 
scendants of  the  deceased  and  excluded  debtor 
might  honourably  bury,  provided  compensation 
was  first  made  for  the  crime  (if  such  had  been 
committed),  or  the  debt  refunded.  It  has  been 
conjectured,  and  with  great  probability,  respect- 
ing this  law,  mentioned  by  Herodotus  (lib.  ii. 
s.  136.),  that  its  object  was  to  discourage  the  bor- 
rowing of  money ;  rendering  it  peculiarly  infa- 
mous by  entailing  on  those  who  practised  it  a 
revolting  traffic,  and  forfeiture  of  what  the  debtor 
was  accustomed  to  regard  as  his  dearest  and  most 
sacred  treasure.  F.  Philloxt. 

The  King's  Health.  — 

"  Here's  a  health  unto  his  Majesty,  with  a  fa,  la,  la. 
Conversion  to  his  enemies,  with  a  fa,  la,  la. 
And  he  that  will  not  pledge  his  health, 
I  wish  him  neither  wit  nor  wealth, 
Nor  yet  a  rope  to  hang  himself. 

With  a  fa,  la,  la,  la, 

With  a  fa,  la,  la,"  &c. 

Mr.  Peter  Cunningham,  in  his  charming  Story  of 
Nell  Gwyn,  quotes  the  above  lines  from  Forbes's 
Songs  and  Fancies.,  Aberdeen,  1682.  When  the 
volume  is  printed  again,  which  it  must  be  ere 
long,  the  author  should  alter  his  reference  to 
Catch  that  Catch  Can ;  or  the  Musical  Companion : 
containing  Catches  and  Rounds  for  Three  and  Four 
Voyces,  SfC,  4to.  1667,  in  which  work  the  song  or 
glee  in  question  first  appeared.  Forbes  misprints 
the  composer's  name  John  Savile  ;  it  ought  to  be 
Jeremiah  Savile,  as  in  Catch  that  Catch  Can. 
Nothing  is  known  of  the  composer,  farther  than 
that  he  wrote  the  music  of  "  His  Majestie's 
Health,"  and  "The  Waits,"  The  latter  is  well 
known  to  all  lovers  of  social  harmony. 

Edwaed  F.  Eimbault. 

Miixav  HEiutviti. 

"  The  Brute  Chronicles."  —  Being  engaged  in 
preparing  for  publication  the  French  Prose  Chro- 
nicles of  England  called  the  Brute,  for  which 
purpose  I  am  now  collating  the  various  texts,  I 

gad  S.  No  33.,  Aua.  16.  »56.] 



should  be  glad  to  know  whether  there  are  in 
existence  any  other  copies  besides  those  specified 
by  Sib  F.  Madden,  in  an  article  on  the  subject 
of  these  Chronicles,  "N.  &  Q.,"  2"''  S.  i.  1. 

WlLlIAM  HeNBY  HaeT. 

Albert  Terrace,  New  Cross. 

Agricultural  Suicides.  — 'iWas  it  an  ordinary 
event  in  the  days  of  Elizabeth  for  farmers  who 
had  hoarded  corn,  to  hang  themselves  because  the 
season  in  which  they  had  expected  to  realise  their 
profits  was  one  of  plentiful  crops?  One  would 
think  so  from  the  copious  allusions  to  the  practice 
in  works  of  fiction  of  the  time  :  —  ♦    . 

"  Here's  a  farmer  that  hanged  himself  on  the  expecta- 
tion of  plenty."  —  Macbeth,  Act  II.  So.  3. 

"  And  hang'd  himself  when  corn  grows  cheap  again." 
Hall's  Satires,  Book  iv.  Satire  6. 

Again  in  Every  Man  out  of  his  Humour  (Act 
III.  Sc.  2.),  Sordido  hangs  himself  because  the 
prognostication  of  foul  weather,  on  the  strength  of 
which  he  had  hoarded  his  grain,  proved  delusive. 

Any  explanation  of  these  allusions,  by  the  ad- 
duction of  recorded  facts,  will  be  acceptable  to 

C.  Mansfield  Ingleby. 


Old  House  at  Poplar.  — I  am  desirous  of  obtain- 
ing some  further  particulars  regarding  an  old 
house  and  property  in  the  parish  of  Poplar  than 
can  be  obtained  from  Stow ;  the  date  of  the  house 
is  1612,  and  the  property  is  a  ship-yard,  generally 
believed  to  be  the  oldest  in  England.  I  know  it 
to  have  been  in  existence  before  the  house,  and 
am  anxious,  if  possible,  to  discover  its  date  and 
subsequent  history  ;  also  when  the  dry  docks  were 
built,  &c.  ?  Perhaps  Mb.  W.  H.  Habt,  or  some 
other  of  your  correspondents,  can  afford  me  some 
help,  by  doing  which  they  will  much  oblige 

R.  Sinister. 

Secondary  Punishments  now  in  force.  —  Can  any 
of  your  readers  courteously  inform  me  whether 
there  exists  any  work  of  this  year,  or  any  trust- 
worthy article  of  review,  which  gives  a  synopsis 
of  the  various  secondary  punishments  now  (1856) 
in  force  in  England  ?  There  have  been  so  many 
modifications  lately,  that  a  treatise  one  or  two 
years  old  is  hardly  reliable.  Vindex. 

Money  enclosed  in  Seal  of  legal  Documents.  — 
On  a  deed  of  sale  of  a  quit-rent  at  Alnwick,  in 
Northumberland,  in  the  year  1655,  is  the  follow- 
ing execution,  viz. : 

"  Signed,  sealled,  and  delivered  with  one  single  two- 
pence lawfull  money  of  England  put  into  the  seale  in 
the  token  of  the  possession,  livery,  and  seizen  of  the  out- 
rent  or  white-rent  of  five  shillings  by  yeare  within 
named,  in  presence  of  these  witnesses,"  &c. 

On  breaking  the  seal,  I  found  in  it  a  silver  two- 

pence, with  the  rose  on  one  side,  and  the  thistle 
on  the  other. 

Query,  was  the  enclosing  a  piece  of  money  in 
the  seal  ever  a  common  custom,  or  legally  neces- 
sary ?  W.  C.  Tbbvelyan. 


_  '^Punjab.'" — I  have  heard  that  this  is  a  compo- 
site word  formed  from  Punj,  five,  and  db,  waters : 
viz.,  the  Indus,  Jhelum  (or  Jeylum),Chenab,  Ravee, 
and  Sutlej.  I  am  not  acquainted  with  Hindus- 
tani, and  shall  feel  obliged  to  any  of  your  corre- 
spondents who  will  translate  the  foregoing  proper 
names.  Chenab  seems  to  be  a  composite  word, 
like  Punjab.  G.  L.  S. 

"  When  you  go  to  Rome,  do  as  Rome  does"  — 
Among  the  many  derivations  of  proverbs  regis- 
tered in  "N.  &  Q.,"  I  have  not  seen  the  above 
noticed ;  and  this  to  me  is  the  more  remarkable, 
as  it  has  been  attributed  to  no  less  a  personage 
than  St.  Ambrose  of  Milan.  Some  time  ago,  in 
turning  over  the  leaves  of  a  copy  of  Tracts  for  the 
Times,  a  fragment  of  paper  dropped  out,  —  a  cut- 
ting from  some  book  which  1  did  not  know,  and 
on  it  the  following  : 

"  In  the  time  of  St.  Augustin,  this  question  respecting 
Saturday  being  in  its  infancy,  that  great  theologist  was 
in  the  habit  of  dining  upon  Saturday  as  upon  Sunday ; 
but  his  mother,  Monica,  being  puzzled  with  the  different 
practices  then  prevailing  (for  they  had  begun  to  fast  at 
Rome  on  Saturday),  applied  to  her  son  for  a  solution  of 
the  difficulty.  He  in  return  actually  went  to  Milan  on 
purpose  to  consult  St.  Ambrose  on  the  subject.  Now,  at 
Milan,  they  did  not  fast  on  Saturday,  and  the  answer  of 
the  Milan  saint  to  the  Hippo  saint  was  this :  '  When  I  go 
to  Rome  I  fast  on  the  Saturday  as  they  do  at  Rome,  but 
when  I  am  here  I  do  not;'  an  advice  that  is  current 
amongst  us  to  this  day — 'When  you  go  to  Rome,  do  as 
the  people  of  Rome  do.' " 

Not  being  "up"  in  the  works  of  St.  Augustine 
or  St.  Ambrose,  perhaps  some  of  the  readers  of 
"  N.  &  Q."  will  favour  me  with  stating  where 
such  a  passage  can  be  foujid  in  either  of  the 
Fathers  referred  to  P  M.  C. 

William  Dunlap.  —  I  wish  very  much  to  ascer- 
tain whether  an  American  author,  of  the  name  of 
William  Dunlap,  is  still  living  ;  or  (if  not  living) 
the  date  of  his  death.  He  is  author  (besides  many 
other  works)  of  the  Life  of  Charles  Brockden 
Brown.  He  was  also  a  painter  of  some  eminence. 
The  information  I  desire  is  likely  to  be  found  in  a 
work  recently  published,  Duycink's  Cyclopcsdia  of 
American  Literature.  B.  J- 

*'  The  Sisters'  Tragedy."  —  !  would  be  greatly 
obliged  if  any  of  your  readers  could  inform  me 
who  wrote  a  play  called  The  Sisters  Tragedy, 
printed  by  W.  Nicol,  Pall  Mall,  in  1834?  The 
scene  of  the  play  is  laid  in  Granada ;  and  the 
author  appears  to  have  been  indebted  to  Tenny- 
son's Ballad  of  the  Sisters  for  the  groundwork  of 



t2naS.  N033.,  Aug.  16. '56. 

the  plot.     There  are  some  prefatory  lines,  dated 
Hampstead,  Aug.  1834,  by  J.  B.  (Joanna  BailHe). 

R.  J. 

Colonel  Forrester.  —  Speaking  of  Jack  Ellis 
and  his  extraordinary  social  qualities,  which  made 
hira  familiar  at  once  with  the  great  and  lowly, 
Boswell  says  ; 

"The  brilliant  Colonel  Forrester,  the  author  of  the 
Folite  Philosopher  (first  published  at  Edinburgh,  1734) 
was  amongst  the  former." 

Where  can  any  particulars  be  obtained  regard- 
ing this  Scottish  Chesterfield  ?  3.  O. 

Quotation  wanted :  "  Where  is  thy  land."  —  Will 
any  of  your  readers  oblige  me  by  saying  where 
are  to  be  found  the  lines  — 

"  Where  is  thy  land  ?  'tis  where  the  woods  are  waving 
In  their  dark  richness  to  the  summer  air; 
Where  the  blue  streams  a  thousand  flower-banks  laving, 
Lead  down  the  hills  in  veins  of  light  —  'tis  there." 

The  style  and  phraseology  point  to  Mrs.  He- 
raans,  but  I  have  not  been  able  to  find  the  lines 
in  her  works.  T.  J.  E. 

Device  and  Motto.  —  I  shall  feel  obliged  if  any 
of  the  correspondents  of  "  N.  &  Q."  can  tell  me 
the  meaning  of  the  following  device  and  motto 
engraved  on  an  old  seal.  The  device  consists  of 
a  bird  with  a  branch  in  Its  mouth  seated  on  a 
sheaf  of  corn ;  on  one  side  of  which  is  a  lion,  and 
on  the  other  a  serpent,  with  the  motto  "  in  cute." 
The  device  is  not  difficult  to  understand ;  but  I 
can  make  nothing  at  all  of  the  motto.  J.  J. 

"  Carmina  Quadragesimalia."  —  Is  any  record 
kept  at  Christ  Church  of  the  authors  of  the  beau- 
tiful Latin  poems  called  Carmina  Quadragesi- 
malia?  As  far  as  regards  elegant  and  correct 
Latinity,  they  are  worthy  to  be  ranked  with  the 
poetry  of  the  Augustan  age.  Can  any  of  your 
classical  readers  inform  me  whether  any  more 
than  two  volumes  have  been  printed  ?  They  bear 
date  1723  and  1748  respectively,  and  are  both 
dedicated  to  students  of  Christ  Church,  the  former 
volume  by  Charles  Este,  the  latter  by  Antony 
Parsons.  Oxoniensis. 

Aspasia's  Wart. — A  reviewer  In  a  recent  number 
of  The  AthencBum  tells  how  Aspasia  was  advised  in  a 
dream  to  apply  rose  leaves  to  an  ugly  wart  on  her 
face.     What  is  his  authority  ?  R.  T.  Scott. 

Pictures  iy  Uaffaelle  in  England,  and  in  what 
Collections  ?  —  I  should  feel  thankful  for  an  ac- 
curate list  of  the  finished  original  pictures  now  in 
this  country  by  Raffaelle  :  stating  in  what  collec- 
tions they  are,  and,  if  possible,  when  they  were 
first  brought  here.  Such  list,  of  course,  only  to 
comprehend  well-known  and  undoubted  works ; 
of  which,  it  is  to  be  feared,  there  are  not  half-a- 
dozcn   to   be  met   with  in  England,  besides  the 

cartoons  at  Hampton  Court,  and  the  four  in  our 
National  Gallery.  John  J.  Penstonh. 

Stanford- in- the- Vale,  Berks. 

Bibliographical  Queries.  — 

1 .  Can  any  of  your  readers  give  me  some  ac- 
count of  the  suhject  of  an  old  work,  entitled  Dae- 
tyliotheca  Smythiana,  which  was  published  at  Venice 
In  the  seventeenth  century  ? 

2.  Has  there  ever  been  any  cheap  reprint  of 
the  Bohe  of  St.  Alhan's  ? 

3.  Is  the  True  Spirit  and  Pi'actice  of  Chivalry, 
by  Qigby,  considered  a  standard  work  ?  and  has  it 
been  favourably  received  by  critics  ? 

Sigma.  Theta. 

"  Judith  Culpeper."  —  I  have  a  curious  old 
letter  with  the  above  signature,  of  which  the  fol- 
lowing is  a  copy : 

«  March  the  22°*,  1675. 
"  May  itt  please  y''  Grace, 

"  Upon  the  receipt  of  a  letter  from  my  Lord  privy  Seal 
importinge  that  the  draught  of  a  conveyance.  .  .  sealed  to 
mee  by  mj'  Brother  was  the  full  effect  of  y  Lopps  mediation 
for  mee  I  have  accordingly  sealed  itt.  And  though  I 
must  needs  say  I  hoped  for  somewhat  better  conditions, 
yet  y  Lopps  pleasure  commanded  my  sorrowful  sub- 
scription, Especially  for  the  purchasinge  of  property  (  ?) 
between  soe  neere  relations.  M3'  Brother  hath  given  mee 
many  and  great  assurances  of  his  future  Justice  to  mee  in 
performing  this  Agreem'.  Butt  as  my  confidence  in  y' 
Lopps  wisedome  was  the  principall  motive  of  my  compli- 
ance, soe  the  continuance  of  y''  favour  to  me  is  still  my 
best  security.  .  .  I  therefore  humbly  implore  y""  grace 
in  compassion  of  my  weaknesse  to  afford  mee  .  ye  com- 
pleatinge  y  mediation.  Nott  doubtinge  butt  God  will 
abundantly  requite  y"'  Goodnesse  to  mee. 
"  My  Lord, 

"  Y''  Graces  most  obliged  serv*, 

"Judith  Cclpeper." 

Can  any  of  your  sagacious  readers  inform  me 
who  was  this  "Judith  Culpeper"  and  her  bro- 
ther ?  As  the  letter  came  from  a  Kent  collection. 
It  was  probably  written  by  a  relation  of  Sir 
Thomas  Culpeper  (or  Colepeper,  or  Culpepper)  of 
Holliiigbourne,  who  died  about  the  close  of  the 
seventeenth  century.  Many  monuments  of  the 
family  are  erected  in  Hollingbourne  church,  and 
doubtless  a  good  county  history  contains  a  list  of 
them.  Can  any  conjecture  be  made  as  to  the 
personage  to  whom  the  letter  was  addressed  ? 
Was  it  not  probably  to  Sheldon,  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  to  which  see  the  manor  of  HoUing- 
borne  belongs  ?  The  letter  is  endorsed  on  the 
back  "  Anthony  Horsmonden."  Vox. 

Was  Henry  IV.  nursed  by  an  Irishwoman  f  — 
In  the  Calendar  of  the  Patent  and  Close  Rolls  of 
the  Irish  Chancery,  vol.  I.  (all  published)  p.  179., 
the  Calendar  of  the  Roll.  Pat.  6  Henry  IV., 
1"  Pars  commences :  at  article  2,  a  number  of 
letters  of  protection  are  given  ;  and  amongst  them 
we  find  the  remarkable  entry,  "Et  Marg'  Taaf, 
nutrix  Regis,  Dublin,  18  Mali."    This  would  seem 

2»a  S.  No  33.,  Aug.  16.  '56.] 



to  settle  the  point  conclusively.     Query,  has  this 
fact  been  ere  now  noticed  ?    James  Graves,  Clk. 

The  Great  Heat.  —  I  am  told  that  twenty  years 
ago  there  was  a  similar  drought  in  the  country  to 
the  present.  The  heat  was,  as  it  now  is,  intense ; 
farmers  suffered  considerably  ;  the  corn  stalk  was 
hut  a  foot  high,  and,  instead  of  being  cut,  was 

Can  any  correspondent  of  "  N.  &  Q."  give  a 
more  detailed  account  of  the  above  facts  ?    Karl. 

Hev.  Mr.  Simmons.  —  Is  anything  known  of  the 
Rev.  Mr.  Simmons,  to  whom  the  witty  sermon  in 
the  Cripplegate  Morning  Exercises,  "  How  may 
we  get  rid  of  Spiritual  Sloth,"  is  attributed.  Ca- 
lamy  inserts  his  name  in  the  list  of  those  ministers 
who  preached  occasionally  when  the  Act  of  Uni- 
formity passed.  W.  G.  L. 

Westbourne  Grove. 

George  Liddell.  —  Can  any  Scottish  poetical 
antiquary  furnish  a  Note  about  "  George  Liddell 
of  Edinburgh,"  who  wrote  The  Swans  Song,  or 
Pleasant  Meditations  on  the  Way,  the  tenth  edition 
corrected ;  Lond.,  printed  for  the  Author,  and  sold 
by  Lillias  Liddell  in  Edin.  1710,  12mo.  pp.  48  ? 

Mr.  Liddell  seems  to  have  been  the  poet  of  the 
religious  million ;  and  besides  this  piece  of  dog- 
grel,  our  illustrious  obscure  announces  "  These 
books  following,  by  the  same  author,  are  sold  by 
him  and  his  daughter  Lillias  Liddell,  in  Edin.," 
viz.  1.  A  Garden  of  Spiritual  Flowers;  2.  The 
Travellers  Sovg ;  3.  Good  Company ;  4.  Manna 
Gathered;  5.  Canaan's  Grapes;  6.  Apples  of 
Gold ;  and  7.  The  Honey  Comb.  Presuming  these 
to  be  also  in  verse,  and  judging  from  the  popu- 
larity of  the  Swans  Song,  Mr.  Liddell  would  ap- 
pear to  have  obtained  some  notoriety  as  a  small 
poet.  J.  O. 

Rubens'  Pictures:  Antwerp  Cathedral.  —  With 
reference  to  the  celebrated  "  Descent  from  the 
Cross,"  which,  as  every  one  knows,  consists  of  five 
pictures,  can  any  of  your  readers  say  whether  the 
painting  at  the  back  of  one  of  the  doors,  repre- 
senting, according  to  Murray,  a  hermit  with  a 
lantern,  is  not,  in  fact,  intended  as  a  fifth  repre- 
sentation of  St.  Christopher,  under  the  form  of  a 
priest  carrying  the  viaticum  ?  The  presumption 
is  in  favour  of  this  hypothesis,  since  the  four  re- 
maining pictures  all  symbolise  St.  Christopher  in 
some  form  or  other,  and  it  is  well-known  that  they 
were  painted  for  the  Guild  of  Cross- bowmen,  of 
whom  that  saint  is  the  patron.  The  idea  that  such 
was  Rubens'  intention  is  suggested  by  the  author 
of  a  recently-published  work  entitled  Flemish  In- 
teriors, and  seems  to  me  a  very  appropriate  one. 

My  attention  has  been  further  drawn  to  the 
subject  by  a  smart  correspondence  carried  on  for 

the  last  three^  weeks  in  the  Weekly  Register, 
giving  expression  to  contending  opinions  on  the 
passage  in  question  of  the  above-mentioned  vo- 
lume. QU-aEBENS. 

"  Round  about  our  Coal  Fire,  or  Christmas  En- 
tertainments'^ —  What  is  the  date  of  the  earliest 
edition  of  an  interesting  pamphlet  so  called  ? 
Halliwell,  in  his  Catalogue  of  Chap- Boohs,  p.  148,, 
mentions  an  edition  in  12mo.,  1796,  which  he  calls 
"  A  very  curious  tract,  composed  at  the  end  of 
the  seventeenth,  or  very  early  in  the  following 
century."  My  own  copy,  dated  1734,  is  called 
"  The  Fourth  Edition,  with  great  Additions."  It 
is  dedicated  "  To  the  Worshipful  Mr.  Lun,  Com- 
pleat  Witch-maker  of  England,  and  Conjurer- 
General  of  the  Universe,  at  his  Great  House  in 
Covent-garden."  Edward  F.  Rimbault. 

Com  Measures.  —  I  am  desirous  of  obtaining 
correct  information  as  to  the  difference  between 
the  proportions  of  the  Winchester  bushel  and  the 
imperial  bushel  (established  by  the  "Act  of 
Uniformity,"  which  took  effect  from  Jan.  1,  1826)  ; 
this  last  contains  22 18^  cubic  inches,  and  I  have 
one  table  stating  the  Winchester  bushel  to  have 
contained  2178  cubic  inches,  and  another  that  it 
was  -^^  part  larger  than  the  imperial.  Wm.  M. 

"  Bishop  Burnet's  Solution  of  Two  Cases  of 
Conscience." — Miss  Strickland  aflirms  that  two 
treatises  under  the  above  title,  one  on  "  Poly- 
gamy," and  the  other  on  "  Divorce,"  were  "  ex- 
punged "  from  Bishop  Burnet's  works.  May  I  beg 
the  favour  of  a  reference,  if  any  correspondent 
can  give  one,  to  any  edition  of  Burnet's  works 
containing  these  treatises ;  or  any  good  grounds 
for  supposing  that  he  ever  wrote  them  ?  As  to 
Miss  Strickland's  testimony,  she  must  write  in  a 
more  unbiassed  spirit  before  her  evidence  reckons 
for  anything  more  than  Jacobite  gossip.    A.  B.  R. 


[These  two  Treatises  are  noticed  by  Bevil  Higgons  in 
his  Historical  and  Critical  Remarks  on  Bishop  Bumefs 
History  of  his  Own  Time,  2nd  edit.  1727,  p.  158.,  who  has 
given  the  whole  of  the  bishop's  resolution  to  the  second 
question,  "  Is  polygamy  in  any  case  lawful  under  the 
Gospel  ?  "  His  reason  for  omitting  the  bishop's  resolu- 
tion on  Barrenness  was  owing  to  some  expressions  in  it 
so  indecent  as  would  oiFend  the  fair  sex.  John  Macky, 
however,  has  not  been  so  delicately  sensitive :  for,  as  an 
admirer  of  the  bishop,  he  has  inserted  both  papers  injthe 
Appendix  to  his  Memoirs  of  the  Secret  Services,  edit.  1733, 
pp.  xxiv.  to  xxxiii.,  and  reproaches  the  bishop's  son  for 
suppressing  them.  "  These  papers,"  says  Macky,  "  Bur- 
net put  into  the  hands  of  Lord  Lauderdale  and  others, 
with  an  intent  to  farther  the  design  of  divorcing  His 
Majesty,  and  thereby  of  providing,  by  a  re-marriage, 
heirs  to  the  crown,  and  excluding  the  Duke  of  York. 



|;2ud  s.  N«  33.,  Aug.  16.  '56. 

Why  these  very  curious  anecdotes  are  denied  a  place  in 
our  prelate's  remarkable  histor}',  I  cannot  assign  the 
cause;  but  this  I  know,  that  he  himself  had  inserted 
them.  The  late  Archdeacon  Echard  assured  nic,  that  he 
had  read  them  in  his  Lordship's  manuscript;  and  as  I 
have  obtained  exact  copies  of  them,  I  think  myself 
obliged,  both  in  justice  to  the  bishop's  memory,  as  well  as 
the  republic  of  letters,  to  preserve  them  for  the  iuforma- 
tion  and  benefit,  not  only  of  the  present,  but  of  all  suc- 
ceeding times."  The  original,  in  Burnet's  handwriting, 
was  copied  at  Ham  in  1680,  with  the  Duke  of  Lauder- 
dale's permission,  by  Paterson,  Archbishop  of  Glasgow, 
testified  under  his  episcopal  seal,  it  being  then  in  the 
Duke's  possession. 

Unfortunately  for  the  bishop,  his  troublesome  opponent, 
Dr.  Hickes,  had  been  favoured  with  a  sight  of  these  Trea- 
tises, and  notices  them  in  his  work.  Some  Discourses  upon 
Dr.  Burnet  and  Dr.  Tillotson,  4to.,  1695,  p.  20.,  which 
elicited  from  Burnet  the  following  explanation ;  — 

"  He  charges  me  with  a  Paper,  stating  the  Lawfulness 
of  Divorce  in  case  of  Barrenness,  with  relation  to  King 
Charles  the  Second's  Marriage ;  which  he  says  was  a  Pro- 
ject of  the  Earl  of  Shaftsbury's,  and  his  Party,  to  put  by 
the  Duke  of  York.  I  cannot  reflect  on  this  Author's  way 
of  writing,  without  remembring  an  Italian  Proverb,  that 
has  indeed  more  of  Sense  than  of  Religion  in  it;  God 
preserve  me  from  my  Friends,  I  will  preserve  myself  from 
my  Enemies.  What  the  Earl  of  Shaftsbury's  Designs  in 
that  matter  were,  I  do  not  know ;  for  he  never  once 
spoke  of  them  to  me.  But  I  remember  Avell  that  the 
Duke  (then  Earl  of)  Lauderdale  moved  it  to  me.  He  was 
the  first  that  ever  discovered  to  me  the  Secret  of  King 
James's  Religion ;  and  when  he  saw  me  struck  with 
great  apprehensions  upon  it,  he  fell  upon  the  Head  of 
Divorce,  and  told  me  many  Particulars  that  I  think  fit 
to  suppress.  I  afterwards  knew  that  the  Matter  of  Fact 
was  falsely  stated  to  me.  I  was  then  but  Seven  and 
twenty,  and  was  pretty  full  of  the  Civil  Law ;  which  had 
been  my  first  Study.  So  I  told  him  several  things  out  of 
the  Digests,  Code,  and  Novels,  upon  that  Head ;  and  in 
a  great  variety  of  Discourse  we  went  through  many  parts 
of  it :  He  seemed  surprized  at  many  things  that  I  told 
him  ;  and  he  desired  me  to  state  the  matter  in  Paper.  I 
very  frankly  did  it ;  yet  I  told  him  I  spoke  of  the  sudden  ; 
but  when  I  went  home  among  my  Books,  I  would  con- 
sider it  more  severely.  The  following  Winter  I  writ  to 
him,  and  retracted  that  whole  Paper;  I  answered  the 
most  material  Things  in  it ;  and  I  put  a  Confutation  of 
my  first  and  looser  Thoughts,  in  a  Book  that  I  writ  that 
Winter,  which  I  can  shew  to  any  that  desires  it.  The 
Duke  of  Lauderdale  was  too  wise  to  publish  any  thing 
of  this  kind,  tho  in  his  passion  he  might  have  shewed  it 
to  this  Author,  He  knew  that  he  had  pressed  me  to  talk 
upon  this  Subject  to  the  King  himself;  which  I  had  re- 
fused to  do.  A  great  deal  more  belongs  to  this  Matter, 
which  I  think  fit  to  suppress :  None  but  such  a  Person  as 
this  Author  is,  would  have  published  so  much." — Reflec- 
tions upon  a  Pamphlet,  entitled  "  Some  Discourses  irnon 
Dr.  Burnet  and  Dr.  Tillotson,"  8vo.,  1696,  pp.  76-78.] 

Commentary  on  "  Proverbs,"  —  Who  is  the  au- 
thor of  A  Commentarie  upon  the  whole  Booke  of 
the  Proverhes  of  Solomon,  London,  1596.  In  an 
appendix  to  this  book,  consisting  of  "  An  Expo- 
sition of  certain  choyse  and  excellent  Proverbes 
set  downe  scatteringly  here  and  there  in  the 
Scriptures,"  the  following  rendering  is  given  of 
Jeremiah,  ch.  xiii.  v.  23.  :  "  Can  the  blackamoore 
chaunge  his  skinne,  or  leopard  his  blew  spots." 

Does  any  version  of  the  English  Bible  contain  this 
translation  ?  Whence  the  idea  that  the  spots  of 
the  leopard  were  blue  ?  W.  G.  L. 

Westbourne  Grove. 

[This  work  is  by  Peter  Muffet,  and  was  first  printed  in 
1592,  by  Richard  Field  for  R.  Dexter,  8vo..  and  dedicated 
to  Edward  Earle  of  Bedford.  P.  Muffet  was  also  author 
of  "  The  Excellencie  of  the  Mistery  of  Christ  Jesus  de- 
clared in  an  Exposition  vpon  1  Tim.  iii.  16.,"  1590.  See 
Herbert's  Ames,  pp.  1236.  1254. 1358.] 

Author  of  "  A  Remedy  against  Superstition.''''  — 
Who  was  the  author  of  A  Remedy  against  Super- 
stition,  or  a  Pastor's  Furewel  to  a  beloved  Flock, 
privately  printed  in  the  year  1667.  The  epistle 
dedicatory  is  addressed  "  To  his  truly  honoured 
friends  of  the  county  of  Devon."  A  copy  in  my 
possession  contains  an  addendum  in  MS.  for  which 
it  is  hard  to  account,  unless  it  be  from  the  pen  of 
the  author,  as  there  is  no  list  of  errata  in  the 
book.  W.  G.  L. 

Westbourne  Grove. 

[This  work  is  hy  William  Crompton,  minister  of  Col- 
luinpton  in  Devonshire,  but  ejected  at  the  Restoration  for 
nonconformity.  "  He  lived  at  CoUumpton  and  sometimes 
at  Exeter,"  says  Wood,  "  carrying  on  at  those  places  and 
elsewhere  a  constant  course  (if  not  hindred)  of  preaching 
in  conventicles,  especially  in  1678-9,  when  the  popish 
plot  broke  out,  and  the  faction  endeavoured  to  obtain 
their  designs  by  it,  when  then  he  preached  in  despight  of 
authority,  as  also  when  king  James  II.  and  William  III. 
reigned."  See  Wood's  Athenw,  by  Bliss,  vol.  iv.  626., 
for  a  list  of  his  works.  In  a  copy  of  his  Remedy  against 
Siiperstition  before  us,  the  Errata  is  printed  on  a  separate 
slip,  and  pasted  on  the  last  leaf,] 

Duntoiis  *'  Summer  Ramble.'"  —  Dunton,  in  his 
Dublin  Scuffle,  frequently  alludes  to  his  intended 
publication,  which  he  calls  his  Summer  Ramble  [in 
Ireland].  Query,  was  it  ever  published,  and  if 
so,  in  what  year  ?  James  Graves,  Clerk. 


[This  Ramble,  so  frequently  referred  to  in  Dunton's 
Conversation  in  Ireland,  and  The  Dublin  Scuffle,  was  pre- 
pared for  the  press,  but  has  never  yet  been  printed.  The 
MS.  is  in  the  Rawlinson  Collection  in  the  Bodleian, 
No.  71.] 

The  Minerva  of  Sanctius.  —  Sir  William  Ha- 
milton says  in  a  note,  in  his  Discussions  on  Philo- 
sophy — 

"  To  master  the  Minerva  of  Sanctius  and  his  commen- 
tators is  a  far  more  profitable  exercise  of  mind  than  to 
conquer  the  Principia  of  Newton." 

Who  is  the  Minerva  of  Sanctius  ?  who  are  his 
commentators  ?  where  is  it  to  be  got  ?  and  what 
is  it  about  ?  Enquirer. 

[Francisco  Sanchez  (Lat.  Sanctius  Brocensis),  was  an 
eminent  Spanish  grammarian,  born  in  1523,  and  died  in 
1601.  The  work  which  gained  him  most  reputation  was 
his  Minerva,  sen  de  Causis  Linguaj  Latinee  Commentarius, 
Salamanca,  1587,  8vo.  This  was  often  reprinted  during 
the  sixteenth  century,  and  in  more  modern  times  at  Am- 
sterdam, 1754,  1761,  8vo.,  with  remarks  by  Scioppius, 

2"J  S.  N"  33.,  Aua  IG.  '56.] 



and  annotations  by  Perizonius.  Another  edition  was 
published  at  Utrecht,  1795,  with  the  additions  of  Everard 
Scheid;  and  a  third  at  Leipsic  in  1793—1804,  with  the 
notes  of  Perizonius,  and  those  of  Charles  Lewis  Bauer. 
See  a  notice  of  him  in  Kose's  Biog.  Dictionary.'] 

"  The  Shepherd  of  Banbury."  —  I  am  most 
anxious  to  ascei'tain  where  I  can  find  any  account 
of  "  The  Shepherd  of  Banbury."  It  is  a  book  or 
personage  learned  on  the  subject  of  the  weather, 
and  he  or  it  is  quoted  as  a  first  authority  on  the 
point  by  many  in  the  midland  districts. 


[This  work  is  entitled  The  Shepherd  of  Banhiry's 
Rules  to  judge  of  the  Changes  of  Weather,  grounded  on 
Forty  Years'  Experience,  Sj-c.  By  John  Claridge,  Shep- 
lierd,  8vo.,  1744 ;  and  reprinted  in  1827.  It  is  a  worlc  of 
sjreat  popularity  among  the  poor,  and  is  attributed  to 
Dr.  John  Campbell,  author  of  A  Political  Survey  of 
Britain.  It  is  mostly  a  compilation  from  A  Rational 
Account  of  the  Weather,  by  John  Pointer,  Rector  of  Slap- 
ton,  in  Northamptonshire.] 

Names  of  the  Days  of  the  Week.  —  Ancient 
deeds  are  frequently  dated  the  day  of  the  week  on 
which  they  were  executed,  e.  g.  Die  Jovis,  Die 
Mercurii,  &c.  Will  you,  or  any  of  your  corre- 
spondents, be  so  good  as  to  give  me  the  name  of 
heathen  deity,  &c.,  to  which  each  day  was  dedi- 
cated ?  B. 

[The  following  are  the  names  of  the  heathen  deities; 
Dies  Solis  ...     Sunday. 

-  Monday. 

-  Tuesday. 

Dies  Lunae 
Dies  Martis 

Dies  Mercurii  ....  Wednesday. 

Dies  Jovis  ....  Thursday. 

Dies  A''eneris  ...  Friday. 

Dies  Saturni  ...  Saturday. 

In  some  ancient  deeds  we  find  the  equivalent  terms  Dies 
Dominica  for  Sunday,  and  Dies  Subhati  for  Saturday.  ] 


(2"^  S.  i.  293.  321.  400,  521 ;  ii.  78.) 

The  question  respecting  the  name  of  this  gen- 
tleman still  remains  a  quibble.  There  is  no  doubt 
that  he  was  christened  "  Montgomery,"  and  I  ap- 
prehend that  the  Weston  where  he  was  christened 
is  the  pretty  little  village  of  that  name,  now  al- 
most forming  part  of  Bath,  which  was  the  scene 
of  annual  poetic  fetes  in  the  Johnsonian  and 
flourishing  days  of  Aqua  Solis.  But  the  point 
sought  is,  whether  or  not  his  father  bore  the  said 
surname.  I  knew,  and  well,  both  Robert  and  his 
father.  He,  Robert,  was  the  natural  son  of  Mr, 
Gomery,  the  clown,  a  most  gentlemanly  and  very 
well-informed  man,  and,  decidedly,  homme  a 
bonnes  fortunes^  by  a  lady  who  kept  a  school  at 
Bath,  and  who,  subsequently,  removed  from  that 

city  and  married  a  respectable  schoolmaster.  One 
of  the  best  traits  in  Robert  was  his  afTeetion  for 
this  mother,  and  amply  she  deserved  it  of  him  ; 
she  gave  him  an  excellent  education,  and  brought 
him  up  carefully  and  religiously.  Now,  I  have  a 
suspicion  (rather,  an  impression  that  I  once  saw 
him  perform  under  the  name)  that  Mr,  Gomery 
occasionally  in  his  career  prefixed  to  his  name  the 
aristocratic  "Mont."  He  was  exceedingly  am- 
bitious to  sink  the  clown  in  the  actor  ;  and,  when 
engaged  solely  in  the  latter  capacity,  became,  I 
suspect,  Montgomery,  I  have  little  doubt,  more- 
over, that  when  in  his  younger  days  recommend- 
ing himself  to  "  a  gentle  belle,"  he  would  hint  that 
such  was  his  name  of  right.  Still,  it  may  be 
that,  as  Robert  assured  me  soon  after  his  father 
had  introduced  him  to  me  as,  to  use  his  own 
words,  a  would-be  Byron,  his  father  was  son  or 
grandson  of  the  General  Montgomery  of  the  Ame- 
rican war ;  he  may  have  been  a  legal,  may  have 
been  a  natural,  descendant  of  the  general. 

Were  Grimaldi  alive,  he  could  most  likely  have 
settled  the  question.  As  it  is,  not  improbably  Mr. 
T.  Matthews,  the  leading  clown  of  our  more  imme- 
diate day,  may  be  able  to  cut  the  Gordian  knot. 
Should  there  be  surviving  any  sons  or  daughters 
(there  is,  I  fancy,  a  daughter,  Mrs,  J,  Bennett, 
living  in  Exeter,  at  least  there  was  three  years 
since)  of  the  late  Mr.  Richard  Hughes,  proprietor 
of  Sadler's  Wells  Theatre  in  the  days  of  Evelina, 
they  would  be  the  parties  most  likely  to  know  the 
truth  ;  since  Mr.  Gomery  was  in  boyhood  a  com- 
panion of  Grimaldi,  who,  according  to  Mr.  Dick- 
ens's biography  of  the  modern  Momus,  came  out 
at  the  Wells  under  Mr.  Hughes's  management, 
when  about  six  years  old,  and,  I  fancy,  first  ap- 
peared there  himself.  Like  our  great  pantomim- 
ist,  Mr.  Gomery  was  an  ardent  entomologist ;  and 
I  have  known  him  make  long  excursions  and 
"  watch  o'  nights,"  not  to  rob  the  king's  exchequer, 
but  to  surprise  Tiger-moth,  or  Queen  Imperial, 
or  Sphynx,  et  id  genus  omne. 

Mr.  Gomery,  as  I  have  remarked,  was  a  well- 
informed  man ;  indeed  from  his  tact,  good-breed- 
ing, and  general  knowledge,  he  might  not  only 
have  passed  muster  in  any  society,  but  from  his 
entertaining  and  aptly-applied  fund  of  anecdote 
would  have  been  esteemed  a  most  desirable  and 
entertaining  companion.  And  he  deserves  a  pass- 
ing word  in  "N.  &  Q."  by  way  of  hint  to  the 
future  historian  of  the  stage^  His  clown  was  sui 
generis,  a  thing  of  art ;  not  clown  in  the  Grimaldi 
sense  of  the  word,  the  broadly  humorous ;  or 
in  the  Bradbury,  i.  e.  the  acrobatic  and  neck- 
venturing,  but  a  blending  of  English  clown  and 
Gallic  Pierrot  —  quaint,  easy,  and  presenting  a 
something  which  I  must  term  the  oriental  element, 
combining  a  sort  of  pictorial  diablerie  with  the 
farcical :  for  want  of  a  better  term  to  express  his 
pantomime,  he    was,  indeed,    ordinarily  known 



[;2nd  s.  No  33.,  ArG.  16.  '56. 

among  his  stage-brethren  as  the  "  gentleman- 

A  word  more,  as  still  appertaining  to  "  N.  & 
Q."  He  married,  as  one  of  your  correspondents 
states,  a  Mrs.  Power,  who  had  a  very  handsome 
house  at  Lambridge,  Bath,  and  who,  previously  to 
this  marriage,  was  mother  of  a  family  of  ten  or 
twelve  children  by  Sir  Andrew  Bayntum,  with 
whom  she  lived  for  many  years,  and  conducted 
herself  as  a  wife,  and  by  whom  the  house  and  a 
good  income  were  bequeathed  her.  There  were 
several  Morlands  which  came  to  her  with  the 
house.  I  should  like  to  know  where  they  have 
winged  their  way  ;  but,  still  more,  what  may  have 
become  of  a  Diary,  kept  either  by  Sir  Andrew  or 
his  father,  I  forget  which,  and  which,  though  it 
might  not  be  worth  publishing  in  extenso,  would 
certainly,  unless  I  egregiously  err,  afford  many 
valuable  pickings,  particularly  as  regards  courtly 
gossip  in  the  elder  Georges'  days,  to  "  N".  &  Q." 


Your  correspondent  (3.  y.  5.  (p.  78.)  should  have 
read  my  communication.  He  needlessly  asks, 
"  What  would  convince  G.  ?"  And  says,  "A  Bath 
Directory  is  of  no  weight  against  a  baptismal 
register."  I  beg  to  remind  him  that  my  affirma- 
tion was,  that  the  statement  given  by  D.  (2"''  S. 
i.  293.),  as  to  the  name  of  Robert  Montgomery's 
father,  was  correct;  and  I  have  shown  that  he 
lived,  was  married,  and  died  by  the  name  of 
Gomery,  —  a  fact  well  known  to  the  inhabitants 
of  Bath.  As  to  the  baptismal  register,  to  which  I 
did  not  happen  to  refer,  I  have  only  to  say  that 
if  it  is  producible,  and  is  worth  anything,  I  do  not 
see  why  it  should  be  withheld.  No  man's  repu- 
tation can  be  promoted  by  attempts  to  mystify 
either  his  parentage  or  baptism.  Your  corre- 
spondent D.  (2'"'  S.  ii.  37.),  who  inquires  at  what 
"Weston"  Robert  Montgomery  may  have  been 
christened  ?  should  try  "  Weston,  near  Bath,"  the 
worthy  vicar  of  which  is  the  Rev.  John  Bond.   G. 


(2"'i  S.  ii.  69.) 
Vossius  says : 

"  Non  h  satagendo,  ut  Perottus  putabat :  sed  h  Syriaco 
satel,  id  est  latus,  quia  latus  stipat,  ut  idem  sit  ac  antiqua 
lingua  erat  latro  :  quem  Varro  similiter  sic  dici  credidit, 
quia  latus  cingeret.  Servius  in  xir.  Mn.  Varro  dicit  hoc 
nomen  posse  habere  etiam  Latinam  etymologiam  ut  latrones 
dicti  sint,  quasi  laterones,  quia  circa  latera  regum  sunt, 
quos  nunc  satellites  vocant." 

Salmon  (^Stemmata  Latinitatis,  London,  1796) 

says : 

"  Satelles  I  have  marked  as  coming  from  the  Greek, 
because  it  seems  to  me  to  come  from  <ra  for  fita  (see  note 
on  sapio^  and  re'AAw  or  riXXofiai,  I  make  or  execHte,  arise. 

bid,  or  order,  send ;  whence  reXXi?,  -ew?,  part,  the  whole, 
order ;  whence  also  reAos,  end,  duty,  or  tax  (on  entering 
or  going  out),  expense,  magistracy,  magistrate,  troop, 
legidns,  squadron,  &c. :  SiareAXu  is  not  found,  but  may 
have  been  used,  as  well  as  SiareKeay,  I  go  through,  perse- 
vere, last ;  since  we  find  ivTeWia  or  evTeWofi-ai,  I  enjoin  or 
command,  I  commission  or  charge.  And  what  is  a  satel- 
lite but  one  (of  a  troop)  always  near  his  master,  exe- 
cuting, or  ready  to  execute,  his  orders  ?  " 

Lemon  (Eng,  Etym.,  London,  1783)  says  : 

Satellites.  S.d8<a  Dor.  for  XiJ^w,  latus,  quia  lateat  con- 
daturque  sub  axillis ;  h  latus  fit  Satelles,  quod  circa  la- 
tera regum  sint ;  id  quod  antiquitus  latro,  quasi  latero ; 
a  life  guardsman,  who  antiently  waited  at  the  sides  of 
princes ;  also  used  in  astronomy  to  signify,"  &c. 

Diderot  CEncy.)  ■says  : 

"  Chez  les  empereurs  d'orient,  ce  mot  satellite  signifioit 
la  dignity  ou  I'oiBce  de  capitaine  des  gardes  du  corps.  Ce 
terme  fut  ensuite  applique  aux  rapaux  des  seigneurs,  et 
enfin  k  tous  ceux  qui  tenoient  les  fiefs,  appelles  Sergen- 
terie.  Ce  terme  ne  se  prend  plus  aujourd'hui  qu'en  mau- 
vaise  part.  On  dit  les  gardes  d'un  roi  et  les  satellites  d'un 

But  see'  also  Du  Cange  (Gloss.),  Gesner  (Thes. 
Ling.  Lat),  and  Dufresne  (Gloss.  Med.  et  Inf. 

Satila,  satal,  to  follow.  I  do  not  know  of  any 
European  words  derived  from  Arabic  verbs,  but 
there  are  many  (particularly  Spanish)  derived 
from  Arabic  nouns,  not  now  to  be  found  either  in 
Meninski,  Golius,  or  in  any  Lexicon  that  I  have 
seen.  R-  S.  Charnock. 


(2°«  S.  i.  473.  495.) 

The  historical  credit  of  the  received  story  re- 
specting the  preservation  of  the  Capitol  by  the 
geese,  set  forth  in  a  former  Note,  depends  in  great 
measure  upon  the  vigilant  habits  of  this  bird,  and 
of  its  superiority  to  the  dog  as  a  guardian.  Having 
consulted  Professor  Owen  upon  this  point  of 
natural  history,  I  received  from  that  distinguished 
naturalist  an  answer,  which,  with  his  permission,  I 
lay  before  the  readers  of  "  N.  &  Q.,"  in  illustra- 
tion of  my  former  remarks.  The  alertness  and 
watchfulness  of  the  wild  goose,  which  have  made 
its  chase  proverbially  difficult,  appear,  from  this 
decisive  testimony,  to  be  characteristic  of  the  bird 
in  its  domesticated  state.  The  establishment  of 
this  fact  unquestionably  confirms  the  traditionary 
account  of  their  preservation  of  the  Capitol.  The 
following  is  Professor  Owen's  letter.  The  cottage 
where  he  resides  is  in  Richmond  Park. 

"  Opposite  the  cottage  where  I  live  is  a  pond,  which  is 
frequented  during  the  summer  by  two  brood-flocks  of 
geese  belonging  to  the  keepers.  These  geese  take  up 
their  quarters  for  the  night  along  the  margin  of  the  pond, 
into  which  they  are  ready  to  plunge  at  a  moment's  notice. 
Several  times  when  I  have  been  up  late,  or  wakeful,  I 
have  heard  the  old  gander  sound  the  alarm,  which  is 

2»4  S.  No  33.,  Aug.  16.  '66.] 



immediately  takea  up,  and  has  been  sometimes  followed 
by  a  simultaneous  plunge  of  the  flocks  into  the  pool. 
On  mentioning  this  to  the  keeper,  he,  quite  aware  of  the 
characteristic  readiness  of  the  geese  to  sound  an  alarm  in 
the  night,  attributed  it  to  the  visit  of  a  foumart,  or  other 
predatory  vermin.  On  other  occasions,  the  cackling  has 
seemed  to  be  caused  by  a  deer  stalking  near  the  flock. 
But  often  has  the  old  Roman  anecdote  occurred  to  me 
when  I  have  been  awoke  by  the  midnight  alarm-notes  of 
my  anserine  neighbours;  and  more  than  once  I  have 
noticed,  when  the  cause  of  alarm  has  been  such  as  to 
excite  the  dogs  of  the  next-door  keeper,  that  the  geese 
were  beforehand  in  giving  loud  warning  of  the  strange 

"  I  have  never  had  the  smallest  sympathy  with  the 
sceptics  as  to  Livj^'s  statement :  it  is  not  a  likely  one  to  be 
feigned ;  it  is  in  exact  accordance  with  the  characteristic 
acuteness  of  sight  and  hearing,  watchfulness,  and  power 
and  instinct  to  utter  alarm-cries,  of  the  goose." 



(2"'i  S.  ii.  68.) 

The  original  song,  beginning,  — 

"  Cope  sent  a  challenge  frae  Dunbar," 
was  written  by  Adam  Skirving,  farmer  of  Garle- 
ton,  near  Haddington  ;  who,  says  Allan  Cunning- 
ham, "  besides  his  gift  of  song-making,  which  was 
considerable,  was  one  of  the  wittiest  and  most 
whimsical  of  mankind."  Adam  Skirving  was  born 
in  1719,  and  died  in  1803.  He  is  called  "Mr. 
Skirvm "  by  Ritson,  "  Mr.  Sklrven "  by  Sten- 
house,  and  ^^ Alexander  Skirving"  by  Cunning- 
ham. He  was  a  remarkably  handsome  man,  free 
and  outspoken  in  his  manners,  and  being  very 
saving  in  money-matters,  he  left  a  considerable 
fortune  to  his  surviving  children.  He  was  twice 
married.  His  eldest  son  by  his  first  marriage, 
Archibald  Skirving,  the  portrait  painter,  who  re- 
sembled him  in  person  and  disposition,  was  well 
known  in  Edinburgh.  The  second  son.  Captain 
Robert  Skirving,  also  inherited  his  father's  poet- 
ical genius.  After  many  years'  service  in  the 
East  Indies,  he  returned  home  in  the  year  1806, 
and  was  living  in  1838  at  Croys,  near  Castle 
Douglas.  A  letter,  containing  some  curious  par- 
ticulars^of  his  father,  was  addressed  by  the  Cap- 
tain to  the  last  editor  of  Johnson's  Scots  Musical 
Museum,  1839,  vol.  ii.  p.  190*. 

The  authority  for  attributing  this  song  to  Adam 
Skirving  rests  upon  the  late  Mr.  Stenhouse  (notes 
to  Musical  Museum,  vol.  iii.  p.  220.)  ;  but,  as  the 
writer  of  the  "Additional  Illustrations"  to  the 
same  work  remarks,  "  Notwithstanding  his  son's 
silence  respecting  the  authorship  of  this  song, 
there  is  no  reason  for  calling  in  question  Mr. 
Stenhouse's  assertion,  as  the  local  character  of  the 
verses,  and  their  caustic  spirit  and  resemblance 
to  his  '  Trament  Muir,'  would  place  this  point,  I 
think,  beyond  all  reasonable  doubt." 

Hogg,  in  the  Second  Series  of  his  JacoUle 
Belies,  1821,  p.  308.,  says  : 

"  This  song,  so  generally  a  favourite  throughout  Scot- 
land, is  certainly  more  indebted  for  its  popularity  to  the 
composer  of  the  air,  than  the  poet  who  wrote  the  verses. 
The  tune  is  really  excellent,  but  the  verses,  take  which 
set  we  will,  are  commonplace  enough.  Yet  I  scarcely 
know  a  song  that  so  many  people  are  fond  of.  For  my 
part  1  love  it,  and  ever  will,  because  it  was  a  chief  fa- 
vourite with  my  late  indulgent  and  lamented  master  and 
friend,  the  Duke  of  Buccleugh,  whom  I  have  often  heard 
sing  it  with  great  glee." 

"Johnnie  Cope"  is  still  a  universal  favourite  in 
Scotland,  and  no  song,  perhaps,  has  So  many  dif- 
ferent "  sets."  Allan  Cunningham  mentions  that 
he  once  heard  a  peasant  boast,  among  other  ac- 
quirements, that  he  could  sing  "  Johnnie  Cope," 
with  all  the  nineteen  variations  ! 

Copies  of  the  various  sets  may  be  seen  in  Hogg's 
Jacobite  Relics;  Allan  Cunningham's  Songs  of  Scot- 
land; Gilchrist's  Ancient  and  Modern  Scottish  Bal- 
lads;  Jacobite  Minstrelsy,  18mo.,  Glasgow,  1829; 
Ritson's  Scottish  Songs ;  Johnson's  Scots  Musical 
Museum,  &c. 

The  old  air  of  "Johnnie  Cope"  originally  con- 
sisted of  one  strain,  the  author  of  which  is  un- 
known. The  earliest  copies  appear  in  Oswald's 
Caledonian  Pocket  Companion,  and  in  Johnson's 
Scots  Musical  Museum.      Edward  F.  Rimbault. 

Upon  a  reference  to  Chevalier  Johnstone's  Me- 
moirs of  the  Rebellion,  1745,  your  correspondent 
Mr.  Knowles  will  find  much  interesting  matter 
relative  to  Sir  John  Cope.  The  best  edition  of 
the  work  is  the  one  published  in  1822,  8vo.  The 
author  of  the  song,  "  Hey,  Johnnie  Cope,"  &c.,  was 
Adam  Skirving,  farmer,  Haddington ;  full  parti- 
culars of  whom,  and  his  various  songs,  will  be  found 
in  Stenhouse's  Illustrations  of  the  Lyric  Poetry  and 
Music  of  Scotland,  by  Laing  and  Sharpe,  8vo., 
1853.  T.G.S. 



(2"^  S.  ii.  48.) 

Amongst  notes  collected  by  the  writer  from 
various  sources  relating  to  Gloucestershire  fa- 
milies are  the  following : 

Gamage  of  Gamage.  William  Gamage  was 
Sheriff  of  Gloucestershire  with  another  in  1325. 

There  is  a  place  called  Gamage  Hall  in  Dymock 
(co.  Glou.). 

Mune  was  anciently  a  manor  within  the  manor 
of  Dymock.  It  was  granted  to  William  _de  Ga- 
mage, 1  John ;  and  Jeffry,  his  son  and  heir,  died 
seised  of  it,  and  of  lOl.  rent  in  Dymock,  in 
37  Hen.  III. 

Elizabeth,  daughter  and  sole  heiress  of  the  last- 



[2nds,  No33.,AtTG.  16.'56. 

named,  married  John  Perabrugg,  into  whose 
family  she  conveyed  it. 

The  arms,  as  given  by  Sir  Robt.  Atkyns,  are  as 
follows  :  Arg.  nine  fusils  in  bend,  gules,  on  a  chief 
azure  three  escallops,  or. 

In  Berry's  Dictionary  of  Heraldry  the  arms  of 
Gamage  (of  Coyte  and  Royiade,  Hertfordshire) 
are  substantially  the  same,  viz.  Arg.  five  fusils  in 
bend  gules,  on  a  chief  az.  three  escallops,  or. 
Crest,  a  griffin  segreant,  or. 

In  Dr.  Strong's  Heraldry  of  Herefordshire  is 
mentioned  a  Godfrey  Gamage,  of  Mansell  Ga- 
mage, Herefordshire,  temp.  Edw.  III.,  bearing 
the  same  arms.  Mansell  Gamage  was  one  of  the 
chief  possessions  of  the  ancient  family  of  Pem- 
bruge  long  after  this  period.  Cooper  Hill. 


The  following  Notes  may  assist  the  researches 
of  Anon.  : 

"  Gamage  (Coyte  and  Roj'iade,  co.  Hertford).  Ar.  five 
fusils  in  bend  gu.  on  a  chief  az.  three  escallops  or.  Crest, 
a  griffin  segreant,  or. 

"  Gamack  (Clerkenshalls,  Scotland).  Gu.  a  bend  en- 
grailed ar."  —  Burke's  General  Armory. 

There  are  seven  other  entries  in  that  book  to  the 
name  of  Oamach  or  Gamage,  Gamadge  or  Ga- 
mage, and  Gamage,  with  similar  arms. 

In  the  account  of  "  The  Winning  of  the  Lord- 
ship of  Glamorgan  or  Morgannwe  out  of  the 
Welshmen's  Hands,"  said  to  be  written  by  Sir 
Edward  Stradling,  of  St.  Douat's  Castle,  Glamor- 
ganshire, there  is  some  information  respecting  the 
Gamage  family,  their  connections  and  estates. 
It  is  prefixed  to  Wynne's  edition  of  Powell's 
translation  of  J'he  History  of  Wales,  by  Caradoc 
of  Llancarvau,  p.  xxiii.  ed.  1774. 

In  p.  xxxiv.  one  Paine  Gama§e  is  mentioned  as 
"  Lord  of  the  Manor  of  Rogiade  in  the  county  of 

There  is  now  a  parish  in  Monmouthshire  called 
Roggiet,  "  in  the  hundred  of  Caldicott,  6i  miles 
S.W.  from  Chepstow."  See  Lewis's  Topograph. 
Diet,  of  England. 

I  accidentally  stumbled  upon  these  particulars 
a  day  or  two  ago  :  they  may,  perhaps,  help  your 
anonymous  querist.  J.  W.  Phillips. 

Haverfordwest.    - 

The  Liber  Niger  of  Christ  Church  Cathedral, 
Dublin,  which  contains  copies  of  r^ncient  charters 
and  various  other  documents  relating  to  the  archbi- 
shopric, states  that  Andrew  Gamage  was  sergeant 
to  Archbishop  Luke  [1228  to  about  1251],  in  his 
manor  of  Ballymore.  He  was  one  of  the  feoffees 
by  charter,  and  held  in  that  manor  to  himself  and 
his  heirs  half  a  carucate  of  land  for  l2s.Gd.  a-year. 
His  name  also  occurs  as  a  juror  to  prove  the 
customs  and  liberties  of  Ballymore.    The  great 

roll  of  the  Pipe  in  the  Record  Tower  of  Dublin 
Castle  contains  the  account  of  Master  Thomas  de 
Chaddisworth,  as  custodee  of  the  temporalities  of 
the  see,  during  its  vacancy  from  1251  to  1257. 
In  his  "  discharge  "  of  the  profits  of  the  manor  of 
Ballimore,  he  paid  "to  Walter  Gamage  for  a 
horse  for  the  King's  use,  11."  The  Liber  Niger 
contains  a  list  of  the  jurors  empanelled  to  try  the 
extent  of  the  manor  in  1325  ;  in  it  are  the  names 
of  Richard  and  Robert  Gamage.  E.  D.  B. 


Anon,  is  informed  that  about  seventy  years  ago 
an  ancient  maiden  lady,  named  Gamage,  died  in 
the  Sidbury,  Woi'cester,  where  she  had  long  re- 
sided. She  was  very  intimate  with  my  family, 
which  had  in  1760  removed  from  Herefordshire, 
and  settled  in  Worcester.  Ogdo. 

fUzplitg  to  Minav  ^utviti. 

Suffragan  Bishops  (2"''  S.  ii.  91.)  —  I  can  give 
you  some  information  respecting  two  or  three  of 
the  bishops  named  in  the  extract  from  Sir  Thos. 
Phillipps's  Wiltshire  Institutions,  given  by  your 
correspondent  Patonce  :  — 

L  "  Robertus  Imelacensis  Episcopus."  This 
was  a  Franciscan  friar,  an  Englishman,  who  was 
appointed  Bishop  of  Emly,  in  Ireland,  by  the 
Pope's  provision,  Feb.  1,  1429.  His  name  was 
Robert  Portland,  or  Poetlan  (Wadding,  Annates 
Minorum,  torn.  v.  p.  203.,  ad  an.  1429  ;  Regist. 
Pontif,  Ibid.,  p.  173.  It  does  not  appear  that  ho 
ever  took  possession  of  the  see.  Another  (or  per- 
haps the  same)  Robert  of  England,  also  a  Fran- 
ciscan, is  mentioned  as  appointed  to  the  same 
bishopric  in  1444,  by  provision  of  Pope  Eugene 
IV.  (Wadding,  Ibid,  p.  456.,  ad  an.  1444.) 

2.  "  Jacobus  Dei  gratia  Akardensis  episcopus." 
This  was  James  Blakedon,  or  Blackden,  a  Domi- 
nican friar,  and  Doctor  of  Divinity,  who  was 
appointed  Achadensis  episcopus,  i.  e.  Bishop  of 
Achonry,  in  Ireland,  by  provision  of  Pope  Eugene 
IV.,  Oct.  15,  1442.  See  De  Burgo,  Hibernia 
Dominicana,  p.  473. 

This  bishop  was  translated  to  Bangor  irrN'orth 
Wales,  in  1452  ;  and  died  there,  Oct.  24,  1464. 
See  Goodwin,  de  Prasulihiis  Anglice. 

3.  "  Simon,  Connerensis  Episcopus,"  was  a  Do- 
minican friar,  who  was  appointed  Bishop  of  Con- 
nor, in  Ireland,  by  provision  of  Pope  Pius  II., 
Feb.  12,  1459.  See  De  Burgo,  Hib,  Dominicana, 
p.  475. 

4.  "Johannes  Mayonensis  episcopus."  This 
was  John  Bell,  a  Franciscan,  who  was  made 
Bishop  of  Mayo,  in  Ireland,  Nov.  5,  1493  (Wad- 
ding, Annal.  Minorum,  torn.  vii.  p.  314). 

James  PI.  Todd. 
Trin.  Coll.,  Dublin.^ 

2"^  S.  No  38.,  Aug.  16.  *56.3 



Poem  about  a  Mummy  (2"'*  S.  ii.  87.)  —  Proba- 
bly the  poem  your  correspondent  A.  A.  D.  in- 
quires for  is  The  Answer  of  the  Egijptian  Mummy, 
in  reply  to  the  Addi-ess  to  an  Egyptian  Mummy,  a 
poem  written  at  the  unrolling  of  a  mummy  some 
years  ago.  The  Address,  which  is  a  poem  of  con- 
siderable merit,  and  of  no  little  interest,  was  at- 
tributed to  Mr.  Roscoe,  and  has  been  several  times 

The  Answer  was,  what  your  correspondent  calls 
it,  —  droll,  and  describes  the  mummies'  "  ex- 
periences "  of  three  thousand  years  ago.  It  was 
printed  in  the  Saturday  Magazine  of  the  Christian 
Knowledge  Society  for  April  26,  1834,  to  which  I 
beg  to  refer  A.  A.  D.  I  may  just  name  as  well 
that  the  Address  itself  was  also  reprinted  in  the 
same  magazine  for  February  22,  in  the  same  year. 
Llewellynn  Jewitt,  F.S.A. 


I  think  that  your  correspondent^A.  A.  D.  must 
refer  to  an  "  Address  to  the  Mummy  in  Belzoni's 
Exhibition,"  written  by  Horace  Smith,  and  origin- 
ally published  in  the  New  Monthly  Magazine. 
Perhaps  the  quotation  of  one  of  the  stanzas  may 
refresh  A.  A.  D.'s  memory. 

"  I  need  not  ask  thee  if  that  hand,  now  calmed. 
Has  any  Roman  soldier  mauled  and  knuckled, 
For  thou  wert  dead,  and  buried,  and  embalmed, 

Ere  Romulus  and  Remus  had  been  suckled : 
Antiquity  appears  to  have  begun 
Long  after  thy  primeval  race  was  run." 

John  Pavin  Phillips. 


In  a  work  upon  the  Plurality  of  Worlds,  by 
Alex.  Copland,  Advocate,  Bvo.,  Lond.  and  Edin., 
1834,  there  is  a  poem  entitled  "  The  Mummy 
Awake,"  which  may  be  what  A.  A.  D.  wants. 

J.  O. 

There  is  a  story  by  Edgar  Poe,  among  his 
Tales  of  Mystery,  &c.,  entitled  "  Some  Words  with 
a  Mummy,"  which  pretty  nearly  answers  the 
description  given  by  A.  A.  D.,  except  that  it  is  in 
prose.  It  may  be  found  in  vol.  i.  pp.  212.  599., 
in  an  edition  published  by  Vizetelly  in  1852, 
among  the  series  of  "  Readable  Books." 

H.  A.  C. 

Mr.  Bathursfs  Disappearance  (2"^  S.  ii.  48. 95.) 
—  Has  there  not  been  a  story  going  the  rounds  of 
the  English  and  foreign  papers,  since  the  publica- 
tion of  JBishop  Bathurst's  Life  by  his  son,  the  late 
archdeacon,  to  the  effect  that  some  human  bones 
had  been  found  in  making  alterations  in  the 
"  Post  House  at  (I  think)  Perleberg,"  where  the 
disappearance  took  place,  which  were  supposed  to 
be  those  of  Mr.  Bathurst.  Probably  it  is  a 
"  canard."  If  I  am  right  in  fixing  on  Perleberg 
as  the  locus  in  quo,  it  is  hardly  "  pr&s  de  Ham- 
bourg?"    I  once  heard  the  subject  discussed  in 

a  German  diligence.  The  opinion  expressed  was, 
that  he  had  committed  suicide  ;  throwing  himself 
into  some  tributary  of  the  Elbe,  then  swollen  by 
rains,  whilst  his  horses  were  being  fed  at  the  post. 
The  loss  of  his  dispatches  was  the  reason  assigned 
for  the  commission  of  this  rash  act  of  desperation. 
How  these  dispatches  were  lost  was  a  disputed 
point ;  but  the  opinion  of  the  diligence  was,  that 
either  Russia,  or  our  ally  Austria,  and  not  France, 
had  a  hand  in  their  disappearance.  J.  H.  L. 

To  settle  divers  errors,  let  me  state,  as  a  rela- 
tive of  the  wife  of  Mr.  Benjamiti  Bathurst,  that 
she  was  the  eldest  daughter  of  Sir  John  Call  of 
Whiteford  House,  Cornwall,  and  sister  to  the  late 
Sir  William  Call.  Lady  Aylmer,  who  is  alive, 
is  her  sister.  Mrs.  Bathurst's  only  surviving 
daughter  is  the  Countess  of  Castle  Stuart,  not  the 
Dowager  Countess.  A.  Holt  White. 

A  Noble  Cook  (2"'^  S.  ii.  87.)  —  I  have  heard 
this  extract  alluded  to  the  Lord  Aston  of  that 
day.  The  title  is  now,  I  believe,  extinct.  The 
last  lord  was  in  holy  orders.  In  a  statement  of 
the  case  of  the  soi-disant  Earl  of  Stirling  (no  very 
good  authority),  with  a  view  of  showing  that 
other  Scotch  claimants  of  peerages  had  not  com- 
plied with  the  orders  of  the  House  of  Lords,  it  is 
alleged  — 

"  The  Lord  Aston,  whose  name  does  not  even  stand  on 
the  Roll  of  Scotch  Peers,  has  still  been  allowed  to  keep 
his  title,  and  to  be  denominated  as  Lord  Aston  in  the 
Commission  of  the  Peace  for  the  County  of  Worcester." 

I  presume  this  lord  was  a  descendant  of  the 
cook.  J.  H.  L . 

"  God  save  the  King  "  (2°'^  S.  ii.  96.)  —  Dr. 
Gauntlett,  in  his  note  upon  this  tune,  has  gone 
out  of  the  way  to  point  out  an  error  of  the  late 
Dr.  Crotch's.  In  so  doing  he  has  made  a  "  ludi- 
crous mistake  "  himself.  The  author  of  the  chant 
in  D  minor  was  not  "William  Morley  of  1740," 
but  William  Morley,  Gent.,  of  the  Chapel  Royal, 
whose  death  is  recorded  in  the  cheque  book  of 
that  establishment  to  have  taken  place  Oct.  29, 
1721.  The  correct  date  is  of  some  value  in  Dft. 
Gauntlett's  argument.    Edward  F.  Rimbault. 

Order  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem  (2°'^  S.  i.  460.) 
—  Does  not  E.  H.  A.  confound  two  different 
orders  ?  The  order  of  the  Temple  was  surely 
quite  different  from  that  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem 
or  the  Knights  Hospitallers,  and  the  one  body,  if 
my  memory  does  not  fail  me,  was  generally  in 
rivalry,  not  to  say  hostility,  to  the  other.     /3.  \.  5. 

"  Blawn-sheres  "  (2"'*  S.  ii.  Q5.)  —  The  word  to 
which  G.  refers  is  sewells,  not  sewers.  It  is  ex- 
plained by  Mr.  Halliwell  as  a  "scarecrow" 
made  of  feathers,  to  scare  deer  from  breaking  the 
fences.  Mackenzie  Walcott,  M.A. 



[2°'J  S.  No  83.,  Aug.  16.  '56. 

Eatoiis  Sermon  (2"'^  S.  i.  516.;  ii.  93.)  —  In 
that  singular  book,  Cotton  Mather's  Magnalia 
Christi  Americana  (Lond.  1702,  fol.),  is  a  notice 
of  Mr.  Samuel  Eaton.  As  the  work  is  rare,  I 
have  transcribed  the  passage  for  Mr.  Aspland  : 

"  He  was  the  Son  of  Mr.  Richard  Eaton,  the  Vicar  of 
Great  Burdtvorth  in  Cheshire,  and  the  Brother  of  Mr. 
Theophilus  Eaton,  the  Renowned  Govenour  of  New- Haven. 
His  Education  was  at  the  University  of  Oxford:  And 
because  it  will  doubtless  recommend  to  find  such  a  Pen, 
as  that  which  wrote  the  Athence  Oxoniensis  thus  Charac- 
terising of  him,  Reader,  thou  shalt  have  the  very  Words 
of  that  Writer,  concerning  him :  After  he  had  left  the 
University,  he  entred  into  the  Sacred  Function,  took  Orders 
according  to  the  Church  o/*  England,  and  was  Beneficed  in 
his  Country :  But  having  been  puritanically  Educated,  he 
did  dissent  in  some  Particulars  thereof.  Whereupon  finding 
his  Place  too  warm  for  him,  he  Revolted,  and  went  into  New- 
England,  and  Preached  among  the  Brethren  there.  But 
let  us  have  no  more  of  this  Wood!  Mr.  Eaton  was  a 
very  Holy  Man,  and  a  Person  of  great  Learning  and 
Judgment,  and  a  most  Incomparable  Preacher.  But  upon 
his  Dissent  from  Mr.  Davenport,  about  the  Narrow  Terms, 
and  Forms  of  Civil  Government,  by  Mr.  Davenport,  then 
forced  upon  that  Infant-Colony,  his  Brother  advised  him 
to  a  Removal:  And  calling  at  Boston  by  the  way,  when 
he  was  on  his  Removal,  the  Church  there  were  so  highly 
affected  with  his  Labours,  thus  occasionally  enjoyed 
among  them,  that  they  would  fain  have  engaged  him 
unto  a  Settlement  in  that  Place.  But  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  had  more  Service  for  him  in  Old-England,  than  he 
could  have  done  in  New;  and  therefore  arriving  Tn  Eng- 
land, he  became  the  Pastor  of  a  Church  at  Duckenfield, 
in  the  Parish  of  Stochfort,  in  Cheshire,  and  afterwards  at 
Stockport;  and  a  Person  of  Eminent  Note  and  Use,  not 
only  in  that,  but  also  in  the  Neighbour- County. 

"  A^iex  \X\Q  Restoration  of  K.  Charles  \\.  he  underwent 
first  Silencing,  and  then  much  other  Suffering,  from  the 
Persecution,  which  yet  calls  for  a  National  Repentance. 
He  was  the  author  of  many  Books,  and  especially  of  some 
in  Defence  of  the  Christian  Faith,  about  the  God-Read 
of  Christ,  against  the  Socinian  Blasphemies  :  And  his  Help 
was  joined  unto  Mr.  Timothy  Tailors,  in  writing  some 
Treatises  entituled.  The  Congregational  Way  Justified. 
By  these  he  Out-lives  his  Death,  which  fell  out  at  Denton, 
in  the  Parish  of  Manchester  in  Lancashire,  (where  says 
our  Friend  Rahshakeh  Wood,  he  had  sheltered  himself 
among  the  Brethren  after  his  Ejection)  on  the  Ninth  Day 
of  Januarv,  1664,  and  he  was  Buried  in  the  Chapel 
there."  —  Book  iii.  p.  213.* 

See  also  Wood's  Athence  Oxoniensis,  by  Bliss, 
iii.  672.  382. ;  iv.  4. ;  Calamy's  Ejected  Ministers, 
1713,  p.  412. ;  Continuation,  1727,  p.  566. 

John  I.  Dredge. 

''Rand"  (2"^  S.  i.  213.  396.  522. ;  ii.  97.)— Does 
not  the  modern  German  word  rand — such  as  meeres- 
rand,  seashore  ^Jiussesrand,  river's  bank— suggest, 
as  this  language  I  have  so  frequently  found  to  do, 
some  old  Saxon  word  of  the  same  meaning  ?  The 
locality  mentioned  by  C.  J.  "  between  Trumfleet 
Marsh  and  the  north  bank  of  the  river  Don," 
seems  to  me  to  point  to  some  such  derivation  for 
the  space  between  the  edge  of  the  marsh  and  the 
bank  of  the  river,  being  called  the  "  rands,"  or 

*  The  Capitals  and  Italics  in  the  above  are  Mather's. 
—J.  L  D. 

"  shores."  It  hardly  appears  as  probable  that  the 
benefactor  of  Fishlake,  on  the  south  side  of  the 
river,  should  have  had  his  name  given  to  ground 
on  the  north  side,  which  may  probably  belong  to 
a  different  parish.  E.  E.  Byng. 

See  Johnson's  Dictionary,  "  Rand,  n.  s.  (rand, 
Dut.),  border,  seam,  as  the  rand  of  a  woman's 
shoe."  In  Scotland  the  selvage  or  border  of  a 
web  of  cloth  "  list,"  a  marginal  border,  is  called  a 
rund,  pronounced  roond.  J.  Ss. 

Song  hy  Old  Dr.  Wilde  (2°'5  S.  ii.  57.)  —  This 
song  occupies  pp.  51  to  53  in  Iter  Boreale,  &c., 
1670,  being  a  parody  on  the  older  song  of  "  Hallow 
my  fancie,  whither  wilt  thou  go  ? "  the  burden 
being  "  Alas,  poor  scholar,  whither  wilt  thou  go  ?  " 
and  the  concluding  verse  is  very  characteristic  of 
the  times : 

"  Ho,  ho,  ho,  I  have  hit  it,  — 

Peace  goodman  fool ; 
Thou  hast  a  trade  will  fit  it ; 

Draw  thy  indenture. 

Be  bound  at  adventure. 
An  apprentice  to  a  free  school ;  — 

There  thou  mayest  command 
By  William  Lillye's  charter ; 

There  thou  mayest  whip,  strip. 
And  hang,  and  draw,  and  quarter, 

And  commit  to  the  red  rod 
Both  Tom,  Will,  and  Arthur. 
I,  I,  'tis  thither,  thither  Avill  I  go." 

More  than  twenty  years  have  passed  since  I 
cut  several  columns  from  Felix  Farley's  Bi-istol 
Journal,  headed  "  The  Garland  of  Withered  Ro- 
ses." They  were  sent  to  that  paper  by  your  old 
correspondent  J.  M.  G.,  of  Worcester.  No.  1. 
contained  Cleland's  beautiful  ode  of  "  Hallow  my 
fancie,"  with  an  introductory  notice.  The  original 
poem,  as  it  appeared  in  the  first  edition  of  his 
Poems,  1658,  is  blended  with  the  additions  made 
in  the  second,  1697  ;  it  extends  consequently  to 
sixteen  stanzas,  and,  beautiful  as  it  is,  therefore  it 
is  too  long  for  your  pages.  These  papers  were 
continued  only  to  six  numbers,  but  each  contained 
some  gem  of  ancient  poetry.  Would  J.  M.  G. 
contribute  them  for  preservation  to  your  pages  ? 
The  introductory  remarks  are  in  each  notice  too 
good  to  be  lost,  G.  D. 

Henley-on-Thames  (2"''  S.  i.  454. ;  ii.  18.)  — •  In 
addition  to  what  I  have  already  sent,  I  would  ob- 
serve that  there  are  two  separate  notices  of 
Henley  in  the  Rawlinson  Collection  of  MSS.  in 
the  Bodleian,  consisting  of  copies  of  inscriptions 
on  tombstones  principally.  It  may  be  of  vise  to 
persons  interested  in  topographical  studies  to 
mention  that  there  are  notices  of  a  similar  kind  of 
many  other  places  in  the  same  collection.  Some 
for  Sussex  were  made  use  of  in  Hastings  Past  and 
Present,  published  last  year.  E.  M. 


2»d  S.  No  33.,  Aug.  16.  '56.] 



Portraits  of  Swift  (2"*  S.  ii.  21.  96.)  —  I  possess 
Faulkner's  edition  of  my  ancestor  Dean  Swift's 
Works,  published,  not  in  1734,  but  in  1738,  with 
this  general  title,  "  The  Works  of  J.  S.  D.  D.  D. 
S.  P.  D.  in  Six  Volumes."  It  was  the  Dean's 
own  copy,  was  bought  at  the  sale  of  his  library  in 
1745-6,  and  bears  the  book-plate  of  "Edward 
Synge."  I  acquired  it  at  the  auction  of  the  late 
Sir  E.  Synge's  books  by  Sotheby  in  1843.  Not 
any  one  of  its  volumes  has  the  Dean's  autograph  : 
but  the  fifth  is  marked  by  himself — and  I  well 
know  his  handwriting  —  "read  thorow."  The 
first  volume  has  his  portrait  in  a  plain  oval  frame, 
with  the  inscription,  "  The  Reverend  Dr.  J.  Swift, 
D.S.P.D.,"  and  the  engraver's  name,  "  G.  Vertue." 
The  second  volume  (dated  1737)  has  his  medallion 
portrait,  surrounded  with  sunbeams,  emblematic 
female  figures,  the  half- concealed  bust  of  1-know- 
not-whom,  books,  and  a  scroll  with  "  The  Poetical 
Works  of  the  Rev.  D.  S.  *  *  D.  S.  P.  D.  1734," 
the  motto  "  Quis  speret  idem  ?  —  Hor."  and  the 
engraver's  name,  "  P.  Simms,  Sc."  The  fourth 
volume  has  a  frontispiece,  differing  from  that  de- 
scribed by  your  correspondent  G.  N.  in  the  table 
having  books,  pens  and  ink,  &c.,  Avhile  the  coins 
are  spread  on  the  lower  step  before  his  Deanship's 
chair.  The  engraver's  name,  whereof  G.  JM.  pro- 
pounds a  Query,  is  legible  enough,  "  G.  Vertue." 

It  is  hardly  worth  explanation  that,  valuing  the 
antiquity  of  my  fau)ily  beyond  its  incidental  dis- 
tinction of  the  Dean  (unto  whom  our  only  obliga- 
tions are  his  hindrance  of  my  grandfather's  ad- 
vancement and  the  loss  of  a  large  portion  of  my 
paternal  estate),  I  have  long  resumed  our  early 
signature,  Edmund  Lenthal  Swifte. 


"  It "  (P'  S.  passim.)  —  In  some  parts  of  Ireland, 
the  word  it  is  used  in  the  genitive  case,  instead  of 
ifs.  A  man  said  to  me  to-day,  pointing  to  an  old 
gate,  "  That  gate.  Sir,  has  done  it  duty,"  for  "  it's 
duty."  And  this  is  the  common  language  of  the 
country  :  "  The  horse  fell  and  broke  it  knees." 

Is  this  an  old  English  idiom  ?  The  neuter  it 
is  not  found,  I  believe,  in  the  genitive  form  it^s,  in 
the  English  Bible  or  in  Shakspeare.  I  suspect, 
therefore,  that  the  peculiarity  I  have  noticed  (like 
many  other  phrases  common  in  Ireland)  is  a  rem- 
nant of  the  English  of  the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth 
centuries,  when  we  Irish  learned  that  language 
for  the  first  time.  S.  N.  D. 


"Allow"  (2""  S.  il.  10.)  —  In  the  north  of  Ire- 
land this  word  is  used  in  the  sense  of  command, 
order,  direct.  Being  on  a  visit  with  a  friend  near 
Armagh,  some  years  ago,  1  found  a  labourer  in 
the  act  of  cutting  down  a  Inurel.  I  said  to  him, 
"  Why  do  you  cut  that  tree  ?  "  His  answer  was, 
"The  master  alloived  me:"  meaning  the  master 

ordered  me  to  do  so.  On  another  occasion,  I  was 
on  a  visit  with  a  clergyman  still  farther  north. 
One  of  his  parishioners,  a  very  poor  man,  came  to 
him  one  day  when  I  was  by,  and  informed  him 
that  he  wished  to  be  married  to  Biddy  O'Neill. 
"  Paddy,"  said  the  clergyman,  "  are  you  in  your 
senses  ?  Both  you  yourself  and  Biddy  O'Neill 
are  every  winter  in  the  greatest  distress,  coming 
to  me  and  others  for  support.  How  are  you  to 
live  if  you  marry,  and  how  are  you  to  maintain 
your  family  ?"  "  O,  please  your  reverence,"  said 
the  man,  "  may  be  the  Lord  would  allow  that  we 
should  have  no  childer."  S.  N.  D. 


The  Weather  (2"^  S.  i.  431.)  —  In  addition  to 
the  observations  as  to  the  change  in  the  prevailing 
winds  in  this  country,  I  have  a  further  fact  to 
communicate,  as  to  the  extraordinary  decrease  of 
force  in  the  trade  winds  in  late  years.  Two  nau- 
tical men  have  made  the  same  observation  to  me, 
that  ever  since  their  boyhood  the  difference  was 
most  remarkable.  Can  any  cause  be  discovered 
for  this  ?  E.  E.  Btng. 

Apostle  Spoons  (2"^  S.  ii.  112.)  —  W.  T.  is  re- 
ferred to  Hone's  Every-Day  Book,  vol.  i.  p.  175., 
and  to  The  Table  Book,  p.  817.,  for  a  sketch  of 
"  a  set  of  Apostle  Spoons,"  and  for  the  history 
thereof.  Everard  Home  Coleman. 

79.  Wood  Street,  Cheapside. 

Samuel  Rolle  (2"''  S.  ii.  88.)  —  See  Darling's 
Cyclo.  Bibliographica,  col.  2584. ;  Calamy's  Ac- 
count, p.  108.;  Continuation,  p.  144.;  Palmer's 
Nonconformists'  Memorial,  1802,  vol.  i.  p.  298.; 
Dr.  Owen's  Works,  by  Goold,  1851,  vol.  ii.  p.  276. ; 
Orme's  Life  of  Owen,  1820,  p.  380.;  Wood's 
Athence  Oxon.,  by  Bliss,  vol.  iv.  106.  108.  203. 

John  I.  Dredge. 

Olovensis,  Bishopric  of  (2°'^  S,  ii.  88.)  —  The 
see  in  question  was  probably  Olena,  and  the 
bishop  styled  Olenensis.  Olena  is  a  see  in  par- 
tibus,  and  was  the  title  of  Dr.  Griffiths,  the  late 
Vicar  Apostolic  of  the  London  district.  It  is  now 
called  Caminizza,  and  is  in  the  Morea,  easily  mis- 
taken for  Mauritania.  It  formed  one  of  the  four 
suffragan  sees  of  the  metropolitan  of  Patras. 

F.  C.  H. 

Aristotle's  "  Organon"  (2"''